Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Tool Wear Related Abstracts

11 Tool Wear of Metal Matrix Composite 10wt% AlN Reinforcement Using TiB2 Cutting Tool

Authors: R. Othman, M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, N. N. Wan, M. A. Selamat, C. H. Che Hassan

Abstract:

Metal Matrix Composite (MMCs) have attracted considerable attention as a result of their ability to provide high strength, high modulus, high toughness, high impact properties, improved wear resistance and good corrosion resistance than unreinforced alloy. Aluminium Silicon (Al/Si) alloys Metal Matrix composite (MMC) has been widely used in various industrial sectors such as transportation, domestic equipment, aerospace, military, construction, etc. Aluminium silicon alloy is MMC reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN) particle and becomes a new generation material for automotive and aerospace applications. The AlN material is one of the advanced materials with light weight, high strength, high hardness and stiffness qualities which have good future prospects. However, the high degree of ceramic particles reinforcement and the irregular nature of the particles along the matrix material that contribute to its low density, is the main problem that leads to the machining difficulties. This paper examines tool wear when milling AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite using a TiB2 coated carbide cutting tool. The volume of the AlN reinforced particle was 10%. The milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition. The TiB2 coated carbide insert parameters used were the cutting speed of (230 m/min, feed rate 0.4mm tooth, DOC 0.5mm, 300 m/min, feed rate 0.8mm/tooth, DOC 0.5mm and 370 m/min, feed rate 0.8, DOC 0.4m). The Sometech SV-35 video microscope system was used for tool wear measurements respectively. The results have revealed that the tool life increases with the cutting speed (370 m/min, feed rate 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut 0.4mm) constituted the optimum condition for longer tool life which is 123.2 min. While at medium cutting speed, it is found that the cutting speed of 300m/min, feed rate 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut 0.5mm only 119.86 min for tool wear mean while the low cutting speed give 119.66 min. The high cutting speed gives the best parameter for cutting AlSi/AlN MMCs materials. The result will help manufacture to machining the AlSi/AlN MMCs materials.

Keywords: Manufacturing Engineering, Tool Wear, AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite milling process, TiB2 coated carbide tool

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10 Examining of Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining of Cobalt-Based Haynes 25 Superalloy

Authors: Murat Sarıkaya, Abdulkadir Güllü

Abstract:

Haynes 25 alloy (also known as L-605 alloy) is cobalt based super alloy which has widely applications such as aerospace industry, turbine and furnace parts, power generators and heat exchangers and petroleum refining components due to its excellent characteristics. However, the workability of this alloy is more difficult compared to normal steels or even stainless. In present work, an experimental investigation was performed under cryogenic cooling to determine cutting tool wear patterns and obtain optimal cutting parameters in turning of cobalt based superalloy Haynes 25. In experiments, uncoated carbide tool was used and cutting speed (V) and feed rate (f) were considered as test parameters. Tool wear (VBmax) were measured for process performance indicators. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the importance of machining parameters.

Keywords: Turning, Tool Wear, cryogenic machining, difficult-to-cut alloy

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9 Tool Wear of Aluminum/Chromium/Tungsten Based Coated Cemented Carbide Tools in Cutting Sintered Steel

Authors: Tadahiro Wada, Hiroyuki Hanyu

Abstract:

In this study, to clarify the effectiveness of an aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated tool for cutting sintered steel, tool wear was experimentally investigated. The sintered steel was turned with the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated cemented carbide tools according to the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Moreover, the tool wear of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coated item was compared with that of the (Al,Cr)N coated tool. Furthermore, to clarify the tool wear mechanism of the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-coating film for cutting sintered steel, Scanning Electron Microscope observation and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy mapping analysis were conducted on the abraded surface. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coated tool was the slowest among that of the five coated tools. (2) Adding carbon (C) to the aluminum/chromium/tungsten-based-coating film was effective for improving the wear-resistance. (3) The main wear mechanism of the (Al60,Cr25,W15)N-, the (Al60,Cr25,W15)(C,N)- and the (Al64,Cr28,W8)(C,N)-coating films was abrasive wear.

