Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

tomato Related Abstracts

29 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė, A.Radzevičius

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: Color, ripening, color index, tomato

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28 Effects of Macro and Micro Nutrients on Growth and Yield Performances of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.)

Authors: K. M. S. Weerasinghe, A. H. K. Balasooriya, S. L. Ransingha, G. D. Krishantha, R. S. Brhakamanagae, L. C. Wijethilke

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 120 million metric tons and ranks first as a processing crop. The average tomato productivity in Sri Lanka (11 metric tons/ha) is much lower than the world average (24 metric tons/ha).To meet the tomato demand for the increasing population the productivity has to be intensified through the agronomic-techniques. Nutrition is one of the main factors which govern the growth and yield of tomato and the main nutrient source soil affect the plant growth and quality of the produce. Continuous cropping, improper fertilizer usage etc., cause widespread nutrient deficiencies. Therefore synthetic fertilizers and organic manures were introduced to enhance plant growth and maximize the crop yields. In this study, effects of macro and micronutrient supplementations on improvement of growth and yield of tomato were investigated. Selected tomato variety is Maheshi and plants were grown in Regional Agricultural and Research Centre Makadura under the Department of Agriculture recommended (DOA) macro nutrients and various combination of Ontario recommended dosages of secondary and micro fertilizer supplementations. There were six treatments in this experiment and each treatment was replicated in three times and each replicate consisted of six plants. Other than the DOA recommendation, five combinations of Ontario recommended dosage of secondary and micronutrients for tomato were also used as treatments. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. All cultural practices were carried out according to the DOA recommendations. The mean data was subjected to the statistical analysis using SAS package and mean separation (Duncan’s Multiple Range test at 5% probability level) procedures. Secondary and micronutrients containing treatments significantly increased most of the growth parameters. Plant height, plant girth, number of leaves, leaf area index etc. Fruits harvested from pots amended with macro, secondary and micronutrients performed best in terms of total yield; yield quality; to pots amended with DOA recommended dosage of fertilizer for tomato. It could be due to the application of all essential macro and micro nutrients that rise in photosynthetic activity, efficient translocation and utilization of photosynthates causing rapid cell elongation and cell division in actively growing region of the plant leading to stimulation of growth and yield were caused. The experiment revealed and highlighted the requirements of essential macro, secondary and micro nutrient fertilizer supplementations for tomato farming. The study indicated that, macro and micro nutrient supplementation practices can influence growth and yield performances of tomato fruits and it is a promising approach to get potential tomato yields.

Keywords: tomato, macro and micronutrients, SAS package, photosynthates

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27 Calibration Model of %Titratable Acidity (Citric Acid) for Intact Tomato by Transmittance SW-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, S. Kumchoo

Abstract:

The acidity (citric acid) is one of the chemical contents that can refer to the internal quality and the maturity index of tomato. The titratable acidity (%TA) can be predicted by a non-destructive method prediction by using the transmittance short wavelength (SW-NIR). Spectroscopy in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. The set of 167 tomato samples divided into groups of 117 tomatoes sample for training set and 50 tomatoes sample for test set were used to establish the calibration model to predict and measure %TA by partial least squares regression (PLSR) technique. The spectra were pretreated with MSC pretreatment and it gave the optimal result for calibration model as (R = 0.92, RMSEC = 0.03%) and this model obtained high accuracy result to use for %TA prediction in test set as (R = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.05%). From the result of prediction in test set shown that the transmittance SW-NIR spectroscopy technique can be used for a non-destructive method for %TA prediction of tomatoes.

Keywords: Quality, prediction, tomato, titratable acidity, transmittance, citric acid

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26 In Silico Analysis of Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family by RNA-Seq during Tomato Fruit Ripening

Authors: Debora P. Arce, Flavia J. Krsticevic, Marco R. Bertolaccini, Joaquín Ezpeleta, Estela M. Valle, Sergio D. Ponce, Elizabeth Tapia

Abstract:

Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are low molecular weight chaperones that play an important role during stress response and development in all living organisms. Fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce sHSP synthesis both in Arabidopsis and tomato plants. RNA-Seq technology is becoming widely used in various transcriptomics studies; however, analyzing and interpreting the RNA-Seq data face serious challenges. In the present work, we de novo assembled the Solanum lycopersicum transcriptome for three different maturation stages (mature green, breaker and red ripe). Differential gene expression analysis was carried out during tomato fruit development. We identified 12 sHSPs differentially expressed that might be involved in breaker and red ripe fruit maturation. Interestingly, these sHSPs have different subcellular localization and suggest a complex regulation of the fruit maturation network process.

