Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Tolerance Related Abstracts

21 Isolation and Characterization of Salt-Tolerance of Rhizobia under the Effects of Salinity

Authors: Sarra Sobti, Baelhadj Hamdi-Aïssa

Abstract:

The bacteria of the soil, usually called rhizobium, have a considerable importance in agriculture because of their capacity to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with the plants of the family of legumes. The present work was to study the effect of the salinity on growth and nodulation of alfalfa-rhizobia symbiosis at different agricultural experimental sites in Ouargla. The experiment was conducted in 3 steps. The first one was the isolation and characterization of the Rhizobia; next, the evolution of the isolates tolerance to salinity at three levels of NaCl (6, 8,12 and 16 g/L); and the last step was the evolution of the tolerance on symbiotic characteristics. The results showed that the phenotypic characterizations behave practically as Rhizobia spp, and the effects of salinity affect the symbiotic process. The tolerance to high levels of salinity and the survival and persistence in severe and harsh desert conditions make these rhizobia highly valuable inoculums to improve productivity of the leguminous plants cultivated under extreme environments.

Keywords: Tolerance, Soil, Symbiosis, Salinity, rhizobia, nodulation, Medicago sativa L

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20 Family Values and Honest Attitudes in Pakistan: The Role of Tolerance and Justice Attitudes

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to examine the effects of family values on honest attitudes by the mediation of tolerance attitudes and justice attitudes among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social changes, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Family values have great effects on the honest attitudes among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. Tolerance attitudes, justice attitudes, personal experiences and modernity factors are contributing to the development of honest attitudes among family members. Family values attitudes enhance the concept of honesty feelings, fairness, and less thinking towards theft. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results shows similar positive effects of tolerance and justice attitudes on honest attitude by the mediation of family values attitudes.

Keywords: Justice, Tolerance, attitudes, Pakistan, family values, honesty

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19 Tolerance of Colonoscopy: Questioning Its Utility in the Elderly

Authors: Faizan Rathore, Naveed Sultan, Humphrey O. Connor

Abstract:

This study was carried out from Jan '12-Dec'12 to assess current practice in Kerry General Hospital against the age-related indicators for colonoscopies. A total of 1474 colonoscopies were performed,1177(79.9%) were diagnostic and 297 (20.1%) were therapeutic, patients were divided into 4 age groups under 75, 75-80, 81-85, 86+. The trend analysis revealed an increase in diagnostic colonoscopies and decrease in therapeutic colonoscopies with age. 664(45.04%) of colonoscopies were reported normal which made up the majority of the total diagnoses, 1330 (90.2%) of colonoscopies occurred without any complications. Main complications were patient discomfort being the highest, present in 112(7.6%) of patients, and lowest being urticaria around the IV site present in 1 (0.1%) of the cases. Patient discomfort was higher in younger patients as evidenced by 98 cases aged <75 , followed by 11 cases aged 75-80, 2 cases aged 81-85 and 1 case aged >86. Highest percentage of poor tolerance was found in 14 (1.1%) of total patients <75, 1 (0.8%) of total patients aged 75-80, 1(1.7%) of total patients in age group 81-85 and none (0%) in age group >86. We have established the safety of colonoscopy, low rate of complications and a better tolerance in the elderly from this study, however, its utility, especially in the presence of other comorbidities in elderly is questionable.

Keywords: Tolerance, utility, colonoscopy, elderly patients

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18 Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective

Authors: Ashok Chaskar

Abstract:

The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.

Keywords: Culture, Tolerance, Cultural Pluralism, Cultural Diversity, Autonomy, ethnic diversity, ethnic groups, egalitarianism, socio-cultural harmony, harmonious coexistence

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17 EDTA Enhanced Plant Growth, Antioxidant Defense System, and Phytoextraction of Copper by Brassica napus L.

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Mujahid Farid, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor, Ume Habiba

Abstract:

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland’s nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.

