Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

TiO2 Related Abstracts

37 Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer Through Ducts with Different Cross-Sections

Authors: Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2

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36 Effect of Channel Cross Section Shape on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Nanofluid Flow

Authors: Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2

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35 TiN/TiO2 Nanostructure Coating on Glass Substrate

Authors: R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori, F. Dabir

Abstract:

In this work, a nanostructured TiO2 layer was coated onto a FTO-less glass substrate using screen printing technique for back contact DSSC application. Then, titanium nitride thin film was applied on TiO2 layer by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) as charge collector layer. The microstructure of prepared TiO2 layer was characterized by SEM. The sheet resistance, microstructure and elemental composition of titanium nitride thin films were analysed by four point probe, SEM, and EDS, respectively. TiO2 layer had porous nanostructure. The EDS analysis of TiN thin film showed presence of chlorine impurity. Sheet resistance of TiN thin film was 30 Ω/sq. With respect to the results, PACVD TiN can be a good candidate as a charge collector layer in back contacts DSSC.

Keywords: TiO2, tin, charge collector, DSSC

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34 Photocatalytic Degradation of Aqueous Organic Pollutant under UV Light Irradiation

Authors: D. Tassalit, N. Chekir, O. Benhabiles, N. A. Laoufi, F. Bentahar

Abstract:

In the setting of the waters purification, some molecules appear recalcitrant to the traditional treatments. The exploitation of the properties of some catalysts permits to amplify the oxidization performances with ultraviolet radiance and to remove this pollution by a non biological way. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a photocatalysis oxidation system for organic pollutants treatment using a new reactor design and ZnO/TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. Oxidative degradation of tylosin by hydroxyl radicals (OH°) was studied in aqueous medium using suspended forms of ZnO and TiO2. The results improve that the treatment was affected by many factors such as flow-rate of solution, initial pollutant concentration and catalyst concentration. The rate equation for the tylosin degradation followed first order kinetics and the rate-constants were determined. The reaction rate fitted well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and the removed ratio of tylosin was 97 % in less than 60 minutes. To determine the optimum catalyst loading, a series of experiments were carried out by varying the amount of catalyst from 0.05 to 0.5 g/L. The results demonstrate that the rate of photodegradation is optimum with catalyst loading of 0.1 g/L, reaction flow rate of 3.79 mL/s and solution natural pH. The rate was found to increase with the decrease in tylosin concentration from 30 to 5 mg/L. Therefore, this simple photoreactor design for the removal of organic pollutants has the potential to be used in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, photocatalysis, ZnO, TiO2, advanced oxidation, UV light, pharmaceuticals pollutants, Spiramycin, tylosin

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33 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

Abstract:

TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: Nanofibers, Photoluminescence, TiO2, irradiation

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32 Mimicking of Various ECM Tangible Cues for the Manipulation of Hepatocellular Behaviours

Authors: S. A. Abdellatef, A. Taniguchi, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki

Abstract:

The alterations in the physicochemical characteristics of bio-materials are renowned for their impact in cellular behaviors. Surface chemistry and substratum topography are separately considered as mutable characteristics with deep impact on the overall cell behaviors. In our recent work, we examined the manipulation of the physical cues on hepatic cellular behaviors. We have proven that the geometrical or dimensional characteristics of nano features are essential for the optimum hepatocellular functions. While here, the collective impact of both physical and chemical cues on hepatocellular behaviors was investigated. On which RGD peptide was immobilized on a TiO2 nano pattern that imitates the hierarchically extend collagen nano fibrillar structures. The hepatocytes morphological and functional changes induced by simultaneously combining the diversified cues were investigated. TiO2 substrates that integrate nano topography with the adhesive peptide motif (RGD) had showed an increase in the hepatocellular functionality to the maximum extent. While a significant enhancement in expression of these liver specific markers on RGD coated surfaces were observed compared to uncoated substrates regardless of topography. Consequently in depth understanding of the relationship between various kind of cues and hepatocytes behaviors would be a paving step in the application of tissue engineering and bio reactor technology.

