Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Titanium Related Abstracts

25 Catalytic Activity Study of Fe, Ti Loaded TUD-1

Authors: Supakorn Tantisriyanurak, Hussaya Maneesuwan, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Sujitra Wongkasemjit


TUD-1 is a siliceous mesoporous material with a three-dimensional amorphous structure of random, interconnecting pores, large pore size, high surface area (400-1000 m2/g), hydrothermal stability, and tunable porosity. However, the significant disadvantage of the mesoporous silicates is few catalytic active sites. In this work, a series of bimetallic Fe and Ti incorporated into TUD-1 framework is successfully synthesized by sol–gel method. The synthesized Fe,Ti-TUD-1 is characterized by various techniques. To study the catalytic activity of Fe, Ti–TUD-1, phenol hydroxylation was selected as a model reaction. The amounts of residual phenol and oxidation products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-detector (HPLC-UV).

Keywords: Titanium, Iron, phenol hydroxylation, TUD-1

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24 Synthesis of Bimetallic Ti-Fe-SBA-15 Using Silatrane

Authors: Ratchadaporn Kaewmuang, Hussaya Maneesuwan, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Sujitra Wongkasemjit


Mesoporous materials have been used in many applications, such as adsorbent and catalyst. SBA-15, a 2D hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica material, has not only high specific surface area, but also thicker wall, larger pore size, better hydrothermal stability, and mechanical properties than M41s. However, pure SBA-15 still lacks of redox properties. Therefore, bimetallic incorporation into framework is of interest since it can create new active sites. In this work, Ti-Fe-SBA-15 is studied and successfully synthesized via sol-gel process, using silatrane, FeCl3, and titanium (VI) isopropoxide as silica, iron, and titanium sources, respectively. The products are characterized by SAXD, FE-SEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption, DR-UV, and XRF.

Keywords: Titanium, Iron, SBA-15, mesoporous silica, bimetallic, silatrane

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23 An Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Machining of Pure Titanium Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Jatinder Kumar


Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. There is a considerable lack of research on its application to the cost-effective machining of tough materials such as titanium. In this investigation, the application of USM process for machining of titanium (ASTM Grade-I) has been explored. Experiments have been conducted to assess the effect of different parameters of USM process on machining rate and tool wear rate as response characteristics. The process parameters that were included in this study are: abrasive grit size, tool material and power rating of the ultrasonic machine. It has been concluded that titanium is fairly machinable with USM process. Significant improvement in the machining rate can be realized by manipulating the process parameters and obtaining the optimum combination of these parameters.

Keywords: Titanium, abrasive grit size, tool material, ultrasonic machining

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22 Effect of Hot Equal Channel Angular Pressing Process on Mechanical Properties of Commercial Pure Titanium

Authors: Seyed Ata Khalkhkali Sharifi, Gholamhossein Majzoubi, Farhad Abroush


Developing mechanical properties of pure titanium has been reviewed in this paper by using ECAP process. At the first step of this article, the experimental samples were prepared as mentioned in the standards. Then pure grade 2 Ti was processed via equal-channel angular pressing (ECAp) for 2 passes following route-A at 400°C. After processing, the microstructural evolution, tensile, fatigue, hardness properties and wear behavior were investigated. Finally, the effect of ECAP process on these samples was analyzed. The results showed improvement in strength values with a slight decrease in ductility. The analysis on 30 points within the sample showed hardness increase in each pass. Also, it was concluded that fatigue properties were increased too.