Keywords: biomass, Tolerance, Antioxidants, Copper, EDTA, phytoextraction

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16 Tool for Analysing the Sensitivity and Tolerance of Mechatronic Systems in Matlab GUI

Authors: Martin Juhas, Bohuslava Juhasova, Renata Masarova, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

The article deals with the tool in Matlab GUI form that is designed to analyse a mechatronic system sensitivity and tolerance. In the analysed mechatronic system, a torque is transferred from the drive to the load through a coupling containing flexible elements. Different methods of control system design are used. The classic form of the feedback control is proposed using Naslin method, modulus optimum criterion and inverse dynamics method. The cascade form of the control is proposed based on combination of modulus optimum criterion and symmetric optimum criterion. The sensitivity is analysed on the basis of absolute and relative sensitivity of system function to the change of chosen parameter value of the mechatronic system, as well as the control subsystem. The tolerance is analysed in the form of determining the range of allowed relative changes of selected system parameters in the field of system stability. The tool allows to analyse an influence of torsion stiffness, torsion damping, inertia moments of the motor and the load and controller(s) parameters. The sensitivity and tolerance are monitored in terms of the impact of parameter change on the response in the form of system step response and system frequency-response logarithmic characteristics. The Symbolic Math Toolbox for expression of the final shape of analysed system functions was used. The sensitivity and tolerance are graphically represented as 2D graph of sensitivity or tolerance of the system function and 3D/2D static/interactive graph of step/frequency response.

Keywords: Tolerance, Mechatronic Systems, Sensitivity, Matlab GUI

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15 Evolution of Mineral Nutrition in Two Species of Atriplex (halimus and canescens) under Salt Stress

Authors: Z. Mahi, L. Marousset, C. Roudaut, M. Belkhodja, R. Lemoine

Abstract:

The strong accumulation of salts in the soil as well as in irrigation water greatly disrupts the growth and development of almost all plants. The study of these disturbances in halophytes helps provide better guidance on the deteriorating effect of salinity. Evaluation of salt stress in two species of Atriplex (halimus and canescens) through the study of mineral nutrition (dosage of sodium and potassium) shows a variability of responses. The results show that the Na+ ion accumulates in the three organs whatever the applied concentration. This accumulation increases with the high salt concentrations in halimus whereas in canescens, 600 mM treatment shows a reduction of the amount of this element. A decrease in the amount of potassium is observed for all organs except halimus rods 100 mM. Unlike halimus, canescens K + accumulates in high concentrations of salt at the roots and leaves. The ratio Na+/K+ decreases the salt by halimus against it increases in levels canescens roots and treated with high concentrations of NaCl (600 mM) leaves.

Keywords: Tolerance, Atriplex, canescens, halimus, Na +, K +, Na Cl

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14 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: Rahou Mohamed, Sebaa Fethi, Cheikh Abdelmadjid

Abstract:

Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration, and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach have been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Tolerance, Position, Dispersion

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13 Teaching Tolerance in the Language Classroom through a Text

Authors: Natalia Kasatkina

Abstract:

In an ever-increasing globalization, one’s grasp of diversity and tolerance has never been more indispensable, and it is a vital duty for all those in the field of foreign language teaching to help children cultivate such values. The present study explores the role of DIVERSITY and TOLERANCE in the language classroom and elementary, middle, and high school students’ perceptions of these two concepts. It draws on several theoretical domains of language acquisition, cultural awareness, and school psychology. Relying on these frameworks, the major findings are synthesized, and a paradigm of teaching tolerance through language-teaching is formulated. Upon analysing how tolerant our children are with ‘others’ in and outside the classroom, we have concluded that intolerance and aggression towards the ‘other’ increase with age, and that a feeling of supremacy over migrants and a sense of fear towards them begin to manifest more apparently when the students are in high school. In addition, we have also found that children in elementary school do not exhibit such prejudiced thoughts and behavior, which leads us to the believe that tolerance as well as intolerance are learned. Therefore, it is within our reach to teach our children to be open-minded and accepting. We have used the novel ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’ by Harriet Beecher Stowe as a springboard for lessons which are not only targeted at shedding light on the role of language in the modern world, but also aim to stimulate an awareness of cultural diversity. We equally strive to conduct further cross-cultural research in order to solidify the theory behind this study, and thus devise a language-based curriculum which would encourage tolerance through the examination of various literary texts.