Keywords: assembly, Maturation, RNA-Seq, tomato, sHSPs

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25 Interactive of Calcium, Potassium, and Dynamic Unequal Salt Distribution on the Growth of Tomato in Hydroponic System

Authors: Mohammad Koushafar, Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh

Abstract:

Due to water shortage, application of saline water for irrigation is an urgent requirement in agriculture. Thus, this study, the effect of calcium and potassium application as additive in saline root media for reduce salinity adverse effects was investigated on tomato growth in a hydroponic system with unequal distribution of salts in the root media, which was divided into two equal parts containing full Johnson nutrient solution and 40 mM NaCl solution, alone or in combination with KCl (6 mM), CaCl2 (4 mM), K+Ca (3+2 mM) or half-strength Johnson nutrient solution. The root splits were exchanged every 7 days. Results showed that addition of calcium, calcium-potassium and nutrition elements equivalent to half the concentration of Johnson formula to the saline-half of culture media minimized the reduction in plant growth caused by NaCl, although the addition of potassium to culture media was not effective. The greatest concentration of sodium was observed at the shoot of treatments which had the smallest growth. According to the results of this study, in the case of dynamic and non-uniform distribution of salts in the root media, by the addition of additive to the saline solution, it would be possible to use of saline water with no significant growth reduction.

Keywords: Calcium, potassium, tomato, hydroponic, local salinity, salin water

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24 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

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The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: Plant Growth, tomato, leaf-water potential, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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23 Detection of Internal Mold Infection of Intact Tomatoes by Non-Destructive, Transmittance VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn

Abstract:

The external characteristics of tomatoes, such as freshness, color and size are typically used in quality control processes for tomatoes sorting. However, the internal mold infection of intact tomato cannot be sorted based on a visible assessment and destructive method alone. In this study, a non-destructive technique was used to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes by using transmittance visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra for 200 samples contained 100 samples for normal tomatoes and 100 samples for mold infected tomatoes were acquired in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. This data was used in conjunction with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method to generate a classification model for tomato quality between groups of internal mold infection of intact tomato samples. For this task, the data was split into two groups, 140 samples were used for a training set and 60 samples were used for a test set. The spectra of both normal and internally mold infected tomatoes showed different features in the visible wavelength range. Combined spectral pretreatments of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) and smoothing (Savitzky-Golay) gave the optimal calibration model in training set, 85.0% (63 out of 71 for the normal samples and 56 out of 69 for the internal mold samples). The classification accuracy of the best model on the test set was 91.7% (29 out of 29 for the normal samples and 26 out of 31 for the internal mold tomato samples). The results from this experiment showed that transmittance VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a non-destructive technique to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes.

Keywords: Quality, prediction, Mold, tomato, transmittance

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22 Detection of Internal Mold Infection of Intact For Tomatoes by Non-Destructive, Transmittance VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, N. Prathengjit

Abstract:

The external characteristics of tomatoes, such as freshness, color and size are typically used in quality control processes for tomatoes sorting. However, the internal mold infection of intact tomato cannot be sorted based on a visible assessment and destructive method alone. In this study, a non-destructive technique was used to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes by using transmittance visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra for 200 samples contained 100 samples for normal tomatoes and 100 samples for mold infected tomatoes were acquired in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. This data was used in conjunction with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method to generate a classification model for tomato quality between groups of internal mold infection of intact tomato samples. For this task, the data was split into two groups, 140 samples were used for a training set and 60 samples were used for a test set. The spectra of both normal and internally mold infected tomatoes showed different features in the visible wavelength range. Combined spectral pretreatments of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) and smoothing (Savitzky-Golay) gave the optimal calibration model in training set, 85.0% (63 out of 71 for the normal samples and 56 out of 69 for the internal mold samples). The classification accuracy of the best model on the test set was 91.7% (29 out of 29 for the normal samples and 26 out of 31 for the internal mold tomato samples). The results from this experiment showed that transmittance VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a non-destructive technique to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes.

