Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

titanium dioxide Related Abstracts

25 Investigation on Polymer Based Nano-Silver as Food Packaging Materials

Authors: A. M. Metak, T. T. Ajaal, Amal Metak, Tawfik Ajaal


Commercial nanocomposite food packaging type nano-silver containers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of nanoparticles consistent with the incorporation of 1% nano-silver (Ag) and 0.1% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle into polymeric materials formed into food containers was confirmed. Both nanomaterials used in this type of packaging appear to be embedded in a layered configuration within the bulk polymer. The dimensions of the incorporated nanoparticles were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and determined by calculation using the Scherrer Formula; these were consistent with Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in the size range 20-70nm both were spherical shape nanoparticles. Antimicrobial assessment of the nanocomposite container has also been performed and the results confirm the antimicrobial activity of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in food packaging containers. Migration assessments were performed in a wide range of food matrices to determine the migration of nanoparticles from the packages. The analysis was based on the relevant European safety directives and involved the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify the range of migration risk. The data pertain to insignificance levels of migration of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles into the selected food matrices.

Keywords: Migration, nano-silver, antimicrobial food packaging, titanium dioxide

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24 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik


In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic

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23 TiO2/Clay Minerals (Palygorskite/Halloysite) Nanocomposite Coatings for Water Disinfection

Authors: Dionisios Panagiotaras, Dimitrios Papoulis, Elias Stathatos


Microfibrous palygorskite and tubular halloysite clay mineral combined with nanocrystalline TiO2 are incorporating in the preparation of nanocomposite films on glass substrates via sol-gel route at 450 °C. The synthesis is employing nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with acetic acid-based sol-gel route without addition of water molecules. Drying and thermal treatment of composite films ensure elimination of organic material lead to the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the palygorskite or halloysite surfaces. Nanocomposite films without cracks of active anatase crystal phase on palygorskite and halloysite surfaces are characterized by microscopy techniques, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and porosimetry methods in order to examine their structural properties. The composite palygorskite-TiO2 and halloysite-TiO2 films with variable quantities of palygorskite and halloysite were tested as photocatalysts in the photo-oxidation of Basic Blue 41 azo dye in water. These nanocomposite films proved to be most promising photocatalysts and highly effective to dye’s decoloration in spite of small amount of palygorskite -TiO2 or halloysite- TiO2 catalyst immobilized onto glass substrates mainly due to the high surface area and uniform distribution of TiO2 on clay minerals avoiding aggregation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Halloysite, titanium dioxide, palygorskite

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22 Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles

Authors: Emi Govorčin Bajsića, Vesna Ocelić Bulatović, Miroslav Slouf, Ana Šitum


Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.

Keywords: Morphology, Thermal Properties, titanium dioxide, polycaprolactone

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21 Electrical Properties of Roystonea regia Fruit Extract as Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Adenike Boyo Olasunkanmi Kesinro, Henry Boyo, Surukite Oluwole


Utilizing solar energy in producing electricity can minimize environmental pollution generated by fossil fuel in producing electricity. Our research was base on the extraction of dye from Roystonea regia fruit by using methanol as solvent. The dye extracts were used as sensitizers in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Study was done on the electrical properties from the extracts of Roystonea regia fruit as Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). The absorptions of the extracts and extracts with dye were determined at different wavelengths (350-1000nm). Absorption peak was observed at 1.339 at wavelength 400nm. The obtained values for methanol extract Roystonea regia extract are, Imp = 0.015mA, Vmp = 12.0mV, fill factor = 0.763, Isc= 0.018 mA and Voc = 13.1 mV and efficiency of 0.32%. .The phytochemical screening was taken and it was observed that Roystonea regia extract contained less of anthocyanin compared to flavonoids. The nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) will provide economically credible alternative to present day silicon p–n junction photovoltaic.