Keywords: Titanium, Mechanical Behavior, equal-channel angular pressing, engineering materials and applications

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21 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen


Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: Biomimetic, Protein, Titanium, Calcium Phosphate Coating

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20 Mechanical Properties of ECAP-Biomedical Titanium Materials: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee


The wide use of titanium (Ti) materials in medicine gives impetus to a search for development new techniques with elevated properties such as strength, corrosion resistance and Young's modulus close to that of bone tissue. This article presents the most recent state of the art on the use of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique in evolving mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained bio-grade Ti materials. Over past few decades, research activities in this area have grown enormously and have produced interesting results, including achieving the combination of conflicting properties that are desirable for biomedical applications by severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing. A comprehensive review of the most recent work in this area is systematically presented. The challenges in processing ultrafine-grained Ti materials are identified and discussed. An overview of the biomedical Ti alloys processed with ECAP technique is given in this review, along with a summary of their effect on the important mechanical properties that can be achieved by SPD processing. The paper also offers insights in the mechanisms underlying SPD.

Keywords: Biomedical Applications, Titanium, Mechanical Properties, ECAP

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19 On the Effect of Carbon on the Efficiency of Titanium as a Hydrogen Storage Material

Authors: Ghazi R. Reda Mahmoud Reda


Among the metal that forms hydride´s, Mg and Ti are known as the most lightweight materials; however, they are covered with a passive layer of oxides and hydroxides and require activation treatment under high temperature ( > 300 C ) and hydrogen pressure ( > 3 MPa) before being used for storage and transport applications. It is well known that small graphite addition to Ti or Mg, lead to a dramatic change in the kinetics of mechanically induced hydrogen sorption ( uptake) and significantly stimulate the Ti-Hydrogen interaction. Many explanations were given by different authors to explain the effect of graphite addition on the performance of Ti as material for hydrogen storage. Not only graphite but also the addition of a polycyclic aromatic compound will also improve the hydrogen absorption kinetics. It will be shown that the function of carbon addition is two-fold. First carbon acts as a vacuum cleaner, which scavenges out all the interstitial oxygen that can poison or slow down hydrogen absorption. It is also important to note that oxygen favors the chemisorption of hydrogen, which is not desirable for hydrogen storage. Second, during scavenging of the interstitial oxygen, the carbon reacts with oxygen in the nano and microchannel through a highly exothermic reaction to produce carbon dioxide and monoxide which provide the necessary heat for activation and thus in the presence of carbon lower heat of activation for hydrogen absorption which is observed experimentally. Furthermore, the product of the reaction of hydrogen with the carbon oxide will produce water which due to ball milling hydrolyze to produce the linear H5O2 + this will reconstruct the primary structure of the nanocarbon to form secondary structure, where the primary structure (a sheet of carbon) are connected through hydrogen bonding. It is the space between these sheets where physisorption or defect mediated sorption occurs.

Keywords: Titanium, Phase Diagram, metal forming hydrides, polar molecule impurities, hydrogen absorption

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18 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: Fatigue, Titanium, Aluminum, vanadium, grain refinement, titanium+boron

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17 Plasma Spray Deposition of Bio-Active Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

Authors: Renu Kumari, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar


In the present study, composite coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) + 50 wt% TiO2 has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition technique. Followed by plasma spray deposition, detailed surface roughness and microstructural characterization were carried out by using optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The composition and phase analysis were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, respectively. The bio-activity behavior of the uncoated and coated samples was also compared by dipping test in Hank’s solution. The average surface roughness of the coating was 10 µm (as compared to 0.5 µm of as-received Ti-6Al-4V substrate) with the presence of porosities. The microstructure of the coating was found to be continuous with the presence of solidified splats. A detailed XRD analysis shows phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile, decomposition of hydroxyapatite, and formation of CaTiO3 phase. Standard dipping test confirmed a faster kinetics of deposition of calcium phosphate in the coated HA+50% wt.% TiO2 surface as compared to the as-received substrate.