Keywords: Quality, prediction, Mold, tomato, transmittance

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21 An Empirical Analysis of Farmers Field Schools and Effect on Tomato Productivity in District Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Authors: Mahmood Iqbal, Khalid Nawab, Tachibana Satoshi

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Farmer Field School (FFS) is constantly aims to assist farmers to determine and learn about field ecology and integrated crop management. The study was conducted to examine the change in productivity of tomato crop in the study area; to determine increase in per acre yield of the crop, and find out reduction in per acre input cost. A study of tomato crop was conducted in ten villages namely Jabban, Bijligar Colony, Palonow, Heroshah, Zara Maira, Deghar Ghar, Sidra Jour, Anar Thangi, Miangano Korona and Wartair of district Malakand. From each village 15 respondents were selected randomly on the basis of identical allocation making sample size of 150 respondents. The research was based on primary as well as secondary data. Primary data was collected from farmers while secondary data were taken from Agriculture Extension Department Dargai, District Malakand. Interview schedule was planned and each farmer was interviewed personally. The study was based on comparison of cost, yield and income of tomato before and after FFS. Paired t-test and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for analysis; outcome of the study show that integrated pest management project has brought a positive change in the attitude of farmers of the project area through FFS approach. In district Malakand 66.0% of the respondents were between the age group of 31-50 years, 11.3% of respondents had primary level of education, 12.7% of middle level, 28.7% metric level, 3.3% of intermediate level and 2.0% of graduate level of education while 42.0% of respondents were illiterate and have no education. Average land holding size of farmers was 6.47 acres, cost of seed, crop protection from insect pest and crop protection from diseases was reduced by Rs. 210.67, Rs. 2584.43 and Rs. 3044.16 respectively, the cost of fertilizers and cost of farm yard manure was increased by Rs.1548.87 and Rs. 1151.40 respectively while tomato yield was increased by 1585.03 kg/acre from 7663.87 to 9248.90 kg/acre. The role of FFS initiate by integrated pest management project through department of agriculture extension for the development of agriculture was worth mentioning. It has brought enhancement in crop yield of tomato and their income through FFS approach. On the basis of results of the research studies, integrated pest management project should spread their developmental activities for maximum participation of the complete rural masses through participatory FFS approach.

Keywords: Agriculture, tomato, Farmers field schools, extension education

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20 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Faith Semwayo

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Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, tomato, carrot, Listeria monocytogenes

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19 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

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This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: intercropping, tomato, crispy salad, glasshouse

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18 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian

Abstract:

The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: fruit quality, tomato, PGPR

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17 Screening of Indigenous Rhizobacteria for Growth Promoting and Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium Oxysporoum in Tomato

Authors: Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammad M. Zalloum

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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to enhance plant growth and/or reduce plant damage due to soil-borne pathogens. Tomato is the highest consumable vegetable world-wide including Jordan. Fusarium oxysporum is a pathogen that causes well-known damages and losses to many vegetable crops including tomato. In this study, purification of 112 isolates of PGPR strains from rhizosphere environment of different regions in Jordan was accomplished. All bacterial isolates were In-vitro screened for antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum. The eleven most effective isolates that caused 30%-50% in-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum were selected. 8 out of 11 of these isolates were collected from Al-Halabat (arid-land). 7 isolates of Al-Halabat exerted 40-54% In-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum. Four-week-old seedlings of tomato cultivar (Anjara, the most susceptible indigenous cultivar to F. oxysporum) treated with PGPR5 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), and exposed to F. oxysporum, showed no disease symptoms and no significant changes in biomasses or chlorophyll contents indicating a non-direct mechanism of action of PGPR on tomato plants. However PGPR3 (Bacillus sp.), PGPR4 (Bacillus cereus), and PGPR38 (Paenibacillus sp.) treated plants or PGPR treated and exposed to F. oxysporum showed a significant increasing growth of shoot and root biomasses as well as chlorophyll contents of leaves compared to control untreated plants or plants exposed to the fungus without PGPR treatment. A significant increase in number of flowers per plant was also recorded in all PGPR treated plants. The characterization of rhizobacterial strains were accomplished using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in addition to microscopic characterization. Further research is necessary to explore the potentiality of other collected PGPR isolates on tomato plants in addition to investigate the efficacy of the identified isolates on other plant pathogens and then finding a proper and effective methods of formulation and application of the successful isolates on selected crops.

