Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

topology optimization Related Abstracts

17 Topology Optimization of Structures with Web-Openings

Authors: D. K. Lee, S. M. Shin, J. H. Lee


Topology optimization technique utilizes constant element densities as design parameters. Finally, optimal distribution contours of the material densities between voids (0) and solids (1) in design domain represent the determination of topology. It means that regions with element density values become occupied by solids in design domain, while there are only void phases in regions where no density values exist. Therefore the void regions of topology optimization results provide design information to decide appropriate depositions of web-opening in structure. Contrary to the basic objective of the topology optimization technique which is to obtain optimal topology of structures, this present study proposes a new idea that topology optimization results can be also utilized for decision of proper web-opening’s position. Numerical examples of linear elastostatic structures demonstrate efficiency of methodological design processes using topology optimization in order to determinate the proper deposition of web-openings.

Keywords: Material, Structure, topology optimization, web-opening, element density

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16 Reliability Based Topology Optimization: An Efficient Method for Material Uncertainty

Authors: Mehdi Jalalpour, Mazdak Tootkaboni


We present a computationally efficient method for reliability-based topology optimization under material properties uncertainty, which is assumed to be lognormally distributed and correlated within the domain. Computational efficiency is achieved through estimating the response statistics with stochastic perturbation of second order, using these statistics to fit an appropriate distribution that follows the empirical distribution of the response, and employing an efficient gradient-based optimizer. The proposed algorithm is utilized for design of new structures and the changes in the optimized topology is discussed for various levels of target reliability and correlation strength. Predictions were verified thorough comparison with results obtained using Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: structural reliability, topology optimization, material uncertainty, stochastic perturbation

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15 Development of Methods for Plastic Injection Mold Weight Reduction

Authors: Bita Mohajernia, R. J. Urbanic


Mold making techniques have focused on meeting the customers’ functional and process requirements; however, today, molds are increasing in size and sophistication, and are difficult to manufacture, transport, and set up due to their size and mass. Presently, mold weight saving techniques focus on pockets to reduce the mass of the mold, but the overall size is still large, which introduces costs related to the stock material purchase, processing time for process planning, machining and validation, and excess waste materials. Reducing the overall size of the mold is desirable for many reasons, but the functional requirements, tool life, and durability cannot be compromised in the process. It is proposed to use Finite Element Analysis simulation tools to model the forces, and pressures to determine where the material can be removed. The potential results of this project will reduce manufacturing costs. In this study, a light weight structure is defined by an optimal distribution of material to carry external loads. The optimization objective of this research is to determine methods to provide the optimum layout for the mold structure. The topology optimization method is utilized to improve structural stiffness while decreasing the weight using the OptiStruct software. The optimized CAD model is compared with the primary geometry of the mold from the NX software. Results of optimization show an 8% weight reduction while the actual performance of the optimized structure, validated by physical testing, is similar to the original structure.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, topology optimization, plastic injection molding, weight reduction

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14 Application of Additive Manufacturing for Production of Optimum Topologies

Authors: Mahdi Mottahedi, Peter Zahn, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl


Optimal topology of components leads to the maximum stiffness with the minimum material use. For the generation of these topologies, normally algorithms are employed, which tackle manufacturing limitations, at the cost of the optimal result. The global optimum result with penalty factor one, however, cannot be fabricated with conventional methods. In this article, an additive manufacturing method is introduced, in order to enable the production of global topology optimization results. For a benchmark, topology optimization with higher and lower penalty factors are performed. Different algorithms are employed in order to interpret the results of topology optimization with lower factors in many microstructure layers. These layers are then joined to form the final geometry. The algorithms’ benefits are then compared experimentally and numerically for the best interpretation. The findings demonstrate that by implementation of the selected algorithm, the stiffness of the components produced with this method is higher than what could have been produced by conventional techniques.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, topology optimization, laminated object manufacturing

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13 Topology Optimization of Heat Exchanger Manifolds for Aircraft

Authors: Hanjong Kim, Changwan Han, Seonghun Park


Heat exchanger manifolds in aircraft play an important role in evenly distributing the fluid entering through the inlet to the heat transfer unit. In order to achieve this requirement, the manifold should be designed to have a light weight by withstanding high internal pressure. Therefore, this study aims at minimizing the weight of the heat exchanger manifold through topology optimization. For topology optimization, the initial design space was created with the inner surface extracted from the currently used manifold model and with the outer surface having a dimension of 243.42 mm of X 74.09 mm X 65 mm. This design space solid model was transformed into a finite element model with a maximum tetrahedron mesh size of 2 mm using ANSYS Workbench. Then, topology optimization was performed under the boundary conditions of an internal pressure of 5.5 MPa and the fixed support for rectangular inlet boundaries by SIMULIA TOSCA. This topology optimization produced the minimized finial volume of the manifold (i.e., 7.3% of the initial volume) based on the given constraints (i.e., 6% of the initial volume) and the objective function (i.e., maximizing manifold stiffness). Weight of the optimized model was 6.7% lighter than the currently used manifold, but after smoothing the topology optimized model, this difference would be bigger. The current optimized model has uneven thickness and skeleton-shaped outer surface to reduce stress concentration. We are currently simplifying the optimized model shape with spline interpolations by reflecting the design characteristics in thickness and skeletal structures from the optimized model. This simplified model will be validated again by calculating both stress distributions and weight reduction and then the validated model will be manufactured using 3D printing processes.

