Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

titanium alloy Related Abstracts

12 Formation and Development of Polyspecies Biofilm on the Surface of Ti-7.5Mo Nanotubes Growth

Authors: Escada A. L. A., Pereira C. A., Jorge A. O. C., Alves Claro A. P. R.


In the present work, a susceptibility and efficacy of the Ti–7.5Mo alloy nanotube and Ti–7.5Mo alloy to bacterial biofilm formation after surface treatment was evaluated. The Ti–7.5Mo alloy was obtained in arc furnace under an argon atmosphere. Ingots were then homogenized under vacuum at 1100 ◦C for 86.4 ks to eliminate chemical segregation and after cold worked discs were cutting. Nanotubes were processed using anodic oxidation in 0.25% NH4F electrolyte solution. Biofilms were grown in discs immersed in sterile brain heart infusion broth (BHI) containing 5% sucrose, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/ml) and incubated for 5 days. Next, the discs were placed in tubes with sterile physiological solution 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) and sonicated for to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were carried and aliquots seeded in selective agar, which were then incubated for 48 h. Then, the numbers CFU/ml (log 10) were counted and analyzed statistically. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on discs with biofilms groupswas performed, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle. The results show that there is no difference in bacterial adhesion between Ti–7.5Mo alloy nanotube pure titanium and Ti–7.5Mo alloy.

Keywords: Biofilm, Scanning Electron Microscopy, titanium alloy, brain heart infusion

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11 Dry High Speed Orthogonal Turning of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. Benghersallah, G. List, G. Sutter


The present work is an experimental study on the dry high speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The objective of this study is to see for high cutting speeds, how wear occurs on the face of insert and how to evolve cutting forces and chip formation. Cutting speeds tested is 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 m/min in orthogonal turning with a carbide insert tool H13A uncoated on a cylindrical titanium alloy part. Investigation on the wear inserts with 3D scanning microscope revered the crater formation is instantaneous and a chip adhesion (welded chip) causes detachment of carbide particles. Cutting forces increase and stabilize before removing the tool. The chip reaches a very high temperature.

Keywords: titanium alloy, dry hjgh speed turning, wear insert, MQL technique

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10 Experimental Research of Canine Mandibular Defect Construction with the Controlled Meshy Titanium Alloy Scaffold Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting Combined with BMSCs-Encapsulating Chitosan Hydrogel

Authors: Wang Hong, Liu Chang Kui, Zhao Bing Jing, Hu Min


Objection We observed the repairment effection of canine mandibular defect with meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel. Method Meshy titanium scaffolds were prepared by EBM of commercial Ti6Al4V power. The length of scaffolds was 24 mm, the width was 5 mm and height was 8mm. The pore size and porosity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel was prepared by chitosan, β- sodium glycerophosphate and Bio-Oss power. BMMSCs were harvested from canine iliac crests. BMMSCs were seeded in titanium scaffolds and encapsulated in Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel. The validity of BMMSCs was evaluated by cell count kit-8 (CCK-8). The osteogenic differentiation ability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression of OC, OPN and CoⅠ. Combination were performed by injecting BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel into the meshy Ti6Al4V scaffolds and solidified. 24 mm long box-shaped bone defects were made at the mid-portion of mandible of adult beagles. The defects were randomly filled with BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss + titanium, Chitosan /Bio-Oss+titanium, titanium alone. Autogenous iliac crests graft as control group in 3 beagles. Radionuclide bone imaging was used to monitor the new bone tissue at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. CT examination was made on the surgery day and 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks after surgery. The animals were sacrificed in 4, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. The bone formation were evaluated by histology and micro-CT. Results: The pores of the scaffolds was interconnected, the pore size was about 1 mm, the average porosity was about 76%. The pore size of the hydrogel was 50-200μm and the average porosity was approximately 90%. The hydrogel were solidified under the condition of 37℃in 10 minutes. The validity and the osteogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs were not affected by titanium scaffolds and hydrogel. Radionuclide bone imaging shown an increasing tendency of the revascularization and bone regeneration was observed in all the groups at 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation, and there were no changes at 12weeks.The tendency was more obvious in the BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss +titanium group and autogenous group. CT, Micro-CT and histology shown that new bone formed increasingly with the time extend. There were more new bone regenerated in BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and autogenous group than the other two groups. At 24 weeks, the autogenous group was achieved bone union. The BMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss group was seen extensive new bone formed around the scaffolds and more new bone inside of the central pores of scaffolds than Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and titanium group. The difference was significantly. Conclusion: The titanium scaffolds fabricated by EBM had controlled porous structure, good bone conduction and biocompatibility. Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel had injectable plasticity, thermosensitive property and good biocompatibility. The meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold produced by EBM combined BMSCs encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel had good capacity on mandibular bone defect repair.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, titanium alloy, mandibular reconstruction, electron beam melting

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9 Precision Grinding of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloy Using Nanolubrication