Keywords: Antagonism, tomato, Rhizobacteria, arid land, growth promoting

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16 Inventory Larval Ectoparasites of Tomato Leafminer in National High School of Agriculture, Algeria

Authors: Khadidja Mahdi, Salaheddine Doumandji

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Among the natural enemies that reduce populations of the tomato leaf miner studied in experimental plots of National High school of agriculture (ENSA, Algeria, 36° 40’ à 36° 43’ N.; 3° 08’ à 3° 12’ E.), larval ectoparasites. Three larval ectoparasites are reported in this study namely Necrinmus Sp. and two species of indeterminate Chalcidae (Chalcidae Sp. 1 and 2). These species have significantly reduced the effectives of Tuta absoluta. The results for the parasitism of eggs, larval instars and pupae of Tuta absoluta on the open field tomato in the experimental plots of ENSA show high levels of parasite eggs with 25%. With 94.7%, the first larval instar (L1) is the most parasites. The second instar (L2) undergoes the action of parasitoids least 60%. Instars L3 and L4 and pupae remain unharmed.

Keywords: Tuta Absoluta, Algeria, tomato, larval ectoparasites, ensa

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15 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Properties and Health Benefits

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos, C. S. Marques

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The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: Functional foods, Bioavailability, Carotenoids, lycopene, tomato, cancer and antioxidants

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14 Howard Mold Count of Tomato Pulp Commercialized in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: M. B. Atui, A. M. Silva, M. A. M. Marciano, M. I. Fioravanti, V. A. Franco, L. B. Chasin, A. R. Ferreira, M. D. Nogueira

Abstract:

Fungi attack large amount of fruits and those who have suffered an injury on the surface are more susceptible to the growth, as they have pectinolytic enzymes that destroy the edible portion forming an amorphous and soft dough. The spores can reach the plant by the wind, rain and insects and fruit may have on its surface, besides the contaminants from the fruit trees, land and water, forming a flora composed mainly of yeasts and molds. Other contamination can occur for the equipment used to harvest, for the use of boxes and contaminated water to the fruit washing, for storage in dirty places. The hyphae in tomato products indicate the use of raw materials contaminated or unsuitable hygiene conditions during processing. Although fungi are inactivated in heat processing step, its hyphae remain in the final product and search for detection and quantification is an indicator of the quality of raw material. Howard Method count of fungi mycelia in industrialized pulps evaluates the amount of decayed fruits existing in raw material. The Brazilian legislation governing processed and packaged products set the limit of 40% of positive fields in tomato pulps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the tomato pulp sold in greater São Paulo, through a monitoring during the four seasons of the year. All over 2010, 110 samples have been examined; 21 were taking in spring, 31 in summer, 31 in fall and 27 in winter, all from different lots and trademarks. Samples have been picked up in several stores located in the city of São Paulo. Howard method was used, recommended by the AOAC, 19th ed, 2011 16:19:02 technique - method 965.41. Hundred percent of the samples contained fungi mycelia. The count average of fungi mycelia per season was 23%, 28%, 8,2% and 9,9% in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Regarding the spring samples of the 21 samples analyzed, 14.3% were off-limits proposed by the legislation. As for the samples of the fall and winter, all were in accordance with the legislation and the average of mycelial filament count has not exceeded 20%, which can be explained by the low temperatures during this time of the year. The acquired samples in the summer and spring showed high percentage of fungal mycelium in the final product, related to the high temperatures in these seasons. Considering that the limit of 40% of positive fields is accepted for the Brazilian Legislation (RDC nº 14/2014), 3 spring samples (14%) and 6 summer samples (19%) will be over this limit and subject to law penalties. According to gathered data, 82% of manufacturers of this product manage to keep acceptable levels of fungi mycelia in their product. In conclusion, only 9.2% samples were for the limits established by Resolution RDC. 14/2014, showing that the limit of 40% is feasible and can be used by these segment industries. The result of the filament count mycelial by Howard method is an important tool in the microscopic analysis since it measures the quality of raw material used in the production of tomato products.