Keywords: Biomaterial, TiO2, hepG2, RGD

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31 TiO2 Formation after Nanotubes Growth on Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface for Different Annealing Temperatures

Authors: A. L. R. Rangel, J. A. M. Chaves, A. P. R. Alves Claro

Abstract:

Surface modification of titanium and its alloys using TiO2 nanotube growth has been widely studied for biomedical field due to excellent interaction between implant and biological environment. The success of this treatment is directly related to anatase phase formation (TiO2 phase) which affects the cells growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phases formed in the nanotubes growth on the Ti-15Mo surface. Nanotubes were grown by electrochemical anodization of the alloy in ammonium fluoride based glycerol electrolyte for 24 hours at 20V. Then, the samples were annealed at 200°,400°, 450°, 500°, 600°, and 800° C for 1 hour. Contact angles measurements, scanning electron microscopy images and X rays diffraction analysis (XRD) were carried out for all samples. Raman Spectroscopy was used to evaluate TiO2 phases transformation in nanotubes samples as well. The results of XRD showed anatase formation for lower temperatures, while at 800 ° C the rutile phase was observed all over the surface. Raman spectra indicate that this phase transition occurs between 500 and 600 °C. The different phases formed have influenced the nanotubes morphologies, since higher annealing temperatures induced agglutination of the TiO2 layer, disrupting the tubular structure. On the other hand, the nanotubes drastically reduced the contact angle, regardless the annealing temperature.

Keywords: nanotubes, Titanium Alloys, TiO2, Ti-15Mo

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30 Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products

Authors: J. Franco Macías, E. Montes Alba, A. López Vásquez

Abstract:

The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Poultry Industry, Photodegradation, TiO2, advanced oxidation process

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29 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov

Abstract:

In the recent article, a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes-in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: Adsorption, Copper, TiO2, activated carbon, ozone decomposition

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28 New Effect of Duct Cross Sectional Shape on the Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. we check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enchantment than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, nano fluid

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27 Experimental Analysis of Laminar Nanofluid Flow Convection

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour

Abstract:

In this study, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. Ee check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2

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26 The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

Authors: C. Y. Chen, C. C. Chen, C. J. Wang, K. J. Huang, J. S. Lin, C. W. Hun

Abstract:

Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. When the incidence light irradiate from air (R=1.0) to CsI’s first surface (R=1.84) the first refraction happen, the first refraction continue into TiO2 film (R=2.88) and produces the low angle of the second refraction. Then the second refraction continue into AAO wall (R=1.78) and produces the third refraction after refractions between CsI and AAO wall (R=1.78) produce the fourth refraction. The incidence light after through CsI and TiO2 film refractions arrive to the CsI second surface. Therefore, the TiO2 film can has shorter refraction path of incidence light and increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency.

Keywords: X-Ray, TiO2, cesium iodide, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), refraction

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25 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash

Abstract:

The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: TiO2, nano particle, mortal and pestle, TTIP

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24 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-Doped with Sulfur and Nitrogen

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the S, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material S-N-TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the S-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of S-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic S-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Poa, TiO2, co-doping

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23 The Study of Visible Light Active Bismuth Modified Nitrogen Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatlysts

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi -N- TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Poa, TiO2, co-doping

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22 Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Doped in Degradation of Acid Dye

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by XRD, BET and UV- vis DRS. The photocatalytic efficiency of the Zn -Fe TiO2 treated at 500°C was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Zn-Fe-TiO2 (500°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the Rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV-visible diffuse reflection material showed that the Fe-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Zn -Fe- TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Fe-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: Doping, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Poa, TiO2

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21 Thermo-Physical and Morphological Properties of Pdlcs Films Doped with Tio2 Nanoparticles.

Authors: Salima Bouadjela, Fatima Zohra Abdoune, Lahcene Mechernene

Abstract:

PDLCs are currently considered as promising materials for specific applications such as creation of window blinds controlled by electric field, fog simulators, UV protective glasses, high data storage device etc. We know that the electrical field inside the liquid crystal is low compare with the external electric field [1,2]. An addition of high magnetic and electrical, properties containing compounds to the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) will enhance the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of the PDLC [3,4]. Low Concentration of inorganic nanoparticles TiO2 added to nematic liquid crystals (E7) and also combined with monomers (TPGDA) and cured monomer/LC mixture to elaborate polymer-LC-NP dispersion. The presence of liquid crystal and nanoparticles in TPGDA matrix were conformed and the modified properties of PDLC due to doped nanoparticle were studied and explained by the results of FTIR, POM, UV. Incorporation of nanoparticles modifies the structure of PDLC and thus it makes increase the amount of droplets and decrease in droplet size. we found that the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a shift the nematic-isotropic transition temperature TNI.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, TiO2, PDLC, phases diagram

