Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

TNF-Alpha Related Abstracts

3 Inhibitory Effect on TNF-Alpha Release of Dioscorea membranacea and Its Compounds

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Pakakrong Thongdeeying

Abstract:

The rhizomes of Dioscorea membranacea (DM) has long been used in Thai Traditional medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory activity by determining the inhibitory effect on LPS-induced TNF-α from RAW264.7 cells of crude extracts and pure isolated compounds from DM. Three known dihydrophenantrene compounds were isolated by a bioassay guided isolation method from DM ethanolic extract [2,4 dimethoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) and 5-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene(2) and 5,6,2 -trihydroxy 3,4-methoxy, 9,10- dihydrophenanthrene (3)]. 1 showed the highest inhibitory effect on PGE2, followed by 3 and 1 (IC50 = 2.26, 4.97 and >20 μg/ml or 8.31,17.25 and > 20 µM respectively). These findings suggest that this plant showed anti-inflamatory effects by displaying an inhibitory effect on TNF-α release, hence, this result supports the usage of Thai traditional medicine to treat inflammation related diseases.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, Dioscorea membranacea, TNF-Alpha, dihidrophenantrene compound

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2 TNF-Alpha and MDA Levels in Hearts of Cholesterol-Fed Rats Supplemented with Extra Virgin Olive Oil or Sunflower Oil, in Either Commercial or Modified Forms

Authors: Ageliki I. Katsarou, Andriana C. Kaliora, Antonia Chiou, Apostolos Papalois, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Nikolaos K. Andrikopoulos

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying CVDs while inflammation, an intertwined process with oxidative stress, is also linked to CVDs. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is widely known to play a pivotal role in CVD prevention and CVD reduction. However, in most studies, olive oil constituents are evaluated individually and not as part of the native food, hence potential synergistic effects as drivers of EVOO beneficial properties may be underestimated. In this study, EVOO lipidic and polar phenolics fractions were evaluated for their effect on inflammatory (TNF-alpha) and oxidation (malondialdehyde/MDA) markers, in cholesterol-fed rats. Thereat, oils with discernible lipidic profile and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, either commercially available, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), or modified as to their polar phenol content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO (EVOOd), SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics (SOe). After 9 weeks of dietary intervention, heart and blood samples were collected. HCD induced dylipidemia shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and triacylglycerols. Heart tissue has been affected by dyslipidemia; oxidation was indicated by increase in MDA in cholesterol-fed rats and inflammation by increase in TNF-alpha. In both cases, this augmentation was attenuated in EVOO and SOe diets. With respect to oxidation, SO enrichment with the EVOO phenolics brought its lipid peroxidation levels as low as in EVOO-fed rats. This suggests that phenolic compounds may act as antioxidant agents in rat heart. A possible mechanism underlying this activity may be the protective effect of phenolics in mitochondrial membrane against oxidative damage. This was further supported by EVOO/EVOOd comparison with the former presenting lower heart MDA content. As for heart inflammation, phenolics naturally present in EVOO as well as phenolics chemically added in SO, exhibited quenching abilities in heart TNF-alpha levels of cholesterol-fed rats. TNF-alpha may have played a causative role in oxidative stress induction while the opposite may have also happened, hence setting up a vicious cycle. Overall, diet supplementation with EVOO or SOe attenuated hypercholesterolemia-induced increase in MDA and TNF-alpha in Wistar rat hearts. This is attributed to phenolic compounds either naturally existing in olive oil or as fortificants in seed oil.

Keywords: MDA, TNF-Alpha, extra virgin olive oil, polar phenolics, hypercholesterolemic rats

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1 [Keynote Talk]: Bioactive Cyclic Dipeptides of Microbial Origin in Discovery of Cytokine Inhibitors

Authors: Sajeli A. Begum, Ameer Basha, Kirti Hira, Rukaiyya Khan

Abstract:

Cyclic dipeptides are simple diketopiperazine derivatives being investigated by several scientists for their biological effects which include anticancer, antimicrobial, haematological, anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory effect, etc. They are potentially active microbial metabolites having been synthesized too, for developing into drug candidates. Cultures of Pseudomonas species have earlier been reported to produce cyclic dipeptides, helping in quorum sensing signals and bacterial–host colonization phenomena during infections, causing cell anti-proliferation and immunosuppression. Fluorescing Pseudomonas species have been identified to secrete lipid derivatives, peptides, pyrroles, phenazines, indoles, aminoacids, pterines, pseudomonic acids and some antibiotics. In the present work, results of investigation on the cyclic dipeptide metabolites secreted by the culture broth of Pseudomonas species as potent pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors are discussed. The bacterial strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of groundnut crop and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank Accession No. KT625586). Culture broth of this strain was prepared by inoculating into King’s B broth and incubating at 30 ºC for 7 days. The ethyl acetate extract of culture broth was prepared and lyophilized to get a dry residue (EEPA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ELISA assay proved the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in culture supernatant of RAW 264.7 cells by EEPA (IC50 38.8 μg/mL). The effect of oral administration of EEPA on plasma TNF-α level in rats was tested by ELISA kit. The LPS mediated plasma TNF-α level was reduced to 45% with 125 mg/kg dose of EEPA. Isolation of the chemical constituents of EEPA through column chromatography yielded ten cyclic dipeptides, which were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. These cyclic dipeptides are biosynthesized in microorganisms by multifunctional assembly of non-ribosomal peptide synthases and cyclic dipeptide synthase. Cyclo (Gly-L-Pro) was found to be more potentially (IC50 value 4.5 μg/mL) inhibiting TNF-α production followed by cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (IC50 value 14.2 μg/mL) and the effect was equal to that of standard immunosuppressant drug, prednisolone. Further, the effect was analyzed by determining mRNA expression of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. EEPA and isolated cyclic dipeptides demonstrated diminution of TNF-α mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner under the tested conditions. Also, they were found to control the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6, when tested through their mRNA expression levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages under LPS-stimulated conditions. In addition, significant inhibition effect was found on Nitric oxide production. Further all the compounds exhibited weak toxicity to LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Thus the outcome of the study disclosed the effectiveness of EEPA and the isolated cyclic dipeptides in down-regulating key cytokines involved in pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.In another study led by the investigators, microbial cyclic dipeptides were found to exhibit excellent antimicrobial effect against Fusarium moniliforme which is an important causative agent of Sorghum grain mold disease. Thus, cyclic dipeptides are emerging small molecular drug candidates for various autoimmune diseases.

Keywords: Cytokines, Pseudomonas, TNF-Alpha, cyclic dipeptides, Fusarium moniliforme

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