Keywords: Tolerance, EFL classroom, literary text, word-association test

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12 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: M. Farsi, Ali. Marjani, M. Rahimizadeh

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: Tolerance, chickpea, growth stage, drought stress

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11 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: Tolerance, Organizational Culture, Bureaucracy, Adhocracy

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10 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman

Abstract:

Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: Disability, Tolerance, students, classmates

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9 Religion and Democracy: Assessing Tolerance in the Diversity of Indonesia

Authors: Harsi Nastiti, Haidar Fikri

Abstract:

Indonesia has been known for its diversity of cultures, ethnics, religions, and races. This diversity signs as the uniqueness of the country, so tolerance becomes vital point here. As a unitary state, tolerance value is established strongly as the foundation of democracy implementation but recently this tolerance condition facing up some problems after regional election. In this case, religion issue takes a main role for the Indonesian political system which is managed into tolerance breaker especially for local democracy. The election of Jakarta’s Governor 2017 can be said as the momentum for the people to rethink the democracy and tolerance meaning. It begins from one of the governor candidates who makes statement about the majority religion and unfortunately the candidate comes from the minority. The statement emerges into a new social movement based on religiosity. Basically, the social movement which is coordinated by Islamic Defender Front (Front Pembela Islam or FPI) and National Movement to Safeguard the Fatwa-Indonesian Ulama Council (GNPF-MUI) want to demand the justice in the name of blasphemy. The action continuously happens in different names (Action 411, 212, etc.). So, this article analyzes the new phenomenon and how does the impact for the tolerance and democracy life in Indonesia. The method is using qualitative method by review of literature and media content analysis. Results show this phenomenon potentially spreading new conflicts far beyond the goal of the action itself; justice. It makes the conflicts more complex after there are actions such as; Parade Kebhinekaan and Aksi Lilin which contrary reacts to the actions before. These actions and reactions rise up the sensitive issues for Indonesia like religions, Pancasila, unity in diversity, ethnics, and races. At the same time raising skepticism; will it be over after the candidate is getting sentenced or becomes the dangerous latent conflict that will threaten tolerance and democracy in Indonesia.

Keywords: Democracy, Conflict, Tolerance, Religion

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8 Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana: Progressive Steps by the Botswana Court of Appeal towards Recognition and Advancement of Fundamental Human Rights of the Most Vulnerable within Society

Authors: Tashwill Esterhuizen

Abstract:

Throughout Africa, several countries continue to have laws which criminalise same-sex sexual activities, which increases the vulnerability of the LGBT community to stigma, discrimination, and persecution. These criminal provisions often form the basis upon which states deny LGBT activists the right to freely associate with other like-minded individuals and form organizations that protect their interests and advocate for the rights and aspirations of the LGBT community. Over the past year, however, there has been significant progress in the advancement of universal, fundamental rights of LGBT persons throughout Africa. In many instances, these advancements came about through the bravery of activists who have publically insisted (in environments where same-sex sexual practices are criminalised) that their rights should be respected. Where meaningful engagement with the State was fruitless, activists took their plight to the judiciary and have successfully sought to uphold the fundamental rights of LGBT persons, paving the way for a more inclusive and tolerant society. Litigation Progress: Botswana is a prime example. For several years, the State denied a group of LGBT activists their right to freely associate and form their organisation Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals of Botswana (LEGABIBO), which aimed to promote the interests of the LGBT community in Botswana. In March 2016, the Botswana Court of Appeal found that the government’s refusal to register LEGABIBO violated the activists’ right to associate freely. The Court held that the right freedom of association applies to all persons regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It does not matter that the views of the organisation are unpopular or unacceptable amongst the majority. In particular, the Court rejected the government of Botswana’s contention that registering LEGABIBO would disturb public peace and is contrary to public morality. Quite remarkably, the Court of Appeal recognised that while LGBT individuals are a minority group within the country, they are nonetheless persons entitled to constitutional protections of their dignity, regardless of whether they are unacceptable to others on religious or any other grounds. Furthermore, the Court held that human rights and fundamental freedoms are granted to all, including criminals or social outcasts because the denial of an individual’s humanity is the denial of their human dignity. This is crucial observation by the Court of Appeal, as once it is accepted that human rights apply to all human beings, then it becomes much easier for vulnerable groups to assert their own rights. Conclusion: The Botswana Court of Appeal decision, therefore, represents significant progress in the promotion of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. The judgment has broader implications for many other countries which do not provide recognition of sexual minorities. It highlights the State’s duty to uphold basic rights and to ensure dignity, tolerance, and acceptance for marginalised persons.