Keywords: Fungi, Method, tomato, howard, pulps

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13 Resistin Mediates Tomato and Broccoli Extracts Effects on Glucose Homeostasis in High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats

Authors: N. M. Aborehab, M. Helmy, N. E. Waly

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Resistin was identified as an adipocyte hormone that participates in regulation of glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of Resistin are postulated to cause insulin resistance. This may link obesity, and increased fat mass to type II diabetes and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that tomato and broccoli extract treatment regulates glucose homeostasis via modulation of resistin levels in high fat diet induced obesity rats (HFD). 63 male albino rats were divided into 8 groups as follows: control, HFD, stop fat diet (SD), Tomato 200 mg/kg (T200), Tomato 400mg/kg (T400), Broccoli 200 mg/kg (B200), Broccoli 400 mg/kg (B400), Chromax (CX). Treatment continued for 1 month. Serum levels of resistin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose and insulin were measured using ELISA, and spectrophotometry. Serum level of resistin was significantly reduced in T 200, T 400, B 200, B 400 and CX groups to: 4.13 ± 0.22 ng/ml, 1.51 ± 0.04 ng/ml, 4.13 ± 0.22 ng/ml, 2.32 ± 0.15 ng/ml and 1.37 ± 0.03 ng/ml respectively compared to HFD group and SD group (P value < 0.0001). Non-significant difference was found between T 400, B 400 and CX groups. Mean serum level of leptin was significantly reduced in T 400 (22.7 ± 0.84 Pg/ml) group compared to B 400 (41 ± 2.45 Pg/ml) and CX groups (45.7 ± 2.91 Pg/ml), P value < 0.001.The mean serum level of adiponectin was significantly increased in T 400 group (131 ± 3.84 Pg/ml) compared to CX group (112 ± 4.77 Pg/ml), P value was < 0.01. Our results demonstrate that tomato and broccoli extract treatment regulates glucose homeostasis via reduction of serum resistin and may be a useful non-pharmacological therapy for obesity. Further studies are required to assess the potential use of these extract as a treatment for type II diabetes and obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, tomato, broccoli, resistin

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12 Development of a Passive Solar Tomato Dryer with Movable Heat Storage System

Authors: Jacob T. Liberty, Wilfred I. Okonkwo

Abstract:

The present study designed and constructed a post-harvest passive solar tomato dryer of dimension 176 x 152 x 54cm for drying tomato. Quality of the dried crop was evaluated and compared with the fresh ones. The solar dryer consist of solar collector (air heater), 110 x 61 x 10 x 10cm, the drying chamber, 102 x54cm, removal heat storage unit, 40 x 35 x 13cm and drying trays, 43 x 42cm. The physicochemical properties of this crop were evaluated before and after drying. Physicochemical properties evaluated includes moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C, contents. The fresh, open and solar dried samples were analysed for their proximate composition using the recommended method of AOAC. Also, statistical analysis of the data was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely Randomize Design (CRD) and means were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (DNMRT). Proximate analysis showed that solar dried tomato had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C except for the fat content that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all the open sun dried samples than the solar dried and fresh product. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. Result indicates that moisture loss in solar dried tomato was faster and lower than the open dried samples and as such makes the solar dried products of lesser tendency to mould and bacterial growth. Also, the open sun dried samples had to be carried into the sheltered place each time it rained. The solar dried produce is of high quality. Further processing of the dried crops will involve packaging for commercial purposes. This will also help in making these agricultural product available in a relatively cheap price in off season and also avert micronutrient deficiencies in diet especially among the low-income groups in Nigeria.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, tomato, passive solar dryer, removal heat storage

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11 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Hanife Genc, Akın Kuyulu

Abstract:

In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: Tuta Absoluta, irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer

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10 Foliar Feeding of Methyl Jasmonate Induces Resistance in Normal and Salinity Stressed Tomato Plants, at Different Stages

Authors: RASHID AHMAD, Abdul Manan, Choudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari

Abstract:

A project was designed to investigate the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on physiological, biochemical and ionic attributes of salinity stressed and normal tomato plants at different stages. Salinity stress at every stage markedly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water relations parameters, protein contents, total free aminoacids and potassium (K+) contents. While, antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT)), sodium (Na+) contents and proline contents were increased substantially. Foliar application of MeJA ameliorated the drastic effects of salinity regime by recovery of physiological and biochemical attributes by enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes and osmoprotectants. The efficacy of MeJA at very initial stage (15 days after sowing (15 DAS)).proved effective for attenuating the deleterious effects of salinity stress than other stages (15 days after transplanting (15 DAT) and 30 days after transplanting (30 DAT)). To the best of our knowledge, different times of foliar feeding of MeJA was observed first time for amelioration of salinity stress in tomato plants that would be of pivotal significance for scientist to better understand the dynamics of physiological and biochemical processes in tomato.