Keywords: methanol, Ethanol, titanium dioxide, roystonea regia fruit, dye-sensitized solar cell

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20 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik


In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: Solar, titanium dioxide, phenol, photocatalytic

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19 Free and Encapsulated (TiO2)2 Dimers into Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: S. Dargouthi, S. Boughdiri, B. Tangour


This work invoked two complementary parts. In the first, we performed a theoretical study of various dimers of molecular of titanium dioxide. Five structures were examined. Three among them, the (T), (C) and (T/P) isomers, may be considered as stable compounds because they represent absolute minima on their potential energy surfaces. (T) and (C) may coexist because they are separted by only 6.5 kcal mol-1 but (T/P) dimer is in a metastable state from an energetic point of view. Non bonded dimer (P) transforms into its homologue (O) which has been considered as transitory specie with low lifetime which evolves to (T) structure. In the second part, we highlight the possible stabilization of (T), (C) and (P) dimers by encapsulation in carbon nanotubes. This indicates the probable role that plays this transitory specie the polymerization process of molecular TiO2. Confinement is suitable to control the fast evolution process and could towards the synthesis of new titanium dioxide nanostructured materials. An alternative description of TiO2 polymorphs (Rutie, anatase et Brookite) is proposed from (T), (C) and (T/P) dimmers motifs.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, titanium dioxide, confinement. encapsulation, transitory specie

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18 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi


In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, titanium dioxide, FTIR, band gap, APCVD

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17 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal


Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.

Keywords: Simulation, titanium dioxide, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor

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16 Doped TiO2 Thin Films Microstructural and Electrical Properties

Authors: Mantas Sriubas, Kristina Bockute, Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis


In this work, the doped TiO2 (dopants – Ca, Mg) was investigated. The comparison between the physical vapour deposition methods as electron beam vapour deposition and magnetron sputtering was performed and the structural and electrical properties of the formed thin films were investigated. Thin films were deposited on different type of substrates: SiO2, Alloy 600 (Fe-Ni-Cr) and Al2O3 substrates. The structural properties were investigated using Ambios XP-200 profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) Hitachi S-3400N, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS) Quad 5040 (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) D8 Discover (Bruker AXS GmbH) with glancing angles focusing geometry in a 20 – 70° range using the Cu Kα1 λ = 0.1540562 nm radiation). The impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed using Probostat® (NorECs AS) measurement cell in the frequency range from 10-1-106 Hz under reducing and oxidizing conditions in temperature range of 200 °C to 1200 °C. The investigation of the e-beam deposited Ca and Mg doped-TiO2 thin films shows that the thin films are dense without any visible pores and cavities and the thin films grow in zone T according Barna-Adamik SZM. Substrate temperature was kept 600 °C during the deposition and Ts/Tm ≈ 0.32 (substrate temperature (Ts) and coating material melting temperature (Tm)). The surface diffusion is high however, the grain boundary migration is strongly limited at this temperature. This means that structure is inhomogeneous and the columnar structure is mostly visible in the upper part of the films. According to XRD, the increasing of the Ca dopants’ concentration increases the crystallinity of the formed thin films and the crystallites size increase linearly and Ca dopants act as prohibitors. Thin films are comprised of anatase TiO2 phase with an exception of 2 % Ca doped TiO2, where a small peak of Ca arise. In the case of Mg doped-TiO2 the intensities of the XRD peaks decreases with increasing Mg molar concentration. It means that there are less diffraction planes of the particular orientation in thin films with higher impurities concentration. Thus, the crystallinity decreases with increasing Mg concentration and Mg dopants act as inhibitors. The impedance measurements show that the dopants changed the conductivity of the formed thin films. The conductivity varies from 10-3 S/cm to 10-4 S/cm at 800 °C under wet reducing conditions. The microstructure of the magnetron sputtered thin TiO2 films is different comparing to the thin films deposited using e-beam deposition therefore influencing other structural and electrical properties.