Keywords: Tolerance, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Inclusive, Freedom of association, Freedom of Expression, acceptance, progress, fundamental rights and freedoms, human rights are universal, inherent human dignity

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7 Effect of Zinc-Lysine on Growth, Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System and Chromium Uptake in Rice under Cr Stress

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Afzal Hussain, Longhua Wu

Abstract:

Chromium (Cr) is one of the widespread and toxic trace elements present in the agricultural land. Chromium can enter into the food chain mainly through agricultural crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). The current study was done to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations foliar applied zinc (Zn) chelated with lysine (Zn-lys) (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L⁻¹) on rice biomass, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, key antioxidant enzyme activities and Cr uptake under increasing levels of Cr in the soil (0, 100, 500 mg kg⁻¹). Cr-induced toxicity reduced the height of plants, biomass, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activities while increased the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, and H₂O₂) in shoots and roots than control plants. Foliar application of Zn-lys increased the plant growth, photosynthesis, Zn concentrations, and enzyme activities in rice seedlings. In addition, Zn-lys reduced the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress compared to the respective Cr treatments alone. The present results indicate that foliar Zn-lys stimulates the antioxidant defense system in rice, increase the rice growth while reduced the Cr concentrations in plants by promoting the Zn uptake and photosynthesis. Taken together, foliar spray of Zn-lys chelate can efficiently be employed for improving plant growth and Zn contents while reducing Cr concentration in rice grown in Cr-contaminated and Zn-deficient soils.

Keywords: Tolerance, Photosynthesis, Chromium, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, zinc-lysine

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6 Detection and Expression of Peroxidase Genes in Trichoderma harzianum KY488466 and Its Response to Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Michael Dare Asemoloye, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Rafiq Ahmad, Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi, D. O. Adejoye

Abstract:

Fungi have potentials for degrading hydrocarbons through the secretion of different enzymes. Crude oil tolerance and degradation by Trichoderma harzianum was investigated in this study with its ability to produce peroxidase enzymes (LiP and MnP). Many fungal strains were isolated from rhizosphere of grasses growing on a crude oil spilled site, and the most frequent strain based on percentage incidence was further characterized using morphological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization was done through the amplification of Ribosomal-RNA regions of 18s (1609-1627) and 28s (287-266) using ITS1 and ITS4 combinations and it was identified using NCBI BLAST tool. The selected fungus was also subjected to an in-vitro tolerance test at crude oil concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% while 0% served as control. In addition, lignin peroxidase genes (lig1-6) and manganese peroxidase gene (mnp) were detected and expressed in this strain using RT-PCR technique, its peroxidase producing activities was also studied in aliquots (U/ml). This strain had highest incidence of 80%, it was registered in NCBI as Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ KY488466. The strain KY488466 responded to crude oil concentrations as it increase, the dose inhibition response percentage (DIRP) increased from 41.67 to 95.41 at 5 to 25 % crude oil concentrations. All the peroxidase genes are present in KY488466, and expressed with amplified 900-1000 bp through RT-PCR technique. In this strain, lig2, lig4 and mnp genes were over-expressed, lig 6 was moderately expressed, while none of the genes was under-expressed. The strain also produced 90±0.87 U/ml lignin peroxidase and 120±1.23 U/mil manganese peroxidase enzymes in aliquots. These results imply that KY488466 can tolerate and survive high crude oil concentration and could be exploited for bioremediation of oil-spilled soils, the produced peroxidase enzymes could also be exploited for other biotechnological experiments.