Keywords: tomato, salinity stress, methyl jasmonate, osmoregulation, stress tolerance

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9 Effects of Reclaimed Agro-Industrial Wastewater for Long-Term Irrigation of Herbaceous Crops on Soil Chemical Properties

Authors: G. Disciglio, G. Gatta, A. Tarantino, E. Tarantino, L. Frabboni, A. Libutti

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Worldwide, about two-thirds of industrial and domestic wastewater effluent is discharged without treatment, which can cause contamination and eutrophication of the water. In particular, for Mediterranean countries, irrigation with treated wastewater would mitigate the water stress and support the agricultural sector. Changing global weather patterns will make the situation worse, due to increased susceptibility to drought, which can cause major environmental, social, and economic problems. The study was carried out in open field in an intensive agricultural area of the Apulian region in Southern Italy where freshwater resources are often scarce. As well as providing a water resource, irrigation with treated wastewater represents a significant source of nutrients for soil–plant systems. However, the use of wastewater might have further effects on soil. This study thus investigated the long-term impact of irrigation with reclaimed agro-industrial wastewater on the chemical characteristics of the soil. Two crops (processing tomato and broccoli) were cultivated in succession in Stornarella (Foggia) over four years from 2012 to 2016 using two types of irrigation water: groundwater and tertiary treated agro-industrial wastewater that had undergone an activated sludge process, sedimentation filtration, and UV radiation. Chemical analyses were performed on the irrigation waters and soil samples. The treated wastewater was characterised by high levels of several chemical parameters including TSS, EC, COD, BOD5, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4-N, PO4-P, K+, SAR and CaCO3, as compared with the groundwater. However, despite these higher levels, the mean content of several chemical parameters in the soil did not show relevant differences between the irrigation treatments, in terms of the chemical features of the soil.

Keywords: tomato, broccoli, agro-industrial wastewater, long-term re-use

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8 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

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This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, Ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film

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7 Spatial Variation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Plants Grown in Greenhouses (Springs) in Elmali-Antalya Region

Authors: Sahriye Sonmez, Namik Kemal Sonmez, Hasan Rasit Turkkan, Hatice Tuba Selcuk

Abstract:

In this study, the spatial variation of plant and soil nutrition contents of tomato plants grown in greenhouses was investigated in Elmalı region of Antalya. For this purpose, total of 19 sampling points were determined. Coordinates of each sampling points were recorded by using a hand-held GPS device and were transferred to satellite data in GIS. Soil samples were collected from two different depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and leaf were taken from different tomato greenhouses. The soil and plant samples were analyzed for N, P and K. Then, attribute tables were created with the analyses results by using GIS. Data were analyzed and semivariogram models and parameters (nugget, sill and range) of variables were determined by using GIS software. Kriged maps of variables were created by using nugget, sill and range values with geostatistical extension of ArcGIS software. Kriged maps of the N, P and K contents of plant and soil samples showed patchy or a relatively smooth distribution in the study areas. As a result, the N content of plants were sufficient approximately 66% portion of the tomato productions. It was determined that the P and K contents were sufficient of 70% and 80% portion of the areas, respectively. On the other hand, soil total K contents were generally adequate and available N and P contents were found to be highly good enough in two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) 90% portion of the areas.

Keywords: Nutrients, tomato, spatial variation, Elmali, springs greenhouses

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6 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils

Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini

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Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel

Keywords: Chromium, Phytostabilization, cadmium, tomato, phytoextraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5 Sequence Analysis and Molecular Cloning of PROTEOLYSIS 6 in Tomato