Keywords: heat exchanger, topology optimization, manifold

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12 Topology Optimization of Composite Structures with Material Nonlinearity

Authors: Mengxiao Li, Johnson Zhang


Currently, topology optimization technique is widely used to define the layout design of structures that are presented as truss-like topologies. However, due to the difficulty in combining optimization technique with more realistic material models where their nonlinear properties should be considered, the achieved optimized topologies are commonly unable to apply straight towards the practical design problems. This study presented an optimization procedure of composite structures where different elastic stiffness, yield criteria, and hardening models are assumed for the candidate materials. From the results, it can be concluded that a more explicit modeling has the significant influence on the resulting topologies. Also, the isotropic or kinematic hardening is important for elastoplastic structural optimization design. The capability of the proposed optimization procedure is shown through several cases.

Keywords: topology optimization, material composition, nonlinear modeling, hardening rules

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11 Topology Optimization of Heat and Mass Transfer for Two Fluids under Steady State Laminar Regime: Application on Heat Exchangers

Authors: Rony Tawk, Boutros Ghannam, Maroun Nemer


Topology optimization technique presents a potential tool for the design and optimization of structures involved in mass and heat transfer. The method starts with an initial intermediate domain and should be able to progressively distribute the solid and the two fluids exchanging heat. The multi-objective function of the problem takes into account minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of heat transfer between solid and fluid subdomains. Existing methods account for the presence of only one fluid, while the actual work extends optimization distribution of solid and two different fluids. This requires to separate the channels of both fluids and to ensure a minimum solid thickness between them. This is done by adding a third objective function to the multi-objective optimization problem. This article uses density approach where each cell holds two local design parameters ranging from 0 to 1, where the combination of their extremums defines the presence of solid, cold fluid or hot fluid in this cell. Finite volume method is used for direct solver coupled with a discrete adjoint approach for sensitivity analysis and method of moving asymptotes for numerical optimization. Several examples are presented to show the ability of the method to find a trade-off between minimization of power dissipation and maximization of heat transfer while ensuring the separation and continuity of the channel of each fluid without crossing or mixing the fluids. The main conclusion is the possibility to find an optimal bi-fluid domain using topology optimization, defining a fluid to fluid heat exchanger device.

Keywords: topology optimization, density approach, bi-fluid domain, laminar steady state regime, fluid-to-fluid heat exchanger

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10 Globally Convergent Sequential Linear Programming for Multi-Material Topology Optimization Using Ordered Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization Interpolation

Authors: Darwin Castillo Huamaní, Francisco A. M. Gomes


The aim of the multi-material topology optimization (MTO) is to obtain the optimal topology of structures composed by many materials, according to a given set of constraints and cost criteria. In this work, we seek the optimal distribution of materials in a domain, such that the flexibility of the structure is minimized, under certain boundary conditions and the intervention of external forces. In the case we have only one material, each point of the discretized domain is represented by two values from a function, where the value of the function is 1 if the element belongs to the structure or 0 if the element is empty. A common way to avoid the high computational cost of solving integer variable optimization problems is to adopt the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. This method relies on the continuous interpolation function, power function, where the base variable represents a pseudo density at each point of domain. For proper exponent values, the SIMP method reduces intermediate densities, since values other than 0 or 1 usually does not have a physical meaning for the problem. Several extension of the SIMP method were proposed for the multi-material case. The one that we explore here is the ordered SIMP method, that has the advantage of not being based on the addition of variables to represent material selection, so the computational cost is independent of the number of materials considered. Although the number of variables is not increased by this algorithm, the optimization subproblems that are generated at each iteration cannot be solved by methods that rely on second derivatives, due to the cost of calculating the second derivatives. To overcome this, we apply a globally convergent version of the sequential linear programming method, which solves a linear approximation sequence of optimization problems.