Keywords: Microstructure, Electrical Properties, titanium dioxide, electron beam deposition, magnetron sputtering

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15 Elaboration and Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Wided Zerguine, Farid Habelhames


The performance of photovoltaic devices with a light absorber consisting of a single-type conjugated polymer is poor, due to a low photo-generation yield of charge carriers, strong radiative recombination’s and low mobility of charge carriers. Recently, it has been shown that ultra-fast photoinduced charge transfer can also occur between a conjugated polymer and a metal oxide semiconductor such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5, etc. This has led to the fabrication of photovoltaic devices based on composites of oxide semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a conjugated polymer matrix. In this work, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved, mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM), and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/ PCBM film. The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

Keywords: Organic Nanostructures, titanium dioxide, conducting polymer, photocurrent density, hybrid coating

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14 Carboxyfullerene-Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Singlet Oxygen and Hydroxyl Radicals Scavenging Activity

Authors: Kai-Cheng Yang, Yen-Ling Chen, Er-Chieh Cho, Kuen-Chan Lee


Titanium dioxide nanomaterials offer superior protection for human skin against the full spectrum of ultraviolet light. However, some literature reviews indicated that it might be associated with adverse effects such as cytotoxicity or reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their nanoscale. The surface of fullerene is covered with π electrons constituting aromatic structures, which can effectively scavenge large amount of radicals. Unfortunately, fullerenes are poor solubility in water, severe aggregation, and toxicity in biological applications when dispersed in solvent have imposed the limitations to the use of fullerenes. Carboxyfullerene acts as the scavenger of radicals for several years. Some reports indicate that carboxyfullerene not only decrease the concentration of free radicals in ambience but also prevent cells from reducing the number or apoptosis under UV irradiation. The aim of this study is to decorate fullerene –C70-carboxylic acid (C70-COOH) on the surface of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (P25) for the purpose of scavenging ROS during the irradiation. The modified material is prepared through the esterification of C70-COOH with P25 (P25/C70-COOH). The binding edge and structure are studied by using Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The diameter of P25 is about 30 nm and C70-COOH is found to be conjugated on the edge of P25 in aggregation morphology with the size of ca. 100 nm. In the next step, the FTIR was used to confirm the binding structure between P25 and C70-COOH. There are two new peaks are shown at 1427 and 1720 cm-1 for P25/C70-COOH, resulting from the C–C stretch and C=O stretch formed during esterification with dilute sulfuric acid. The IR results further confirm the chemically bonded interaction between C70-COOH and P25. In order to provide the evidence of scavenging radical ability of P25/C70-COOH, we chose pyridoxine (Vit.B6) and terephthalic acid (TA) to react with singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. We utilized these chemicals to observe the radicals scavenging statement via detecting the intensity of ultraviolet adsorption or fluorescence emission. The UV spectra are measured by using different concentration of C70-COOH modified P25 with 1mM pyridoxine under UV irradiation for various duration times. The results revealed that the concentration of pyridoxine was increased when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH after three hours as compared with control (only P25). It indicates fewer radicals could be reacted with pyridoxine because of the absorption via P25/C70-COOH. The fluorescence spectra are observed by measuring P25/C70-COOH with 1mM terephthalic acid under UV irradiation for various duration times. The fluorescence intensity of TAOH was decreased in ten minutes when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH. Here, it was found that the fluorescence intensity was increased after thirty minutes, which could be attributed to the saturation of C70-COOH in the absorption of radicals. However, the results showed that the modified P25/C70-COOH could reduce the radicals in the environment. Therefore, we expect that P25/C70-COOH is a potential materials in using for antioxidant.

Keywords: Fullerene, titanium dioxide, antioxidant, radical scavenging activity

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13 Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Concrete Production Using Nano-Size Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh, Halla Elea, Lawrence Benzmiller


The objective of this research is to evaluate the possibility of using nano-sized materials, mainly titanium dioxide (TiO2), in producing economic self-cleaning concrete using photo-catalysis process. In photo-catalysis, the nano-particles react and dissolve smog, dust, and dirt particles in the presence of sunlight, resulting in a cleaned concrete surface. To-date, the Italian cement company (Italcementi) produces a proprietary self-cleaning cementitious material that is currently used in government buildings and major highways in Europe. The high initial cost of the proprietary product represents a major obstacle to the wide spread of the self-cleaning concrete in industrial and commercial projects. In this research project, titanium dioxide nano-sized particles are infused to the top layer of a concrete pour before the concrete surface is finished. Once hardened, a blue dye is applied to the concrete surface to simulate smog and dirt effect. The concrete surface is subjected to direct light to investigate the effectiveness of the nano-sized titanium dioxide in cleaning the concrete surface. The outcome of this research project proved that the titanium dioxide can be successfully used in reducing smog and dirt particles attached to the concrete when infused to the surface concrete layer. The majority of cleansing effect due to photocatalysis happens within 24 hours of photocatalysis process. The non-proprietary mix can be used in highway, industrial, and commercial projects due to its economy and ease of production.