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, Hong Wan Ping


In this current era of competitive machinery productions, the industries are designed to place more emphasis on the product quality and reduction of cost whilst abiding by the pollution-preventing policy. In attempting to delve into the concerns, the industries are aware that the effectiveness of existing lubrication systems must be improved to achieve power-efficient and pollution-preventing machining processes. As such, this research is targeted to study on a plausible solution to the issue in grinding titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) by using nanolubrication, as an alternative to flood grinding. The aim of this research is to evaluate the optimum condition of grinding force and surface roughness using MQL lubricating system to deliver nano-oil at different level of weight concentration of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) mixed normal mineral oil. Taguchi Design of Experiment (DoE) method is carried out using a standard Taguchi orthogonal array of L16(43) to find the optimized combination of weight concentration mixture of SiO2, nozzle orientation and pressure of MQL. Surface roughness and grinding force are also analyzed using signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio to determine the best level of each factor that are tested. Consequently, the best combination of parameters is tested for a period of time and the results are compared with conventional grinding method of dry and flood condition. The results show a positive performance of MQL nanolubrication.

Keywords: Grinding, titanium alloy, taguchi optimization, MQL, precision grinding

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8 Growth and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V and Novel Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta

Authors: Eva Filová, Jana Daňková, Věra Sovková, Matej Daniel


Titanium alloys are biocompatible metals that are widely used in clinical practice as load bearing implants. The chemical modification may influence cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as well as stiffness of the material. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion, growth and differentiation of pig mesenchymal stem cells on the novel beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta compared to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Discs of Ti36Nb6Ta and Ti6Al4V alloy were sterilized by ethanol, put in 48-well plates, and seeded by pig mesenchymal stem cells at the density of 60×103/cm2 and cultured in Minimum essential medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin/streptomycin. Cell viability was evaluated using MTS assay (CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay;Promega), cell proliferation using Quant-iT™ ds DNA Assay Kit (Life Technologies). Cells were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody beta-actin, and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488 and subsequently the spread area of cells was measured. Cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as a substrate; the reaction was stopped by NaOH, and the absorbance was measured at 405 nm. Osteocalcin, specific bone marker was stained immunohistochemically and subsequently visualized using confocal microscopy; the fluorescence intensity was analyzed and quantified. Moreover, gene expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin and type I collagen was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). For statistical evaluation, One-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls Method was used. For qRT-PCR, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test were used. The absorbance in MTS assay was significantly higher on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V compared to beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on days 7 and 14. Mesenchymal stem cells were well spread on both alloys, but no difference in spread area was found. No differences in alkaline phosphatase assay, fluorescence intensity of osteocalcin as well as the expression of type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes were observed. Higher expression of type I collagen compared to osteocalcin was observed for cells on both alloys. Both beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V Ti36Nb6Ta supported mesenchymal stem cellsˈ adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Novel beta titanium alloys Ti36Nb6Ta is a promising material for bone implantation. The project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S, the Grant Agency of the Charles University, grant No. 1246314 and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309.

Keywords: Cell growth, implant, mesenchymal stem cells, titanium alloy, beta titanium

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7 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka


The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: Characterization, Molybdenum, Mechanical Properties, titanium alloy

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6 Effect of Gas-Diffusion Oxynitriding on Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee


The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.

Keywords: Gas Diffusion, Surface treatment, titanium alloy, oxynitriding

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5 Surface Modification of Titanium Alloy with Laser Treatment

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, D. Rico Sierra, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, Zhongwei Guan


The effect of laser surface treatment parameters on the residual strength of titanium alloy has been investigated. The influence of the laser surface treatment on the bonding strength between the titanium and poly-ether-ketone-ketone (PEKK) surfaces was also evaluated and compared to those offered by titanium foils without surface treatment to optimize the laser parameters. Material characterization using an optical microscope was carried out to study the microstructure and to measure the mean roughness value of the titanium surface. The results showed that the surface roughness shows a significant dependency on the laser power parameters in which surface roughness increases with the laser power increment. Moreover, the results of the tensile tests have shown that there is no significant dropping in tensile strength for the treated samples comparing to the virgin ones. In order to optimize the laser parameter as well as the corresponding surface roughness, single-lap shear tests were conducted on pairs of the laser treated titanium stripes. The results showed that the bonding shear strength between titanium alloy and PEKK film increased with the surface roughness increment to a specific limit. After this point, it is interesting to note that there was no significant effect for the laser parameter on the bonding strength. This evidence suggests that it is not necessary to use very high power of laser to treat titanium surface to achieve a good bonding strength between titanium alloy and the PEKK film.

Keywords: titanium alloy, bonding strength, laser surface treatment, PEKK, poly-ether-ketone-ketone

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4 Laser Beam Micro-Drilling Effect on Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Sheet Properties

Authors: Petr Homola, Roman Růžek


Laser beam micro-drilling (LBMD) is one of the most important non-contact machining processes of materials that are difficult to machine by means oeqf conventional machining methods used in various industries. The paper is focused on LBMD knock-down effect on Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) titanium alloy sheets properties. Two various process configurations were verified with a focus on laser damages in back-structure parts affected by the process. The effects of the LBMD on the material properties were assessed by means of tensile and fatigue tests and fracture surface analyses. Fatigue limit of LBMD configurations reached a significantly lower value between 15% and 30% of the static strength as compared to the reference raw material with 58% value. The farther back-structure configuration gives a two-fold fatigue life as compared to the closer LBMD configuration at a given stress applied.

