Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

TNF-α Related Abstracts

4 Mistletoe Supplementation and Exercise Training on IL-1β and TNF-α Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi


Introduction: Plyometric training (PT) is popular among individuals involved in dynamic sports, and is executed with a goal to improve muscular performance. Cytokines are considered as immunoregulatory molecules for regulation of immune function and other body responses. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α andIL-1β, have been reported to be increased during and after exercises. If some of the cytokines which cause responses such as inflammation of cells in skeletal muscles, with manipulating of training program or optimizing nutrition, it can be avoided or limited from those injuries caused by cytokines release. Its shows that mistletoe extracts show immune-modulating effects. Materials and methods: present study was to investigate the effect of six weeks PT with or without mistletoe supplementation (MS)(10 mg/kg) on cytokine responses and performance in male basketball players. This study is semi-experimental. Statistic society of this study was basketball player’s male students of Mahmoud Abad city. Statistic samples are concluded of 32 basketball players with an age range of 14–17 years was selected from randomly. Selection of samples in four groups of 8 individuals Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (E, n=16) that performed plyometric exercises with (n=8) or without (n=8) MS, or a control group that rested (C, n=16) with (n=8) or without (n=8) MS. Plants were collected in June from the Mazandaran forest in north of Iran. Then they dried in exposure to air without any exposition to sunlight, on a clean textile. For better drying the plants were high and down until they lost their water. Each subject consumed 10 mg/kg/day of extract for six weeks of intervention. Pre and post-testing was performed in the afternoon of the same day. Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from the intermediate cubital vein of the subjects. Serum concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis was performed using pretest to posttest changes that assessed by t-test for paired samples. After the last plyometric training program, the second blood samples were in the next day. Group differences at baseline were evaluated using One-way ANOVA (post-hock Tukey) test is used for analysis and comparison of three group’s variables. Results: PT with or without MS improved the one repetition maximum leg and chest press, Sargeant test and power in RAST (P < 0.05). However there were no statistically significant differences between groups in Vo2max measures (P > 0.05). PT resulted in a significant increase in plasma IL-1β concentration from 1.08±0.4 mg/ml in pre-training to 1.68±0.18 mg/ml in post-training (P=0.006). While the MS significantly decreased the training-induced increment of IL-1β (P=0.007). In contrast, neither PT nor MS had any effect on TNF-α levels (P > 0.05). Discussion: The results of this investigation indicate that PT improved muscular performance and increases the IL-1β concentration. Increasing of IL-1β after exercise in damaged skeletal muscle has shown of the role of this cytokine in inflammation processes and damaged skeletal muscle repair. However mistletoe supplementation ameliorates the increment of IL-1β levels, indicating the beneficial effect of mistletoe on immune response following plyometric training.

Keywords: training, IL-1β, mistletoe supplementation, TNF-α

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3 Curative Effect of Blumea lacera Leaves on Experimental Haemorrhoids in Rats

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Tarkewshwar Dubey, Hemalatha Siva


Hemorrhoids are one of the most common anorectal diseases around the world. Severalfactors are involved in causing hemorrhoids including irregularbowel function (constipation, diarrhea), exercise, gravity, low fiberdiet, pregnancy, obesity, high abdominal pressure, prolongedsitting, genetic factors, and aging. Pain, bleeding, itching,swelling and anal discharge are the symptoms of the disease. Due to limitedmodern pharmacotherapeutic options available for treatment, theherbal medicines remain the choice of therapy. Blumea lacera (Burm f.) DC. belonging to the Asteraceae family is a common plain land weed of Bangladesh. Traditionally it has been used for treatment of hemorrhoids.Considering the above fact, present study was aimed to validate the ethnomedicinal use of B. lacera leaves on experimental hemorrhoids in rats. The anti-hemorrhoid activity was performed by using croton oil induced rat models. The parameters studied were assessment of TNF-α and IL-6, Evans blue exudation, macroscopic severity score, recto-anal coefficient, histomorphological scores. Also, in vivo antioxidant parameters and histopathological studies were also performed. All paramaters exhibited significant anti-hemorrhoid activity. Moreover ethanolic extract of B. lacera (EBL) leaves 400mg/kg showed ameliorative effect oncroton oil induced hemorrhoids.In conclusion, EBL exhibitedbeneficial effect on croton oil- induced hemorrhoids and validates its ethnomedicinal use in treatment of piles.