Keywords: Tool Wear, cutting, physical vapor deposition coating method, tool wear mechanism, (Al, W)N-coating film, W)(C, N)-coating film, sintered steel

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8 The Relationship between Spindle Sound and Tool Performance in Turning

Authors: N. Seemuang, T. McLeay, T. Slatter

Abstract:

Worn tools have a direct effect on the surface finish and part accuracy. Tool condition monitoring systems have been developed over a long period and used to avoid a loss of productivity resulting from using a worn tool. However, the majority of tool monitoring research has applied expensive sensing systems not suitable for production. In this work, the cutting sound in turning machine was studied using microphone. Machining trials using seven cutting conditions were conducted until the observable flank wear width (FWW) on the main cutting edge exceeded 0.4 mm. The cutting inserts were removed from the tool holder and the flank wear width was measured optically. A microphone with built-in preamplifier was used to record the machining sound of EN24 steel being face turned by a CNC lathe in a wet cutting condition using constant surface speed control. The sound was sampled at 50 kS/s and all sound signals recorded from microphone were transformed into the frequency domain by FFT in order to establish the frequency content in the audio signature that could be then used for tool condition monitoring. The extracted feature from audio signal was compared to the flank wear progression on the cutting inserts. The spectrogram reveals a promising feature, named as ‘spindle noise’, which emits from the main spindle motor of turning machine. The spindle noise frequency was detected at 5.86 kHz of regardless of cutting conditions used on this particular CNC lathe. Varying cutting speed and feed rate have an influence on the magnitude of power spectrum of spindle noise. The magnitude of spindle noise frequency alters in conjunction with the tool wear progression. The magnitude increases significantly in the transition state between steady-state wear and severe wear. This could be used as a warning signal to prepare for tool replacement or adapt cutting parameters to extend tool life.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, Tool Wear, flank wear, spindle noise

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7 Tool Condition Monitoring of Ceramic Inserted Tools in High Speed Machining through Image Processing

Authors: Javier A. Dominguez Caballero, Graeme A. Manson, Matthew B. Marshall

Abstract:

Cutting tools with ceramic inserts are often used in the process of machining many types of superalloy, mainly due to their high strength and thermal resistance. Nevertheless, during the cutting process, the plastic flow wear generated in these inserts enhances and propagates cracks due to high temperature and high mechanical stress. This leads to a very variable failure of the cutting tool. This article explores the relationship between the continuous wear that ceramic SiAlON (solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure) inserts experience during a high-speed machining process and the evolution of sparks created during the same process. These sparks were analysed through pictures of the cutting process recorded using an SLR camera. Features relating to the intensity and area of the cutting sparks were extracted from the individual pictures using image processing techniques. These features were then related to the ceramic insert’s crater wear area.

Keywords: Image Processing, High Speed Machining, Tool Wear, ceramic cutting tools, tool condition monitoring

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6 Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process

Authors: Alluru Gopala Krishna, Thella Babu Rao

Abstract:

In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.

Keywords: Turning, Tool Wear, surface roughness, CNT based nano cutting fluid

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5 Investigation of Stellram Indexable Milling Cutter XDLT09-D41 Tool Wear for Machining of Ti6Al4V

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Miao Haibin

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are attractive materials for aerospace industry due to their exceptional strength to weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their good corrosion resistance. Major applications of titanium alloys were military aerospace industry, but since last decade the trend has now shifted towards commercial industry. On the other hand, titanium alloys are notorious for being poor thermal conductor that leads to them being difficult materials for machining. In this experimental study, Stellram Indexable milling cutter XDLT09-D41 is used for rough down milling of Ti6Al4V for small depth of cut under different combinations of parameters and application of high-pressure coolant. The machining performance was evaluated in terms of tool wear, tool life, and thermal crack. The tool wear was mostly observed at the tool tip and at bottom part of tool thermal deformations were observed which propagated with respect to time. Flank wear due to scratching of the cutting chips and diffusion wear because of high thermal stresses were observed specially at the bottom of the cutting tool. It was found that maximum tool life was obtained at the speed of 40m/min, feed rate of 358mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8mm. In the end, it was concluded that machining of Ti6Al4V is a thermally dominant process which leads to high thermal stresses in machining zone that results in increasing tool wear rate and deformation propagation.