Keywords: photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, self-cleaning concrete, Smog-eating concrete

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12 Preparation of Fe, Cr Codoped TiO2 Nanostructure for Phenol Removal from Wastewaters

Authors: N. Nowzari-Dalini, S. Sabbaghi


Phenol is a hazardous material found in many industrial wastewaters. Photocatalytic degradation and furthermore catalyst doping are promising techniques in purpose of effective phenol removal, which have been studied comprehensively in this decade. In this study, Fe, Cr codoped TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method, and its photocatalytic activity was investigated through degradation of phenol under visible light. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, BET, and EDX. The results showed that nanoparticles possess anatase phase, and the average size of nanoparticles was about 21 nm. Also, photocatalyst has significant surface area. Effect of experimental parameters such as pH, irradiation time, pollutant concentration, and catalyst concentration were investigated by using Design-Expert® software. 98% of phenol degradation was achieved after 6h of irradiation.

Keywords: Metals, Doping, wastewater, titanium dioxide, sol-gel

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11 One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Porous Microspheres by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Welding

Authors: Huiwu Yu, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng


Porous spheres have been widely used in many fields due to their attractive features. In this work, an approach for fabricating porous spheres of nanoparticles was presented, in which the nanoparticles were welded together to form micro spheres by simply irradiating the nanoparticles in liquid medium by a picosecond laser. As an example, anatase titanium dioxide was chosen as a typical material on account of its metastability. The structure and morphologies of the products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that, anatase titanium dioxide micro spheres (2-10 μm) with macroporous (10-100 nm) were prepared from nano-anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10-100 nm). The formation process of polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide microspheres was investigated with different liquid mediums and the input laser fluences. Thus, this facile laser irradiation approach might provide a way for the fabrication of porous microspheres without phase-transition.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, porous microspheres, picosecond laser, nano-welding

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10 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić


The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Composite, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, polypyrrole

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9 Photocatalytic Active Surface of LWSCC Architectural Concretes

Authors: P. Novosad, L. Osuska, M. Tazky, T. Tazky


Current trends in the building industry are oriented towards the reduction of maintenance costs and the ecological benefits of buildings or building materials. Surface treatment of building materials with photocatalytic active titanium dioxide added into concrete can offer a good solution in this context. Architectural concrete has one disadvantage – dust and fouling keep settling on its surface, diminishing its aesthetic value and increasing maintenance e costs. Concrete surface – silicate material with open porosity – fulfils the conditions of effective photocatalysis, in particular, the self-cleaning properties of surfaces. This modern material is advantageous in particular for direct finishing and architectural concrete applications. If photoactive titanium dioxide is part of the top layers of road concrete on busy roads and the facades of the buildings surrounding these roads, exhaust fumes can be degraded with the aid of sunshine; hence, environmental load will decrease. It is clear that options for removing pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx) must be found. Not only do these gases present a health risk, they also cause the degradation of the surfaces of concrete structures. The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide can in the long term contribute to the enhanced appearance of surface layers and eliminate harmful pollutants dispersed in the air, and facilitate the conversion of pollutants into less toxic forms (e.g., NOx to HNO3). This paper describes verification of the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide and presents the results of mechanical and physical tests on samples of architectural lightweight self-compacting concretes (LWSCC). The very essence of the use of LWSCC is their rheological ability to seep into otherwise extremely hard accessible or inaccessible construction areas, or sections thereof where concrete compacting will be a problem, or where vibration is completely excluded. They are also able to create a solid monolithic element with a large variety of shapes; the concrete will at the same meet the requirements of both chemical aggression and the influences of the surrounding environment. Due to their viscosity, LWSCCs are able to imprint the formwork elements into their structure and thus create high quality lightweight architectural concretes.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, photocatalytic concretes, architectural concretes, Lightweight Self-Compacting Concretes (LWSCC)