Keywords: Tolerance, Expression, Enzymes, crude oil, Trichoderma harzianum, peroxidase genes

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5 Transcriptomic Response of Calmodulin Encoding Gene (CaM) in Pesticide Utilizing Talaromyces Fungal Strains

Authors: D. O. Adejoye, M. D. Asemoloye, S. G. Jonathan, A. Rafiq, O. J. Olawuyi

Abstract:

Calmodulin is one of the intracellular calcium proteins that regulates large spectrum of enzymes and cellular functions including metabolism of cyclic nucleotides and glycogen. The potentials of calmodulin gene in fungi necessitates their genetic response and their strong cassette of enzyme secretions for pesticide degradation. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the ‘Transcriptomic’ response of calmodulin encoding genes in Talaromyces fungi in response to 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP or Dichlorvos) an organophosphate pesticide and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) an organochlorine pesticide. Fungi strains isolated from rhizosphere from grasses rhizosphere in pesticide polluted sites were subjected to percentage incidence test. Two most frequent fungi were further characterized using ITS gene amplification (ITS1 and ITS4 combinations), they were thereafter subjected to In-vitro DDVP and lindane tolerance tests at different concentrations. They were also screened for presence and expression of calmodulin gene (caM) using RT-PCR technique. The two Talaromyces strains had the highest incidence of 50-72% in pesticide polluted site, they were both identified as Talaromyces astroroseus asemoG and Talaromyces purpurogenum asemoN submitted in NCBI gene-bank with accession numbers KY488464 and KY488468 respectively. T. astroroseus KY488464 tolerated DDVP (1.23±0.023 cm) and lindane (1.11±0.018 cm) at 25 % concentration while T. purpurogenum KY488468 tolerated DDVP (1.33±0.061 cm) and lindane (1.54±0.077 cm) at this concentration. Calmodulin gene was detected in both strains, but RT-PCR expression of caM gene revealed at 900-1000 bp showed an under-expression of caM in T. astrorosues KY488464 but overexpressed in T. purpurogenum KY488464. Thus, the calmodulin gene response of these fungal strains to both pesticides could be considered in monitoring the potentials of fungal strains to pesticide tolerance and bioremediation of pesticide in polluted soil.

Keywords: Tolerance, Pesticide, RT-PCR, Calmodulin gene, talaromyces

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4 Islam, Tolerance and Anti-Terrorism: A Critical Assessment with Reference to the Royal 'Amman Message'

Authors: Adnan M. Al Assaf

Abstract:

This research project aims to assess the methods of enhancing tolerant thinking and behavior among Muslim societies. This is in addition to spreading the anti-terrorist approach in their communities. The critical assessment for the Islamic major texts in question is the selected way for convincing, as Muslims adopt these sources as the authentic references for their lives and cultures. Moreover, this research devotes a special room to the analysis of the royal ‘Amman Message’ as a contemporary Islamic approach for enhancing tolerance and anti-terrorism from an Islamic perspective. The paper includes the study of the related concepts, texts, practical applications, with some reference to the history of Islam in human interaction, accepting the others, mercy with minorities, protecting human rights. Furthermore, it assesses the methods of enhancing tolerance and minimizing the terrorist thinking and behavior practically, in the view of Amman message, as well.

Keywords: Islam, Tolerance, Coexistence, anti-terrorism, Amman Message

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3 The Necessity and Methods of Abolishing Discrimination and Religious Violence

Authors: Hossein Boroujerdi, Mohammad R. Sadeghi, Maryam Moazen Zadeh

Abstract:

During the recent decades, the result of religious prophets has lost its attraction, and theology has become disfigured, so it has been made ugly. Undoubtedly, some of existing non-peaceful and harsh rules and measures within the religious books and contexts have been considered as the reasons and excuses for defamation of religions. Based on library sources and also extensive research in Quran and Islamic narratives, this study has aimed to find some alternative solutions and options to abolish and disregard those religious rules which are in contrary of human right charters and standards. The results have demonstrated that some of inhuman religious punishments such as execution, stoning, whipping as well as religious discriminations and warlike behaviors are in contrary of some other religious contexts and concepts. This finding have proved inadaptability between some religious contexts and religious records.