Keywords: Tool Wear, Tool Life, flank wear, cutting speed

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4 Intelligent Tooling Embedded Sensors for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Turning Applications

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Jon Stammers

Abstract:

In machining, monitoring of tool wear is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the cutting tool is carried out by the operator who performs manual inspections of the cutting tool, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from loss of productivity. The cutting tool consumable costs may also be higher than necessary when tools are changed before the end of their useful life. Furthermore, damage can be caused to the workpiece when tools are not changed soon enough leading to a significant increase in the costs of manufacturing. The present study is concerned with the development of break sensor printed on the flank surface of poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) cutting to perform on-line condition monitoring of the cutting tool used to machine Titanium Ti-6al-4v bar. The results clearly show that there is a strong correlation between the break sensor measurements and the amount of wear in the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they help the user/operator of the machine tool to determine the condition of the cutting tool without the need of performing manual inspection, thereby reducing the manufacturing costs such as the machine down time.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Manufacturing, Machining, Tool Wear

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3 Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia

Authors: David Robert Irvine

Abstract:

In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.

Keywords: Tool Wear, Abrasive Wear, cemented carbide, pre-sintered zirconia

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2 High-Speed Cutting of Inconel 625 Using Carbide Ball End Mill

Authors: Kazumasa Kawasaki, Katsuya Fukazawa

Abstract:

Nickel-based superalloys are an important class of engineering material within the aerospace and power generation, due to their excellent combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, including high-temperature applications Inconel 625 is one of such superalloys and difficult-to-machine material. In cutting of Inconel 625 superalloy with a ball end mill, the problem of adhesive wear often occurs. However, the proper cutting conditions are not known so much because of lack of study examples. In this study, the experiments using ball end mills made of carbide tools were tried to find the best cutting conditions out following qualifications. Using Inconel 625 superalloy as a work material, three kinds of experiment, with the revolution speed of 5000 rpm, 8000 rpm, and 10000 rpm, were performed under dry cutting conditions in feed speed per tooth of 0.045 mm/ tooth, depth of cut of 0.1 mm. As a result, in the case of 8000 rpm, it was successful to cut longest with the least wear.

Keywords: Tool Wear, Inconel 625, ball end mill, carbide tool, high speed cutting

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1 FEM Simulation of Tool Wear and Edge Radius Effects on Residual Stress in High Speed Machining of Inconel718

Authors: Yang Liu, Mathias Agmell, Aylin Ahadi, Jan-Eric Stahl, Jinming Zhou

Abstract:

Tool wear and tool geometry have significant effects on the residual stresses in the component produced by high-speed machining. In this paper, Coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian (CEL) model is adopted to investigate the residual stress in high-speed machining of Inconel718 with a CBN170 cutting tool. The result shows that the mesh with the smallest size of 5 um yields cutting forces and chip morphology in close agreement with the experimental data. The analysis of thermal loading and mechanical loading are performed to study the effect of segmented chip morphology on the machined surface topography and residual stress distribution. The effects of cutting edge radius and flank wear on residual stresses formation and distribution on the workpiece were also investigated. It is found that the temperature within 100um depth of the machined surface increases drastically due to the more friction heat generation with the contact area of tool and workpiece increasing when a larger edge radius and flank wear are used. With the depth further increasing, the temperature drops rapidly for all cases due to the low conductivity of Inconel718. Consequently, higher and deeper tensile residual stress is generated on the superficial. Furthermore, an increased depth of plastic deformation and compressive residual stress is noticed in the subsurface, which is attributed to the reduction of the yield strength under the thermal effect. Besides, the ploughing effect produced by a larger tool edge radius contributes more than flank wear. The magnitude variation of the compressive residual stress caused by various edge radius and flank wear have a totally opposite trend, which depends on the magnitude of the ploughing and friction pressure acting on the machined surface.

Keywords: Residual Stress, Tool Wear, Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian, segmented chip, edge radius, Inconel718

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