Keywords: Piles, IL-6, TNF-α, haemorrhoids

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2 Association between TNF-α and Its Receptor TNFRSF1B Polymorphism with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia Federation

Authors: K. A. Gladkova, N. P. Babushkina, E. Y. Bragina


Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is clear that the immune response to M. tuberculosis infection is a relationship between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in which Tumour Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) plays key roles as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. TNF-α involved in various cell immune responses via binding to its two types of membrane-bound receptors, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B. Importantly, some variants of the TNFRSF1B gene have been considered as possible markers of host susceptibility to TB. However, the possible impact of such TNF-α and its receptor genes polymorphism on TB cases in Tomsk is missing. Thus, the purpose of our study was to investigate polymorphism of TNF-α (rs1800629) and its receptor TNFRSF1B (rs652625 and rs525891) genes in population of Tomsk and to evaluate their possible association with the development of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: The population distribution features of genes polymorphisms were investigated and made case-control study based on group of people from Tomsk. Human blood was collected during routine patients examination at Tomsk Regional TB Dispensary. Altogether, 234 TB-positive patients (80 women, 154 men, average age is 28 years old) and 205 health-controls (153 women, 52 men, average age is 47 years old) were investigated. DNA was extracted from blood plasma by phenol-chloroform method. Genotyping was carried out by a single-nucleotide-specific real-time PCR assay. Results: First, interpopulational comparison was carried out between healthy individuals from Tomsk and available data from the 1000 Genomes project. It was found that polymorphism rs1800629 region demonstrated that Tomsk population was significantly different from Japanese (P = 0.0007), but it was similar with the following Europeans subpopulations: Italians (P = 0.052), Finns (P = 0.124) and British (P = 0.910). Polymorphism rs525891 clear demonstrated that group from Tomsk was significantly different from population of South Africa (P = 0.019). However, rs652625 demonstrated significant differences from Asian population: Chinese (P = 0.03) and Japanese (P = 0.004). Next, we have compared healthy individuals versus patients with TB. It was detected that no association between rs1800629, rs652625 polymorphisms, and positive TB cases. Importantly, AT genotype of polymorphism rs525891 was significantly associated with resistance to TB (odds ratio (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the polymorphism of TNFRSF1B (rs525891) was associated with TB, while genotype AT is protective [OR = 0.61] in Tomsk population. In contrast, no significant correlation was detected between polymorphism TNF-α (rs1800629) and TNFRSF1B (rs652625) genes and alveolar TB cases among population of Tomsk. In conclusion, our data expands the molecular particularities associated with TB. The study was supported by the grant of the Russia for Basic Research #15-04-05852.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Polymorphism, TNF-α, TNFRSF1B gene

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1 Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasomes by Helicobacter pylori Infection in Innate Cellular Model and Its Correlation to IL-1β Production

Authors: Islam Nowisser, Noha Farag, Mohamed El Azizi


Helicobacter pylori is a highly important human pathogen which inhabits about 50% of the population worldwide. Infection with this bacteria is very hard to treat, with high probability of recurrence. H. pylori causes severe gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastric cancer, which has been linked to chronic inflammation. The infection has been reported to be associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β and TNF-α. The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori activates NLRP3 inflammasome and its contribution to Il-1 β production in an innate cellular model. H. pylori PMSS1 and G27 standard strains, as well as the PMSS1 isogenic mutant strain PMSS1ΔVacA and G27ΔVacA, G27ΔCagA in addition to clinical isolates obtained from biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis patients, were used to establish infection in RAW-264.7 macrophages. The production levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was assessed using ELISA. Since expression of these cytokines is often regulated by the transcription factor complex, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the activation of NF-κB in H. pylori infected cells was also evaluated by luciferase assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from bacterial cultures of H. pylori clinical isolates as well as the standard strains and their corresponding mutants, where they were evaluated for the cagA pathogenicity island and vacA expression. The correlation between these findings and expression of the cagA Pathogenicity Island and vacA in the bacteria was also investigated. The results showed IL-1β, and TNF-α production significantly increased in raw macrophages following H. pylori infection. The cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains induced significant production of IL-1β compared to cagA- and vacA- strains. The activation pattern of NF-κB was correlated in the isolates to their cagA and vacA expression profiles. A similar finding could not be confirmed for TNF-α production. Our study shows the ability of H. pylori to activate NF-kB and induce significant IL-1β production as a possible mechanism for the augmented inflammatory response seen in subjects infected with cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains that would lead to the progression to more severe form of the disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, IL-1β, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor KB

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