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20 Elaboration and Characterization of PVDF/TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, S. Kridi

Abstract:

The aim of present work is to characterize the PVDF/TiO2 blends as nanocomposites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the crystallinity of the PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposite containing 1 wt% loading of filler, due to the nucleation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. A good dispersion was obtained in PVDF/treated TiO2 nanocomposites. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed nanocomposite compositions, involved by the orientation of TiO2 nanoparticles in the flow direction. The dielectric study revealed an increase in electrical conductivity in PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposites. However, in PVDF/ treated TiO2 nanocomposites, the electrical conductivity was decreased by the addition of 0.5 and 2 wt% loading of filler.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, TiO2, PVDF, comixing, mechanical treatment

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19 Elaboration and Characterization of PP/TiO2 Composites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, S. Kridi

Abstract:

The aim of present work is to characterize the PP/TiO2 blends as composites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the impact strength results which increased about 39% compared to neat PP. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed composite compositions, involved by the good dispersion of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: Composites, TiO2, comixing, mechanical treatment

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18 The Stability and Performances of Terminalia Catappa L. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: A. O. Boyo, A. T. Akinwunmi

Abstract:

The effect of extracting solvent and adjustment of pHs on the stability of Terminalia catappa L. dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated. We introduced ZnO as an alternative to TiO2 in the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to its band gap similar to TiO2, higher electron mobility, and flexible procedures of preparations. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Terminalia catappa L. was extracted in water (A), ethanol (B) and the mixture of ethanol and water in the ratio 1:1by volume (C). The best performance Solar cells sensitized was from extracts A and achieved up to Jsc 1.51 mAcm−2, Voc 0.75V, FF 0.88 and η 0.63%. We notice that as pHs decreases there is the increase in DSSC efficiency. There is Long period stability in efficiency of the cells prepared using A than in C and a fair stability in efficiency of B cell. The results obtained with extracts B and C confirmed that Ethanol with water could not be considered as a suitable solvent for the extraction of natural dye.

Keywords: zinc oxide, TiO2, dye-sensitized solar cell, terminalia catappa L

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17 The Effect of Ionic Liquid Anion Type on the Properties of TiO2 Particles

Authors: Marta Paszkiewicz, Justyna Łuczak, Martyna Marchelek, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska

Abstract:

In recent years, photocatalytical processes have been intensively investigated for destruction of pollutants, hydrogen evolution, disinfection of water, air and surfaces, for the construction of self-cleaning materials (tiles, glass, fibres, etc.). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular material used in heterogeneous photocatalysis due to its excellent properties, such as high stability, chemical inertness, non-toxicity and low cost. It is well known that morphology and microstructure of TiO2 significantly influence the photocatalytic activity. This characteristics as well as other physical and structural properties of photocatalysts, i.e., specific surface area or density of crystalline defects, could be controlled by preparation route. In this regard, TiO2 particles can be obtained by sol-gel, hydrothermal, sonochemical methods, chemical vapour deposition and alternatively, by ionothermal synthesis using ionic liquids (ILs). In the TiO2 particles synthesis ILs may play a role of a solvent, soft template, reagent, agent promoting reduction of the precursor or particles stabilizer during synthesis of inorganic materials. In this work, the effect of the ILs anion type on morphology and photoactivity of TiO2 is presented. The preparation of TiO2 microparticles with spherical structure was successfully achieved by solvothermal method, using tetra-tert-butyl orthotitatane (TBOT) as the precursor. The reaction process was assisted by an ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [BMIM][Br], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM][BF4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium haxafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6]. Various molar ratios of all ILs to TBOT (IL:TBOT) were chosen. For comparison, reference TiO2 was prepared using the same method without IL addition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brenauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET), NCHS analysis, and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface properties of the samples. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by means of phenol photodegradation in the aqueous phase as a model pollutant, as well as formation of hydroxyl radicals based on detection of fluorescent product of coumarine hydroxylation. The analysis results showed that the TiO2 microspheres had spherical structure with the diameters ranging from 1 to 6 µm. The TEM micrographs gave a bright observation of the samples in which the particles were comprised of inter-aggregated crystals. It could be also observed that the IL-assisted TiO2 microspheres are not hollow, which provides additional information about possible formation mechanism. Application of the ILs results in rise of the photocatalytic activity as well as BET surface area of TiO2 as compared to pure TiO2. The results of the formation of 7-hydroxycoumarin indicated that the increased amount of ·OH produced at the surface of excited TiO2 for samples TiO2_ILs well correlated with more efficient degradation of phenol. NCHS analysis showed that ionic liquids remained on the TiO2 surface confirming structure directing role of that compounds.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, TiO2, IL-assisted synthesis