Keywords: topology optimization, globally convergence, multi-material design ordered simp, sequential linear programming

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9 Topology and Shape Optimization of Macpherson Control Arm under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinpour, Javad Marzbanrad


In this research, the topology and shape optimization of a Macpherson control arm has been accomplished to achieve lighter weight. Present automotive market demands low cost and light weight component to meet the need of fuel efficient and cost effective vehicle. This in turn gives the rise to more effective use of materials for automotive parts which can reduce the mass of vehicle. Since automotive components are under dynamic loads which cause fatigue damage, considering fatigue criteria seems to be essential in designing automotive components. At first, in order to create severe loading condition for control arm, some rough roads are generated through power spectral density. Then, the most critical loading conditions are obtained through multibody dynamics analysis of a full vehicle model. Then, the topology optimization is performed based on fatigue life criterion using HyperMesh software, which resulted to 50 percent mass reduction. In the next step a CAD model is created using CATIA software and shape optimization is performed to achieve accurate dimensions with less mass.

Keywords: Fatigue Life, shape optimization, topology optimization, MacPherson control arm

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8 Periodic Topology and Size Optimization Design of Tower Crane Boom

Authors: Wu Qinglong, Zhou Qicai, Xiong Xiaolei, Zhang Richeng


In order to achieve the layout and size optimization of the web members of tower crane boom, a truss topology and cross section size optimization method based on continuum is proposed considering three typical working conditions. Firstly, the optimization model is established by replacing web members with web plates. And the web plates are divided into several sub-domains so that periodic soft kill option (SKO) method can be carried out for topology optimization of the slender boom. After getting the optimized topology of web plates, the optimized layout of web members is formed through extracting the principal stress distribution. Finally, using the web member radius as design variable, the boom compliance as objective and the material volume of the boom as constraint, the cross section size optimization mathematical model is established. The size optimization criterion is deduced from the mathematical model by Lagrange multiplier method and Kuhn-Tucker condition. By comparing the original boom with the optimal boom, it is identified that this optimization method can effectively lighten the boom and improve its performance.

Keywords: topology optimization, size optimization, tower crane boom, periodic, SKO, optimization criterion

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7 Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint

Authors: Khodamorad Nabaki, Jianhu Shen, Xiaodong Huang


This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.

Keywords: topology optimization, BESO method, p-norm, fatigue constraint

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6 Isogeometric Topology Optimization in Cracked Structures Design

Authors: Dongkyu Lee, Thanh Banh Thien, Soomi Shin


In the present study, the isogeometric topology optimization is proposed for cracked structures through using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) as a design model. Design density variables defined in the variable space are used to approximate the element analysis density by the bivariate B-spline basis functions. The mathematical formulation of topology optimization problem solving minimum structural compliance is an alternating active-phase algorithm with the Gauss-Seidel version as an optimization model of optimality criteria. Stiffness and adjoint sensitivity formulations linked to strain energy of cracked structure are proposed in terms of design density variables. Numerical examples demonstrate interactions of topology optimization to structures design with cracks.

Keywords: Design, topology optimization, isogeometric, NURBS

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5 Design and Fabrication of Stiffness Reduced Metallic Locking Compression Plates through Topology Optimization and Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Abdulsalam A. Al-Tamimi, Chris Peach, Paulo Rui Fernandes, Paulo J. Bartolo


Bone fixation implants currently used to treat traumatic fractured bones and to promote fracture healing are built with biocompatible metallic materials such as stainless steel, cobalt chromium and titanium and its alloys (e.g., CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V). The noticeable stiffness mismatch between current metallic implants and host bone associates with negative outcomes such as stress shielding which causes bone loss and implant loosening leading to deficient fracture treatment. This paper, part of a major research program to design the next generation of bone fixation implants, describes the combined use of three-dimensional (3D) topology optimization (TO) and additive manufacturing powder bed technology (Electron Beam Melting) to redesign and fabricate the plates based on the current standard one (i.e., locking compression plate). Topology optimization is applied with an objective function to maximize the stiffness and constraint by volume reductions (i.e., 25-75%) in order to obtain optimized implant designs with reduced stress shielding phenomenon, under different boundary conditions (i.e., tension, bending, torsion and combined loads). The stiffness of the original and optimised plates are assessed through a finite-element study. The TO results showed actual reduction in the stiffness for most of the plates due to the critical values of volume reduction. Additionally, the optimized plates fabricated using powder bed techniques proved that the integration between the TO and additive manufacturing presents the capability of producing stiff reduced plates with acceptable tolerances.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, finite element, locking compression plate, topology optimization

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4 Topology Optimization Design of Transmission Structure in Flapping-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle via 3D Printing