Keywords: Fatigue, titanium alloy, fracture surface, laser beam micro-drilling

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3 Self-Organized TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ Nanotubes on β-Ti Alloy by Anodization

Authors: Cuie Wen, Yuncang Li, Muhammad Qadir


Surface properties such as topography and physicochemistry of metallic implants determine the cell behavior. The surface of titanium (Ti)-based implant can be modified to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, a self-organized titania–niobium pentoxide–zirconia (TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂) nanotubular layer on β phase Ti35Zr28Nb alloy was fabricated via electrochemical anodization. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement techniques were used to investigate the nanotubes dimensions (i.e., the inner and outer diameters, and wall thicknesses), microstructural features and evolution of the hydrophilic properties. The in vitro biocompatibility of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes (NTs) was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs has been studied. The results indicated that the average inner diameter, outer diameter and the wall thickness of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs were ranged from 25–70 nm, 45–90 nm and 5–13 nm, respectively, and were directly influenced by the applied voltage during anodization. The average inner and outer diameters of NTs increased with increasing applied voltage, and the length of NTs increased with increasing anodization time and water content of the electrolyte. In addition, the size distribution of the NTs noticeably affected the hydrophilic properties and enhanced the biocompatibility as compared with the uncoated substrate. The results of this study could be considered for developing nano-scale coatings for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, surface wettability, anodization, titanium alloy, TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes

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2 An Investigation on MgAl₂O₄ Based Mould System in Investment Casting Titanium Alloy

Authors: Chen Yuan, Nick Green, Stuart Blackburn


The investment casting process offers a great freedom of design combined with the economic advantage of near net shape manufacturing. It is widely used for the production of high value precision cast parts in particularly in the aerospace sector. Various combinations of materials have been used to produce the ceramic moulds, but most investment foundries use a silica based binder system in conjunction with fused silica, zircon, and alumino-silicate refractories as both filler and coarse stucco materials. However, in the context of advancing alloy technologies, silica based systems are struggling to keep pace, especially when net-shape casting titanium alloys. Study has shown that the casting of titanium based alloys presents considerable problems, including the extensive interactions between the metal and refractory, and the majority of metal-mould interaction is due to reduction of silica, present as binder and filler phases, by titanium in the molten state. Cleaner, more refractory systems are being devised to accommodate these changes. Although yttria has excellent chemical inertness to titanium alloy, it is not very practical in a production environment combining high material cost, short slurry life, and poor sintering properties. There needs to be a cost effective solution to these issues. With limited options for using pure oxides, in this work, a silica-free magnesia spinel MgAl₂O₄ was used as a primary coat filler and alumina as a binder material to produce facecoat in the investment casting mould. A comparison system was also studied with a fraction of the rare earth oxide Y₂O₃ adding into the filler to increase the inertness. The stability of the MgAl₂O₄/Al₂O₃ and MgAl₂O₄/Y₂O₃/Al₂O₃ slurries was assessed by tests, including pH, viscosity, zeta-potential and plate weight measurement, and mould properties such as friability were also measured. The interaction between the face coat and titanium alloy was studied by both a flash re-melting technique and a centrifugal investment casting method. The interaction products between metal and mould were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The depth of the oxygen hardened layer was evaluated by micro hardness measurement. Results reveal that introducing a fraction of Y₂O₃ into magnesia spinel can significantly increase the slurry life and reduce the thickness of hardened layer during centrifugal casting.

Keywords: Interaction, investment casting, titanium alloy, mould, MgAl₂O₄, Y₂O₃

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1 Diffusion Treatment of Niobium and Molybdenum on Pur Titanium and Titanium Alloy Ti-64al and Their Properties

Authors: Kaouka Alaeddine, K. Benarous


This study aims to obtain a surface of pure titanium and titanium alloy Ti-64Al with high performance by the diffusion process. Two agents metal alloy have been used in this treatment, niobium (Nb) and molybdenum (Mo), spread on elemental titanium and Ti-64Al alloy. Nb and Mo are used as powder form to increase the contact surface and to improve the distribution. Both Mo and Nb are distributed on samples of Ti and Ti-64Al at 1100 °C and 1200 °C for 3 h. They were performed to effect different experiments objectives. This work was achieved to improve some properties and microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al surface, using optical microscopy and SEM and study some mechanical properties. The effects of temperature and the powder contents on the microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy, different phases and hardness value of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy were determined. Experimental results indicate that increasing the powder contents and/or the temperature, the α + β phases change to the equiaxed β lamellar structure. In particular, experiments in 1200 °C were created by diffusion α + β phases both equiaxed β phase laminar and α + β phase, thus meeting the objectives were established in the work. In addition, simulation results are used for comparison with the experimental results by DICTRA software.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, Molybdenum, diffusion, titanium alloy, niobium

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