Keywords: Microstructure, Titanium, TiO2, hydroxyapatite, plasma spraying, bio-activity

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16 Silver-Doped Magnetite Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants

Authors: Hanna Abbo, Siyasanga Noganta, Salam Titinchi


The global lack of clean water for human sanitation and other purposes has become an emerging dilemma for human beings. The presence of organic pollutants in wastewater produced by textile industries, leather manufacturing and chemical industries is an alarming matter for a safe environment and human health. For the last decades, conventional methods have been applied for the purification of water but due to industrialization these methods fall short. Advanced oxidation processes and their reliable application in degradation of many contaminants have been reported as a potential method to reduce and/or alleviate this problem. Lately it has been assumed that incorporation of some metal nanoparticles such as magnetite nanoparticles as photocatalyst for Fenton reaction which could improve the degradation efficiency of contaminants. Core/shell nanoparticles, are extensively studied because of their wide applications in the biomedical, drug delivery, electronics fields and water treatment. The current study is centred on the synthesis of silver-doped Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst. Magnetically separable [email protected]@TiO2 composite with core–shell structure were synthesized by the deposition of uniform anatase TiO2 NPs on [email protected] by using titanium butoxide (TBOT) as titanium source. Then, the silver is doped on SiO2 layer by hydrothermal method. Integration of magnetic nanoparticles was suggested to avoid the post separation difficulties associated with the powder form of the TiO2 catalyst, increase of the surface area and adsorption properties. The morphology, structure, composition, and magnetism of the resulting composites were characterized and their photocatalytic activities were also evaluated. The results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs were uniformly deposited on the [email protected] surface. The silver nanoparticles were also uniformly distributed on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The aim of this work is to study the suitability of photocatalysis for the treatment of aqueous streams containing organic pollutants such as methylene blue which is selected as a model compound to represent one of the pollutants existing in wastewaters. Various factors such as initial pollutant concentration, photocatalyst dose and wastewater matrix were studied for their effect on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic model pollutants using the as synthesized catalysts and compared with the commercial titanium dioxide (Aeroxide P25). Photocatalysis was found to be a potential purification method for the studied pollutant also in an industrial wastewater matrix with the removal percentages of over 81 % within 15 minutes. Methylene blue was removed most efficiently and its removal consumed the least of energy in terms of the specific applied energy. The magnetic Ag/SiO2/TiO2 composites show high photocatalytic performance and can be recycled three times by magnetic separation without major loss of activity, which meant that they can be used as efficient and conveniently renewable photocatalyst.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Titanium, organic pollutant, magnetite nanoparticles, photocatalyst

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15 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun


This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: Titanium, Wear, Magnesium Alloy, SEM

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14 Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process and Its Influence on the Machinability of TA6V Alloy

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud


Titanium alloys are among the most important material in the aircraft industry, due to its low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance. However, these alloys are considered as difficult to machine because they have poor thermal properties and high reactivity with cutting tools. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process becomes even more popular through industry since it enables the design of new complex components, that cannot be manufactured by standard processes. However, the high temperature reached during the melting phase as well as the several rapid heating and cooling phases, due to the movement of the laser, induce complex microstructures. These microstructures differ from conventional equiaxed ones obtained by casting+forging. Parts obtained by SLM have to be machined in order calibrate the dimensions and the surface roughness of functional surfaces. The ball milling technique is widely applied to finish complex shapes. However, the machinability of titanium is strongly influenced by the microstructure. So the objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the SLM process, i.e. microstructure, on the machinability of titanium, compared to conventional forming processes. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, cutting forces, cutting tool wear for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut ap, feed per tooth fz, spindle speed N) in accordance with industrial practices.

Keywords: Microstructure, Titanium, surface roughness, ball milling

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13 TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud


Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.

Keywords: Titanium, Wear, Selective Laser Melting, surface roughness, ball milling

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12 Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.