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16 Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

Authors: ChoLiang Chung, YuMin Chen

Abstract:

C-doped TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning successfully. Different amounts of carbon were added into the nanofibers by using chitosan, aiming to shift the wave length that is required to excite the photocatalyst from ultraviolet light to visible light. Different amounts of carbon and different atmosphere fibers were calcined at 500oC, and the optical characteristic of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers had been changed. characterizes of nanofibers were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), UV-vis, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD is used to identify the phase composition of nanofibers. The morphology of nanofibers were explored by FE-SEM and AFM. Optical characteristics of absorption were measured by UV-Vis. Three dimension surface images of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers revealed different effects of processing. The results of XRD showed that the phase of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers transformed to rutile phase and anatase phase successfully. The results of AFM showed that the surface morphology of nanofibers became smooth after high temperature treatment. Images from FE-SEM revealed the average size of nanofibers. UV-vis results showed that the band-gap of TiO2 were reduced. Finally, we found out C-doped TiO2 nanofibers can change countenance of nanofiber and make it smoother.

Keywords: Carbon, Electrospinning, TiO2, chitosan

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15 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-doped with Bismuth and Zinc

Authors: B.Benalioua, I.Benyamina, A.Bentouami, B.Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, Zn co-doped TiO2 treated at 670°C for 2 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi-Zn-TiO2 (670°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-Zn-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 70 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 120 minutes.

Keywords: Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Poa, TiO2, co-doping

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14 Plasma Spray Deposition of Bio-Active Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

Authors: Renu Kumari, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

In the present study, composite coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) + 50 wt% TiO2 has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition technique. Followed by plasma spray deposition, detailed surface roughness and microstructural characterization were carried out by using optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The composition and phase analysis were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, respectively. The bio-activity behavior of the uncoated and coated samples was also compared by dipping test in Hank’s solution. The average surface roughness of the coating was 10 µm (as compared to 0.5 µm of as-received Ti-6Al-4V substrate) with the presence of porosities. The microstructure of the coating was found to be continuous with the presence of solidified splats. A detailed XRD analysis shows phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile, decomposition of hydroxyapatite, and formation of CaTiO3 phase. Standard dipping test confirmed a faster kinetics of deposition of calcium phosphate in the coated HA+50% wt.% TiO2 surface as compared to the as-received substrate.

Keywords: Microstructure, Titanium, TiO2, hydroxyapatite, plasma spraying, bio-activity

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13 Beneficiation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell as Energy Saving from Apple Skin with TiO2 Electrolysis

Authors: Astari Indarsari, Bastian B. Purba, Muhammad Fadlilah

Abstract:

In Indonesian climates that have the tropic climate, one of the potential energy sources is coming from solar energy. From the solar energy, we can convert it into the others energy, such as electrical energy. In this topic, we want to do the research about Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The materials that we use as sensitizer is anthocyanin that we extract from apple skin, because the anthocyanin is one of the most effective as a sensitizer for DSSC. The variable in this research is pH. The pH that we used are pH 0,5; pH 1; pH 1,5; pH 2; pH 2,5. The method is electrolysis, and we use TiO2 as sensitized material. The hypothesis from this research is the smaller pH can make higher the efficiency of the absorbent of the solar energy.

Keywords: TiO2, DSSC, anthocyanin, apple skin

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12 Comparison of Tribological Properties of TiO₂, ZrO₂ and TiO₂–ZrO₂ Composite Films Prepared by Sol–Gel Method

Authors: A. Çelik, O. Çomaklı, M. Yazıcı, T. Yetim, A. F. Yetim

Abstract:

In this study, TiO₂, ZrO₂, and TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films were coated on Cp-Ti substrates by sol-gel method. Structures of uncoated and coated samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and SEM. XRD data identified anatase phase in TiO₂ coated samples and tetragonal zirconia phase in ZrO₂ coated samples while both of anatase and tetragonal zirconia phases in TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. The mechanical and wear properties of samples were investigated using micro hardness, pin-on-disk tribotester, and 3D profilometer. The best wear resistance was obtained from TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. This can be attributed to their high surface hardness, low surface roughness and high thickness of the film.