Authors: Nurulhikma Md Isa, Intan Elya Suka, Nur Farhana Roslan, Chew Bee Lynn

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The evolutionarily conserved N-end rule pathway marks proteins for degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteosome System (UPS) based on the nature of their N-terminal residue. Proteins with a destabilizing N-terminal residue undergo a series of condition-dependent N-terminal modifications, resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation. Intensive research has been carried out in Arabidopsis previously. The group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFs) transcription factors are the first N-end rule pathway substrates found in Arabidopsis and their role in regulating oxygen sensing. ERFs also function as central hubs for the perception of gaseous signals in plants and control different plant developmental including germination, stomatal aperture, hypocotyl elongation and stress responses. However, nothing is known about the role of this pathway during fruit development and ripening aspect. The plant model system Arabidopsis cannot represent fleshy fruit model system therefore tomato is the best model plant to study. PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway. Two homologs of PRT6 sequences have been identified in tomato genome database using the PRT6 protein sequence from model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Homology search against Ensemble Plant database (tomato) showed Solyc09g010830.2 is the best hit with highest score of 1143, e-value of 0.0 and 61.3% identity compare to the second hit Solyc10g084760.1. Further homology search was done using NCBI Blast database to validate the data. The result showed best gene hit was XP_010325853.1 of uncharacterized protein LOC101255129 (Solanum lycopersicum) with highest score of 1601, e-value 0.0 and 48% identity. Both Solyc09g010830.2 and uncharacterized protein LOC101255129 were genes located at chromosome 9. Further validation was carried out using BLASTP program between these two sequences (Solyc09g010830.2 and uncharacterized protein LOC101255129) to investigate whether they were the same proteins represent PRT6 in tomato. Results showed that both proteins have 100 % identity, indicates that they were the same gene represents PRT6 in tomato. In addition, we used two different RNAi constructs that were driven under 35S and Polygalacturonase (PG) promoters to study the function of PRT6 during tomato developmental stages and ripening processes.

Keywords: ubiquitin, tomato, ERFs, PRT6

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4 Effects of Green Walnut Husk and Olive Pomace Extracts on Growth of Tomato Plants and Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

Authors: Yasemin Kavdir, Ugur Gozel

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This study was conducted to determine the nematicidal activity of green walnut husk (GWH) and olive pomace (OP) extracts against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Aqueous extracts of GWH and OP were mixed with sandy loam soil at the rates of 0, 6,12,18,24, 60 and 120 ml kg-1. All pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times under controlled atmosphere conditions. Tomato seedlings were grown in sterilized soil then they were transplanted to pots. Inoculation was done by pouring the 20 ml suspension including 1000 M. incognita juvenile pot-1 into 3 cm deep hole made around the base of the plant root. Tomato root and shoot growth and nematode populations have been determined. In general, both GWH and OP extracts resulted in better growth parameters compared to the control plants. However, GWH extract was the most effective in improving growth parameters. Applications of 24 ml kg-1 OP extract enhanced plant growth compared to other OP treatments while 60 ml kg-1 application rate had the lowest nematode number and root galling. In this study, applications of GWH and OP extracts reduced the number of Meloidogyne incognita and root galling compared to control soils. Additionally GWH and OP extracts can be used safely for tomato growth. It could be concluded that OP and GWH extracts used as organic amendments showed promising nematicidal activity in the control of M. incognita. This research was supported by TUBİTAK Grant Number 214O422.

Keywords: Soil, extract, tomato, olive pomace, green walnut husk, Meloidogyne incognita

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3 Investigation of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria on Seed Germination and Seed to Seedling Transmission in Tomato

Authors: H. Mayton, X. Yan, A. G. Taylor

Abstract:

Infested tomato seeds were used to investigate the influence of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria on germination and seed to seedling transmission in a controlled environment and greenhouse assays in an effort to develop effective seed treatments and characterize seed borne transmission of bacterial leaf spot of tomato. Bacterial leaf spot of tomato, caused by four distinct Xanthomonas species, X. euvesicatoria, X. gardneri, X. perforans, and X. vesicatoria, is a serious disease worldwide. In the United States, disease prevention is expensive for commercial growers in warm, humid regions of the country, and crop losses can be devastating. In this study, four different infested tomato seed lots were extracted from tomato fruits infected with bacterial leaf spot from a field in New York State in 2017 that had been inoculated with X. euvesicatoria. In addition, vacuum infiltration at 61 kilopascals for 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes and seed soaking for 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes with different bacterial concentrations were used to artificially infest seed in the laboratory. For controlled environment assays, infested tomato seeds from the field and laboratory were placed othe n moistened blue blotter in square plastic boxes (10 cm x 10 cm) and incubated at 20/30 ˚C with an 8/16 hour light cycle, respectively. Infested tomato seeds from the field and laboratory were also planted in small plastic trays in soil (peat-lite medium) and placed in the greenhouse with 24/18 ˚C day and night temperatures, respectively, with a 14-hour photoperiod. Seed germination was assessed after eight days in the laboratory and 14 days in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the hrpB7 primers (RST65 [5’- GTCGTCGTTACGGCAAGGTGGTG-3’] and RST69 [5’-TCGCCCAGCGTCATCAGGCCATC-3’]) was performed to confirm presence or absence of the bacterial pathogen in seed lots collected from the field and in germinating seedlings in all experiments. For infested seed lots from the field, germination was lowest (84%) in the seed lot with the highest level of bacterial infestation (55%) and ranged from 84-98%. No adverse effect on germination was observed from artificially infested seeds for any bacterial concentration and method of infiltration when compared to a non-infested control. Germination in laboratory assays for artificially infested seeds ranged from 82-100%. In controlled environment assays, 2.5 % were PCR positive for the pathogen, and in the greenhouse assays, no infected seedlings were detected. From these experiments, X. euvesicatoria does not appear to adversely influence germination. The lowest rate of germination from field collected seed may be due to contamination with multiple pathogens and saprophytic organisms as no effect of artificial bacterial seed infestation in the laboratory on germination was observed. No evidence of systemic movement from seed to seedling was observed in the greenhouse assays; however, in the controlled environment assays, some seedlings were PCR positive. Additional experiments are underway with green fluorescent protein-expressing isolates to further characterize seed to seedling transmission of the bacterial leaf spot pathogen in tomato.

Keywords: seed germination, tomato, bacterial leaf spot, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria

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2 Characterization of Heterotrimeric G Protein α Subunit in Tomato

Authors: Thi Thao Ninh, Yuri Trusov, José Ramón Botella

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Heterotrimeric G proteins, comprised of three subunits, α, β and γ, are involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate a vast number of processes across the eukaryotic kingdom. 23 Gα subunits are present in humans whereas most plant genomes encode for only one canonical Gα. The disparity observed between Arabidopsis, rice, and maize Gα-deficient mutant phenotypes suggest that Gα functions have diversified between eudicots and monocots during evolution. Alternatively, since the only Gα mutations available in dicots have been produced in Arabidopsis, the possibility exists that this species might be an exception to the rule. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the G protein α subunit (TGA1) in tomato. Four tga1 knockout lines were generated in tomato cultivar Moneymaker using CRISPR/Cas9. The tga1 mutants exhibit a number of auxin-related phenotypes including changes in leaf shape, reduced plant height, fruit size and number of seeds per fruit. In addition, tga1 mutants have increased sensitivity to abscisic acid during seed germination, reduced sensitivity to exogenous auxin during adventitious root formation from cotyledons and excised hypocotyl explants. Our results suggest that Gα mutant phenotypes in tomato are very similar to those observed in monocots, i.e. rice and maize, and cast doubts about the validity of using Arabidopsis as a model system for plant G protein studies.

Keywords: tomato, CRISPR/Cas9, auxin-related phenotypes, G protein α subunit, heterotrimeric G proteins

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1 Allelopathic Effect of Duranta Repens on Salinity-Stressed Solanum Lycopersicum Seedlings

Authors: Olusola Nafisat Omoniyi

Abstract:

Aqueous extract of Duranta repens leaves was investigated for its allelopathic effect on Solanum lycopersicum Seedlings germinated and grown under salinity condition. The study was carried out using both laboratory petri dish and pot assays to simulate the plant’s natural environmental conditions. The experiment consisted of 5 groups (1-5), each containing 5 replicates (of 10 seeds). Group 1 was treated with distilled water; Group 2 was treated with 5 mM NaCl; Group 3 was treated with the Extract, Group 4 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (2:1 v/v), and Group 5 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (1:2 v/v). The results showed that treatment with NaCl caused significant reductions in germination, growth parameters (plumule and radicle lengths), and chlorophyll concentration of S. lycopersicum seedlings when compared to those treated with D. rupens aqueous leaf extract. Salinity also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and proline concentrations and lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase. However, in the presence of the extract, the adverse effects of the NaCl were attenuated, implying that the extract improved tolerance of S. lycopersicum seedlings. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that the extract is very important in the optimal growth of the plant in saline soil, which has become useful for the management of soil salinity problems.

Keywords: Production, Agriculture, Soil, Photosynthesis, Salinity, tomato, allelopathic

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