Keywords: Impurities, Titanium, rutile, chlorination process, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage

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11 Effect of Strains and Temperature on the Twinning Behavior of High Purity Titanium Compressed by Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

Authors: Ping Zhou, Dawu Xiao, Chunli Jiang, Ge Sang


Deformation twinning plays an important role in the mechanical properties of Ti which has high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance ability. To investigate the twinning behavior of Ti under high strain rate compression, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to deform samples to different strains at room temperature. In addition, twinning behaviors under varied temperatures of 373K, 573K and 873K were also investigated. The cylindrical-shaped samples with purity 99.995% were annealed at 1073K for 1 hour in vacuum before compression. All the deformation twins were identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The mechanical behavior showed three-stage work hardening in stress-strain curves for samples deformed at temperature 573K and 873K, while only two stages were observed for those deformed at room temperature. For samples compressed at room temperature, the predominant twin types are {10-12}<10-11> (E1), {11-21}<11-26> (E2) and {11-21}<11-23> (C1). The secondary and tertiary twinning was observed inside some E1, E2 and C1 twins. Most of the twin boundaries of E2 acted as the nucleate sites of E1. The densities of twins increase remarkably with increment of strains. For samples compressed at relatively higher temperatures, the migration of twin boundaries of E1, E2 and C1 was observed. All the twin lamellas shorten with temperature, and nearly disappeared at 873K except some remaining E1 twins. Polygonizations of grain boundaries were observed above 573K. The microstructure intended to have a texture with c-axes parallel to compression direction with temperature increment. Factors affecting the dynamic recovery and re-crystallization were discussed.

Keywords: Titanium, Mechanical Behavior, EBSD, deformation twins, high strain rate

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10 Effect of Zirconium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti on its Resistance to Wear: A Three-Dimensional Approach

Authors: S. M. A. Al-Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid


Aluminum and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their good and useful properties e.g. high strength to weight ratio, high thermal and electrical conductivities and good resistance to corrosion. However, against these favorable properties they have the disadvantage they solidifying large grain columnar structure which negatively affects their mechanical properties and surface quality. Aluminum alloys are normally grain refined by some alloying elements, such as Ti, Ti-B or Zr. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition to Al grain refined by Ti after extrusion on its wear resistance is investigated under different loads and sliding speeds namely at 5,10 and 20 N loads and sliding speeds ranging from m/min. and m/min. the results are presented in three-dimensional wear mode. To the best the authors' knowledge, the wear of aluminum in 3-dimensions has never been tackled before. In this work, the wear resistance of by presenting the results of wear are presented and discussed on the time, load and speed plots.

Keywords: Titanium, Wear Resistance, aluminum grain refined, addition of titanium

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9 Parametric Study and Modelling of Orthogonal Cutting Process for AISI 4340 and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah, Pawan Nagda, Vimal Jasoliya


The influence of parameters like velocity and depth of cut on cutting forces is investigated for the empirical relation of the coefficient of friction derived for CRS 1018 for different materials like AISI 4340 and Ti6Al4V. For this purpose, turning tests were carried out on the above materials using coated cemented carbide tool inserts for steel grade and uncoated cemented carbide cutting tool inserts for Titanium with different chip breaker geometries. The cutting forces were measured using a Kistler dynamometer where the multiplication factor taken is 200.The effect of cutting force variation was analyzed experimentally and are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: Titanium, cutting forces, coefficient of friction, carbide tool inserts

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8 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko


COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: Titanium, ECAP, rotary swaging, CONFORM

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7 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch


Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Titanium, MG-63 cell culture, space holder

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6 Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium

Authors: Jong-Min Park, Hyung-Ki Park, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)<0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.

Keywords: Titanium, induction melting, chemical stability, crucible

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5 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian


Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Titanium, Mechanical Properties, metal injection moulding

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4 Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.

Keywords: plasma, Hydrogen, Titanium, Reduction, thermodynamic calculation, TiCl₄

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3 Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu


In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.