Keywords: Wear, TiO2, sol-gel, composite films, ZrO2, TiO₂–ZrO₂

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11 Comparison of Structure and Corrosion Properties of Titanium Oxide Films Prepared by Thermal Oxidation, DC Plasma Oxidation, and by the Sol-Gel

Authors: A. Çelik, O. Çomaklı, M. Yazıcı, T. Yetim, A. F. Yetim

Abstract:

In this work, TiO₂ films were deposited on Cp-Ti substrates by thermal oxidation, DC plasma oxidation, and by the sol-gel method. Microstructures of uncoated and TiO₂ film coated samples were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM. Thin oxide film consisting of anatase (A) and rutile (R) TiO₂ structures was observed on the surface of CP-Ti by under three different treatments. Also, the more intense anatase and rutile peaks appeared at samples plasma oxidized at 700˚C. The thicknesses of films were about 1.8 μm at the TiO₂ film coated samples by sol-gel and about 2.7 μm at thermal oxidated samples, while it was measured as 3.9 μm at the plasma oxidated samples. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated specimens was mainly carried out by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Results showed that at the plasma oxidated samples exhibited a better resistance property to corrosion than that of other treatments.

Keywords: TiO2, sol-gel, CP-Ti, corrosion properties, thermal oxidation, plasma oxidation

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10 Two-Dimensional WO₃ and TiO₂ Semiconductor Oxides Developed by Atomic Layer Deposition with Controllable Nano-Thickness on Wafer-Scale

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Z. Wei

Abstract:

Conformal defect-free two-dimensional (2D) WO₃ and TiO₂ semiconductors have been developed by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on wafer scale with unique approach to the thickness control with precision of ± 10% from the monolayer of nanomaterial (less than 1.0 nm thick) to the nano-layered 2D structures with thickness of ~3.0-7.0 nm. Developed 2D nanostructures exhibited unique, distinguishable properties at nanoscale compare to their thicker counterparts. Specifically, 2D TiO₂-Au bilayer demonstrated improved photocatalytic degradation of palmitic acid under UV and visible light illumination. Improved functional capabilities of 2D semiconductors would be advantageous to various environmental, nano-energy and bio-sensing applications. The ALD-enabled approach is proven to be versatile, scalable and applicable to the broader range of 2D semiconductors.

Keywords: TiO2, ALD, WO₃, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, wafer scale

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9 Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile

Authors: H. Gidik, Z. Younsi, L. Koufi, D. Lahem, W. Wim Thielemans

Abstract:

This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.

Keywords: Efficiency, Visible light, Benzene, Textile Fabrics, titanium dioxide, TiO2, toluene, photocatalytic degradation, C₆H₆, C₇H₈

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8 Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Undoped and Fe Doped TiO₂ (Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂; X=0.01, 0.02, 0.03) Nanoparticles

Authors: Sudhakar Saroj, Satya Vir Singh

Abstract:

Undoped and Fe doped TiO₂, Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂ (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) have been synthesized by solution combustion method using Titanium (IV) oxide as a precursor, and also were characterized by XRD, DRS, FTIR, XPS, SEM, and EDX. The formation of anatase phase of undoped and Fe TiO₂ nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD, and the average crystallite size was determined by Debye-Scherer's equation. The DRS analysis indicates the shifting of light absorbance in visible region from UV region with increasing the doping concentration in TiO₂. The vibrational band of the Ti-O lattice was confirmed by the FT-IR spectrum. The XPS results confirm the presence of elements of titanium, oxygen and iron in the synthesized samples and determine the binding energy of elements. SEM image of the above-synthesized nanoparticles showed the spherical shape of nanoparticles. The purities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by EDX analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were tested by studying the degradation of dye (Direct Blue 199) in the photocatalytic reactor. The Ti₀.₉₇Fe₀.₀₃O₂ photocatalyst shows highest photodegradation activity among all the synthesized undoped and Fe doped TiO₂ photocatalyst.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Photodegradation, TiO2, direct blue 199

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