Authors: Zuyong Chen, Jianghao Wu, Yanlai Zhang


Flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (FMAV) is a new type of aircraft by mimicking the flying behavior to that of small birds or insects. Comparing to the traditional fixed wing or rotor-type aircraft, FMAV only needs to control the motion of flapping wings, by changing the size and direction of lift to control the flight attitude. Therefore, its transmission system should be designed very compact. Lightweight design can effectively extend its endurance time, while engineering experience alone is difficult to simultaneously meet the requirements of FMAV for structural strength and quality. Current researches still lack the guidance of considering nonlinear factors of 3D printing material when carrying out topology optimization, especially for the tiny FMAV transmission system. The coupling of non-linear material properties and non-linear contact behaviors of FMAV transmission system is a great challenge to the reliability of the topology optimization result. In this paper, topology optimization design based on FEA solver package Altair Optistruct for the transmission system of FMAV manufactured by 3D Printing was carried out. Firstly, the isotropic constitutive behavior of the Ultraviolet (UV) Cureable Resin used to fabricate the structure of FMAV was evaluated and confirmed through tensile test. Secondly, a numerical computation model describing the mechanical behavior of FMAV transmission structure was established and verified by experiments. Then topology optimization modeling method considering non-linear factors were presented, and optimization results were verified by dynamic simulation and experiments. Finally, detail discussions of different load status and constraints were carried out to explore the leading factors affecting the optimization results. The contributions drawn from this article helpful for guiding the lightweight design of FMAV are summarizing as follow; first, a dynamic simulation modeling method used to obtain the load status is presented. Second, verification method of optimized results considering non-linear factors is introduced. Third, based on or can achieve a better weight reduction effect and improve the computational efficiency rather than taking multi-states into account. Fourth, basing on makes for improving the ability to resist bending deformation. Fifth, constraint of displacement helps to improve the structural stiffness of optimized result. Results and engineering guidance in this paper may shed lights on the structural optimization and light-weight design for future advanced FMAV.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Experiment, topology optimization, flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle

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3 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: S. Wakim, M. Nemer, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou


Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, heat exchanger, topology optimization

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2 Topology Optimization of the Interior Structures of Beams under Various Load and Support Conditions with Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization Method

Authors: Omer Oral, Y. Emre Yilmaz


Topology optimization is an approach that optimizes material distribution within a given design space for a certain load and boundary conditions by providing performance goals. It uses various restrictions such as boundary conditions, set of loads, and constraints to maximize the performance of the system. It is different than size and shape optimization methods, but it reserves some features of both methods. In this study, interior structures of the parts were optimized by using SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) method. The volume of the part was preassigned parameter and minimum deflection was the objective function. The basic idea behind the theory was considered, and different methods were discussed. Rhinoceros 3D design tool was used with Grasshopper and TopOpt plugins to create and optimize parts. A Grasshopper algorithm was designed and tested for different beams, set of arbitrary located forces and support types such as pinned, fixed, etc. Finally, 2.5D shapes were obtained and verified by observing the changes in density function.

Keywords: Microstructures, topology optimization, grasshopper, lattice structure, Rhinoceros, solid isotropic material with penalization method, TopOpt

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1 Modeling, Topology Optimization and Experimental Validation of Glass-Transition-Based 4D-Printed Polymeric Structures

Authors: Sara A. Pakvis, Giulia Scalet, Stefania Marconi, Ferdinando Auricchio, Matthijs Langelaar


In recent developments in the field of multi-material additive manufacturing, differences in material properties are exploited to create printed shape-memory structures, which are referred to as 4D-printed structures. New printing techniques allow for the deliberate introduction of prestresses in the specimen during manufacturing, and, in combination with the right design, this enables new functionalities. This research focuses on bi-polymer 4D-printed structures, where the transformation process is based on a heat-induced glass transition in one material lowering its Young’s modulus, combined with an initial prestress in the other material. Upon the decrease in stiffness, the prestress is released, which results in the realization of an essentially pre-programmed deformation. As the design of such functional multi-material structures is crucial but far from trivial, a systematic methodology to find the design of 4D-printed structures is developed, where a finite element model is combined with a density-based topology optimization method to describe the material layout. This modeling approach is verified by a convergence analysis and validated by comparing its numerical results to analytical and published data. Specific aspects that are addressed include the interplay between the definition of the prestress and the material interpolation function used in the density-based topology description, the inclusion of a temperature-dependent stiffness relationship to simulate the glass transition effect, and the importance of the consideration of geometric nonlinearity in the finite element modeling. The efficacy of topology optimization to design 4D-printed structures is explored by applying the methodology to a variety of design problems, both in 2D and 3D settings. Bi-layer designs composed of thermoplastic polymers are printed by means of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer undergoes the glass transition transformation, while polyurethane (TPU) polymer is prestressed by means of the 3D-printing process itself. Tests inducing shape transformation in the printed samples through heating are performed to calibrate the prestress and validate the modeling approach by comparing the numerical results to the experimental findings. Using the experimentally obtained prestress values, more complex designs have been generated through topology optimization, and samples have been printed and tested to evaluate their performance. This study demonstrates that by combining topology optimization and 4D-printing concepts, stimuli-responsive structures with specific properties can be designed and realized.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Shape Memory Polymer, topology optimization

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