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8 Improved Visible Light Activities for Degrading Pollutants on ZnO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Decorated with C and Fe Nanoparticles

Authors: Yuvraj S. Malghe, Atul B. Lavand


In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic degradation processes have attracted a lot of attention and are used widely for the destruction of organic pollutants present in waste water. Among various semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its excellent chemical stability, non-toxicity, relatively low cost and high photo-oxidation power. It has been known that zinc oxide (ZnO) with band gap energy 3.2 eV is a suitable alternative to TiO2 due to its high quantum efficiency, however it corrodes in acidic medium. Unfortunately TiO2 and ZnO both are active only in UV light due to their wide band gaps. Sunlight consist about 5-7% UV light, 46% visible light and 47% infrared radiation. In order to utilize major portion of sunlight (visible spectrum), it is necessary to modify the band gap of TiO2 as well as ZnO. This can be done by several ways such as semiconductor coupling, doping the material with metals/non metals. Doping of TiO2 using transition metals like Fe, Co and non-metals such as N, C or S extends its absorption wavelengths from UV to visible region. In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite using reverse microemulsion method. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of aqueous solution of malachite green (MG). To increase the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite, it is decorated with C and Fe. Pure, carbon (C) doped and carbon, iron(C, Fe) co-doped nanosized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse microemulsion method. These composites were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectrophotometery and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Visible light photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were investigated for degradation of aqueous malachite green (MG) solution. C, Fe co-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibit better photocatalytic activity and showed threefold increase in photocatalytic activity. Effect of amount of catalyst, pH and concentration of MG solution on the photodegradation rate is studied. Stability and reusability of photocatalyst is also studied. C, Fe decorated ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite shows threefold increase in photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: photocatalysis, nanocomposite, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, malachite green

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7 Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile

Authors: Z. Younsi, L. Koufi, H. Gidik, D. Lahem, W. Wim Thielemans


This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.

Keywords: Efficiency, Visible light, Benzene, Textile Fabrics, titanium dioxide, TiO2, toluene, photocatalytic degradation, C₆H₆, C₇H₈

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6 The Role of Graphene Oxide on Titanium Dioxide Performance for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Abdelmajid Timoumi, Salah Alamri, Hatem Alamri


TiO₂ Graphene Oxide (TiO₂-GO) nanocomposite was prepared using the spin coating technique of suspension of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets and Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TIP). The prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to examine their structures and morphologies. UV-vis transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies. From the TiO₂-GO samples, a 0.25 μm thin layer on a piece of glass 2x2 cm was created. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-deposited layers are amorphous in nature. The surface morphology images demonstrate that the layers grew in distributed with some spherical/rod-like and partially agglomerated TiGO on the surface of the composite. The Atomic Force Microscopy indicated that the films are smooth with slightly larger surface roughness. The analysis of optical absorption data of the layers showed that the values of band gap energy decreased from 3.46 eV to 1.40 eV, depending on the grams of GO doping. This reduction might be attributed to electron and/or hole trapping at the donor and acceptor levels in the TiO₂ band structure. Observed results have shown that the inclusion of GO in the TiO₂ matrix have exhibited significant and excellent properties, which would be promising for application in the photovoltaic application.

Keywords: Thin Films, Solar Cells, Graphene Oxide, titanium dioxide

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5 Synthesis and Characterization of Capric-Stearic Acid/ Graphene Oxide-TiO₂ Microcapsules for Solar Energy Storage and Photocatalytic Efficiency

Authors: Ghada Ben Hamad, Zohir Younsi, Hassane Naji, Noureddine Lebaz, Naoual Belouaggadia