Keywords: Violence, Tolerance, Discrimination, adjustment and abolishment, religious commands and laws

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2 Exploring the Process of Cultivating Tolerance: The Case of a Pakistani University

Authors: Uzma Rashid, Mommnah Asad

Abstract:

As more and more people fall victim to the intolerance that has become a plague globally, academicians are faced with the herculean task of sowing the roots for more tolerant individuals. Being the multilayered task that it is, promoting an acceptance of diversity and pushing an agenda to push back hate requires efforts on multiple levels. Not only does the curriculum need to be in line with such goals, but teachers also need to be trained to cater to the sensitivities surrounding conversations of tolerance and diversity. In addition, institutional support needs to be there to provide conducive conditions for a diversity driven learning process to take place. In reality, teachers have to struggle with forwarding ideas about diversity and tolerance which do not sound particularly risky to be shared but given the current socio-political and religious milieu, can put the teacher in a difficult position and can make the task exponentially challenging. This paper is based on an auto-ethnographic account of teaching undergraduate and graduate courses at a private university in Pakistan. These courses were aimed at teaching tolerance to adult learners through classes focused on key notions pertaining to religion, culture, gender, and society. Authors’ classroom experiences with the students in these courses indicate a marked heightening of religious sensitivities that can potentially threaten a teacher’s life chances and become a hindrance in deep, meaningful conversations, thus lending a superficiality to the whole endeavor. The paper will discuss in detail the challenges that this teacher dealt with in the process, how those were addressed, and locate them in the larger picture of how tolerance can be materialized in current times in the universities in Pakistan and in similar contexts elsewhere.

Keywords: Gender, Diversity, Tolerance, Pakistani Universities

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1 Political Antinomy and Its Resolution in Islam

Authors: Abdul Nasir Zamir

Abstract:

After the downfall of Ottoman Caliphate, it scattered into different small Muslim states. Muslim leaders, intellectuals, revivalists as well as modernists started trying to boost up their nation. Some Muslims are also trying to establish the caliphate. Every Muslim country has its own political system, i.e., kingship, dictatorship or democracy, etc. But these are not in their original forms as the historian or political science discussed in their studies. The laws and their practice are mixed, i.e., others with Islamic laws, e.g., Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, etc. There is great conflict among the revivalist Muslim parties (groups) and governments about political systems. The question is that the subject matter is Sharia or political system? Leaders of Modern Muslim states are alleged as disbelievers due to neglecting the revelation in their laws and decisions. There are two types of laws; Islamic laws and management laws. The conflict is that the non-Islamic laws are in practice in Muslim states. Non-Islamic laws can be gradually changed with Islamic laws with a legal and peaceful process according to the practice of former Muslim leaders and scholars. The bloodshed of Muslims is not allowed in any case. Weak Muslim state is a blessing than nothing. The political system after Muhammad and guided caliphs is considered as kingship. But during this period Muslims not only developed in science and technology but conquered many territories also. If the original aim is in practice, then the Modern Muslim states can be stabled with different political systems. Modern Muslim states are the hope of survival, stability, and development of Muslim Ummah. Islam does not allow arm clash with Muslim army or Muslim civilians. The caliphate is based on believing in one Allah Almighty and good deeds according to Quran and Sunnah. As faith became weak and good deeds became less from its standard level, caliphate automatically became weak and even ended. The last weak caliphate was Ottoman Caliphate which was a hope of all the Muslims of the world. There is no caliphate or caliph present in the world. But every Muslim country or state is like an Amarat (a part of caliphate or small and alternate form of the caliphate) of Muslims. It is the duty of all Muslims to stable these modern Muslim states with tolerance.

Keywords: Political conflicts, Tolerance, Conflict Resolution, Caliphate, Political Systems, modern Muslim state

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