Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

TLD Related Abstracts

10 PET/CT Patient Dosage Assay

Authors: A. Beril Tuğrul, Gulten Yilmaz, Mustafa Demir, Dogan Yasar, Bayram Demir, Bulent Buyuk

Abstract:

A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radioisotope imaging technique that illustrates the organs and the metabolisms of the human body. This technique is based on the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation photons, annihilated as a result of electrons annihilating positrons that radiate from positron-emitting radioisotopes that enter biological active molecules in the body. This study was conducted on ten patients in an effort to conduct patient-related experimental studies. Dosage monitoring for the bladder, which was the organ that received the highest dose during PET applications, was conducted for 24 hours. Assessment based on measuring urination activities after injecting patients was also a part of this study. The MIRD method was used to conduct dosage calculations for results obtained from experimental studies. Results obtained experimentally and theoretically were assessed comparatively.

Keywords: PET/CT, TLD, MIRD, dose measurement, patient doses

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9 Status of Radiation Protection at Radiation Oncology, BPKM Cancer Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Surendra B. Chand, P. P. Chaurasia, M. P. Adhikari, R. N. Yadav

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate all the safety procedures toward the radiation protection for workers in the radiation oncology department. Materials and Methods: The annual thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) reports for five years of the staffs were evaluated, radiation surveys were done in the control consoles, radiotherapy machines room and waiting areas of all machines using Aloka survey meter. Results: The five years TLD reports shows that the whole body dose of the individual staffs is found within the annual dose limit except the accidental exposures. Radiation exposures in the working areas are also safe limits. Conclusion: The radiation safety practices for radiation protection are satisfactory and the radiation workers of the departments are found working within the safe limit.

Keywords: Safety, Radiation Protection, TLD, ICRP, dose limits, radiation devices

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8 Experimental Analysis of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) for High Raised Structures

Authors: Arash Sohrabi, Mohamad Saberi

Abstract:

Tuned liquid damper is one the passive structural control ways which has been used since mid-1980 decade for seismic control in civil engineering. This system is made of one or many tanks filled with fluid, mostly water that installed on top of the high raised structure and used to prevent structure vibration. In this article, we will show how to make seismic table contain TLD system and analysis the result of using this system in our structure. Results imply that when frequency ratio approaches 1 this system can perform its best in both dissipate energy and increasing structural damping. And also results of these serial experiments are proved compatible with Hunzer linear theory behaviour.

Keywords: TLD, seismic table, structural system, Hunzer linear behaviour

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7 Experimental Analysis of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) with Embossments Subject to Random Excitation

Authors: Arash Sohrabi, Mohamad Saberi

Abstract:

Tuned liquid damper is one the passive structural control ways which has been used since mid-1980 decade for seismic control in civil engineering. This system is made of one or many tanks filled with fluid, mostly water that installed on top of the high raised structure and used to prevent structure vibration. In this article we will show how to make seismic table contain TLD system and analysis the result of using this system in our structure. Results imply that when frequency ratio approaches 1 this system can perform its best in both dissipate energy and increasing structural damping. And also results of these serial experiments are proved compatible with Hunzer linear theory behaviour.

Keywords: TLD, seismic table, structural system, Hunzer linear behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
6 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif

Abstract:

This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: Non-Destructive Testing, Radiation Medicine, TLD, public hospital

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
5 Reduction of the Risk of Secondary Cancer Induction Using VMAT for Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Jalil Ur Rehman, Ramesh C, Tailor, Isa Khan, Jahanzeeb Ashraf, Geofferry S. Ibbott

Abstract:

The purpose of this analysis is to estimate secondary cancer risks after VMAT compared to other modalities of head and neck radiotherapy (IMRT, 3DCRT). Computer tomography (CT) scans of Radiological Physics Center (RPC) head and neck phantom were acquired with CT scanner and exported via DICOM to the treatment planning system (TPS). Treatment planning was done using four arc (182-178 and 180-184, clockwise and anticlockwise) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) , Nine fields (200, 240, 280, 320,0,40,80,120 and 160), which has been commonly used at MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and four fields for three dimensional radiation therapy (3DCRT) were used. True beam linear accelerator of 6MV photon energy was used for dose delivery, and dose calculation was done with CC convolution algorithm with prescription dose of 6.6 Gy. Primary Target Volume (PTV) coverage, mean and maximal doses, DVHs and volumes receiving more than 2 Gy and 3.8 Gy of OARs were calculated and compared. Absolute point dose and planar dose were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic EBT2 film, respectively. Quality Assurance of VMAT and IMRT were performed by using ArcCHECK method with gamma index criteria of 3%/3mm dose difference to distance to agreement (DD/DTA). PTV coverage was found 90.80 %, 95.80 % and 95.82 % for 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT respectively. VMAT delivered the lowest maximal doses to esophagus (2.3 Gy), brain (4.0 Gy) and thyroid (2.3 Gy) compared to all other studied techniques. In comparison, maximal doses for 3DCRT were found higher than VMAT for all studied OARs. Whereas, IMRT delivered maximal higher doses 26%, 5% and 26% for esophagus, normal brain and thyroid, respectively, compared to VMAT. It was noted that esophagus volume receiving more than 2 Gy was 3.6 % for VMAT, 23.6 % for IMRT and up to 100 % for 3DCRT. Good agreement was observed between measured doses and those calculated with TPS. The averages relative standard errors (RSE) of three deliveries within eight TLD capsule locations were, 0.9%, 0.8% and 0.6% for 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT, respectively. The gamma analysis for all plans met the ±5%/3 mm criteria (over 90% passed) and results of QA were greater than 98%. The calculations for maximal doses and volumes of OARs suggest that the estimated risk of secondary cancer induction after VMAT is considerably lower than IMRT and 3DCRT.