Keywords: Composite, Titanium, Nickel, hot pressing

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2 Modification of Titanium Surfaces with Micro/Nanospheres for Local Antibiotic Release

Authors: Burcu Doymus, Fatma N. Kok, Sakip Onder


Titanium and titanium-based materials are commonly used to replace or regenerate the injured or lost tissues because of accidents or illnesses. Hospital infections and strong bond formation at the implant-tissue interface are directly affecting the success of the implantation as weak bonding with the native tissue and hospital infections lead to revision surgery. The purpose of the presented study is to modify the surface of the titanium substrates with nano/microspheres for local drug delivery and to prevent hospital infections. Firstly, titanium surfaces were silanized with APTES (3-Triethoxysilylpropylamine) following the negatively charged oxide layer formation. Then characterization studies using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were done on the modified surfaces. Secondly, microspheres/nanospheres were prepared with chitosan that is a natural polymer and having valuable properties such as non-toxicity, high biocompatibility, low allergen city and biodegradability for biomedical applications. Antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) loaded micro/nanospheres have been fabricated using emulsion cross-linking method and have been immobilized onto the titanium surfaces with different immobilization techniques such as covalent bond and entrapment. Optimization studies on size and drug loading capacities of micro/nanospheres were conducted before the immobilization process. Light microscopy and SEM were used to visualize and measure the size of the produced micro/nanospheres. Loaded and released drug amounts were determined by using UV- spectrophotometer at 278 nm. Finally, SEM analysis and drug release studies on the micro/nanospheres coated Ti surfaces were done. As a conclusion, it was shown that micro/nanospheres were immobilized onto the surfaces successfully and drug release from these surfaces was in a controlled manner. Moreover, the density of the micro/nanospheres after the drug release studies was higher on the surfaces where the entrapment technique was used for immobilization. Acknowledgement: This work is financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council Of Turkey (Project # 217M220)

Keywords: Nosocomial Infections, Titanium, chitosan, controlled drug release, nanosphere

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1 Investigation of Alumina Membrane Coated Titanium Implants on Osseointegration

Authors: Pinar Erturk, Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin


In order to obtain an effective integration between an implant and a bone, implant surfaces should have similar properties to bone tissue surfaces. Especially mimicry of the chemical, mechanical and topographic properties of the implant to the bone is crucial for fast and effective osseointegration. Titanium-based biomaterials are more preferred in clinical use, and there are studies of coating these implants with oxide layers that have chemical/nanotopographic properties stimulating cell interactions for enhanced osseointegration. There are low success rates of current implantations, especially in craniofacial implant applications, which are large and vital zones, and the oxide layer coating increases bone-implant integration providing long-lasting implants without requiring revision surgery. Our aim in this study is to examine bone-cell behavior on titanium implants with an aluminum oxide layer (AAO) on effective osseointegration potential in the deformation of large zones with difficult spontaneous healing. In our study, aluminum layer coated titanium surfaces were anodized in sulfuric, phosphoric, and oxalic acid, which are the most common used AAO anodization electrolytes. After morphologic, chemical, and mechanical tests on AAO coated Ti substrates, viability, adhesion, and mineralization of adult bone cells on these substrates were analyzed. Besides with atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a sensitive and conformal technique, these surfaces were coated with pure alumina (5 nm); thus, cell studies were performed on ALD-coated nanoporous oxide layers with suppressed ionic content too. Lastly, in order to investigate the effect of the topography on the cell behavior, flat non-porous alumina layers on silicon wafers formed by ALD were compared with the porous ones. Cell viability ratio was similar between anodized surfaces, but pure alumina coated titanium and anodized surfaces showed a higher viability ratio compared to bare titanium and bare anodized ones. Alumina coated titanium surfaces, which anodized in phosphoric acid, showed significantly different mineralization ratios after 21 days over other bare titanium and titanium surfaces which anodized in other electrolytes. Bare titanium was the second surface that had the highest mineralization ratio. Otherwise, titanium, which is anodized in oxalic acid electrolyte, demonstrated the lowest mineralization. No significant difference was shown between bare titanium and anodized surfaces except AAO titanium surface anodized in phosphoric acid. Currently, osteogenic activities of these cells on the genetic level are investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis results of RUNX-2, VEGF, OPG, and osteopontin genes. Also, as a result of the activities of the genes mentioned before, Western Blot will be used for protein detection. Acknowledgment: The project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey.

Keywords: Titanium, Osseointegration, alumina, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, craniofacial implant, MG-63 cell line

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