This study deals with a bifunctional micro-encapsulated phase change (MCP) material, capric-stearic acid/graphene oxide-TiO2, which has been successfully developed by in situ hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetrabutyl titanate and modification of graphene oxide (GO) on the TiO2 doped shell. The use of graphene and doped TiO2 is a promising approach to provide photocatalytic activity under visible light and improve the microcapsules physicochemical properties. The morphology and chemical structure of the resulting microcapsule samples were determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) methods. The ultraviolet, visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis), the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to investigate the absorption of visible and ultraviolet (UV), the thermal properties, and thermal stabilities of the microcapsules. Note that, the visible light photocatalytic activity was assessed for the toluene and benzene gaseous removal in a suitable test room. The microcapsules exhibit an interesting spherical morphology and an average diameter of 15 to 25 μm. The addition of graphene can enhance the rigidity of the shell and improve the microcapsules thermal reliability. At the same time, the thermal analysis tests showed that the synthesized microcapsules had a high solar thermal energy-storage and better thermal stability. In addition, the capric-stearic acid microcapsules exhibited high solar photocatalytic activity with respect to atmospheric pollutants under natural sunlight. The fatty acid samples obtained with the GO/TiO2 shell showed great potential for applications of solar energy storage, solar photocatalytic degradation of air pollutants and buildings energy conservation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Graphene Oxide, Thermal Energy Storage, titanium dioxide, microencapsulation

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4 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport


Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, catechol, amyloids, photothermal treatment, Congo-red

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3 Synthesis of Monocyclic, Bicyclic, and Benzocyclobutene Amino Endoperoxides through Visible Light Catalysis

Authors: Enoch Kudoahor, Nan Zheng


We describe the use of readily available self-doped TiO2 and visible light, under a mild condition to synthesize a class of monocyclic, bicyclic, and benzocyclobutene amino compounds containing the endoperoxide bridges; their derivatives and further test their effective clinical activities against malaria, cancer, and their resistances. Considering their stable under photooxidation conditions and recyclability, we use a self-doped TiO2 under a visible condition to synthesize these classes of amino endoperoxides. These amino endoperoxides are stable over a period compared to classes of endoperoxides.

Keywords: Catalysis, Visible light, titanium dioxide, endoperoxides

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2 The Effect of the Combination of Methotrexate Nanoparticles and TiO2 on Breast Cancer

Authors: Nusaiba Al-Nemrawi, Belal Al-Husein


Methotrexate (MTX) is a stoichiometric inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, which is essential for DNA synthesis. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used for treating many types of cancer cells. However, cells’ resistant to MTX is very common and its pharmacokinetic behavior is highly problematic. of MTX within tumor cells, we propose encapsulation of antitumor drugs in nanoparticulated systems. Chitosan (CS) is a naturally occurring polymer that is biocompatibe, biodegradable, non-toxic, cationic and bioadhesive. CS nanoparticles (CS-NPs) have been used as drug carrier for targeted delivery. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a natural mineral oxide, which is used in biomaterials due to its high stability and antimicrobial and anticorrosive properties. TiO2 showed a potential as a tumor suppressor. In this study a new formulation of MTX loaded in CS NPs (CS-MTX NPs) and coated with Titanium oxide (TiO2) was prepared. The mean particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index were measured. The interaction between CS NPs and TiO2 NPs was confirmed using FTIR and XRD. CS-MTX NPs was studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 (human breast cancer). The results showed that CS-MTX has a size around 169 nm and as they were coated with TiO2, the size ranged between and depending on the ratio of CS-MTX to TiO2 ratio used in the preparation. All NPs (uncoated and coated carried positive charges and were monodispersed. The entrapment efficacy was around 65%. Both FTIR and XRD proved that TiO2 interacted with CS-MTX NPs. The drug invitro release was controlled and sustained over days. Finally, the studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 suggested that combining nanomaterials with anticancer drugs CS-MTX NPs may be more effective than free MTX for cancer treatment. In conclusion, the combination of CS-MTX NPs and TiO2 NPs showed excellent time-dependent in vitro antitumor behavior, therefore, can be employed as a promising anticancer agent to attain efficient results towards MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: Cancer, titanium dioxide, methotrexate, chitosan nanoparticles

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1 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye

Authors: Vishakha Parihar


This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, photocatalytic degradation, sol-gel process, nano-particles iron dope, Congo red dye

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