Keywords: TLD, IMRT, VMAT, RPC, EBT2 film

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
4 Dosimetric Comparison among Different Head and Neck Radiotherapy Techniques Using PRESAGE™ Dosimeter

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Isa Khan, Jalil Ur Rehman, Geofferry S. Ibbott, Ramesh C. Tailor, Jahnzeeb Ashraf

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to investigate dose distribution of different techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT) of head and neck cancer using 3-dimensional dosimeter called PRESAGETM Dosimeter. Materials and Methods: Computer tomography (CT) scans of radiological physics center (RPC) head and neck anthropomorphic phantom with both RPC standard insert and PRESAGETM insert were acquired separated with Philipp’s CT scanner and both CT scans were exported via DICOM to the Pinnacle version 9.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Each plan was delivered twice to the RPC phantom first containing the RPC standard insert having TLD and film dosimeters and then again containing the Presage insert having 3-D dosimeter (PRESAGETM) by using a Varian True Beam linear accelerator. After irradiation, the standard insert including point dose measurements (TLD) and planar Gafchromic® EBT film measurement were read using RPC standard procedure. The 3D dose distribution from PRESAGETM was read out with the Duke Midsized optical scanner dedicated to RPC (DMOS-RPC). Dose volume histogram (DVH), mean and maximal doses for organs at risk were calculated and compared among each head and neck technique. The prescription dose was same for all head and neck radiotherapy techniques which was 6.60 Gy/friction. Beam profile comparison and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreements among film measurement, PRESAGETM measurement and calculated dose distribution. Quality assurances of all plans were performed by using ArcCHECK method. Results: VMAT delivered the lowest mean and maximum doses to organ at risk (spinal cord, parotid) than IMRT and 3DCRT. Such dose distribution was verified by absolute dose distribution using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The central axial, sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated using 2D gamma map criteria(± 5%/3 mm) and results were 99.82% (axial), 99.78% (sagital), 98.38% (coronal) for VMAT plan and found the agreement between PRESAGE and pinnacle was better than IMRT and 3D-CRT plan excludes a 7 mm rim at the edge of the dosimeter. Profile showed good agreement for all plans between film, PRESAGE and pinnacle and 3D gamma was performed for PTV and OARs, VMAT and 3DCRT endow with better agreement than IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT delivered lowered mean and maximal doses to organs at risk and better PTV coverage during head and neck radiotherapy. TLD, EBT film and PRESAGETM dosimeters suggest that VMAT was better for the treatment of head and neck cancer than IMRT and 3D-CRT.

Keywords: TLD, IMRT, VMAT, RPC, EBT2 film, PRESAGETM

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3 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: M. Sadeghi, R. Faghihi, M. Zehtabian, S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, E. Zamani

Abstract:

Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: TLD, entrance skin dose, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2 A Comparison of TLD Measurements to MIRD Estimates of the Dose to the Ovaries and Uterus from Tc-99m in Liver

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh

Abstract:

Relation to high absorption fraction of Tc SESTAMIBI by internal organs in heart scan, and these organs are near to generation organs (Ovaries and uterus). In this study, Liver is specified as source organ. Method: we have set amount of absorbed fraction radiopharmaceutical in position of Liver in RANDO-phantom in form of elliptical surfaces, then absorbed dose to ovaries and uterus measured by TLD-100 that had set at position of these organs in RANDO-phantom. Calculation had done by MIRD method. Results from direct measurement and MIRD method are too similar. The absorbed dose to uterus and ovaries for Rest are 26.05µGyMBq-1, 17.23µGyMBq-1 and for Stress are 2.04µGyMBq-1, 1.35µGyMBq-1 respectively.

Keywords: TLD, MIRD, absorbed dose, RANDO-phantom, Tc-99m

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1 Determining the Effectiveness of Radiation Shielding and Safe Time for Radiation Worker by Employing Monitoring of Accumulation Dose in the Operator Room of CT Scan

Authors: Risalatul Latifah, Bunawas Bunawas, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Anggraini D. Sensusiati

Abstract:

Along with the increasing frequency of the use of CT-Scan for radiodiagnostics purposes, it is necessary to study radiation protection. This study examined aspects of radiation protection of workers. This study tried using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for evaluating radiation shielding and estimating safe time for workers during CT Scan examination. Six TLDs were placed on door, wall, and window inside and outside of the CT Scan room for 1 month. By using TLD monitoring, it could be seen how much radiation was exposed in the operator room. The results showed the effective dose at door, window, and wall was respectively 0.04 mSv, 0.05 mSv, and 0.04 mSv. With these values, it could be evaluated the effectiveness of radiation shielding on doors, glass and walls were respectively 90.6%, 95.5%, and 92.2%. By applying the dose constraint and the estimation of the accumulated dose for one month, radiation workers were still safe to perform the irradiation for 180 patients.

Keywords: TLD, CT scan room, radiation worker, dose constraint

Procedia PDF Downloads 152