Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Ti-6Al-4V Related Abstracts

9 Structural Evolution of Electrodeposited Ni Coating on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Heat Treatment

Authors: M. Adabi, A. Amadeh, M. Abdoos


In recent decades, the use of titanium and its alloys due to their high mechanical properties, light weight and their corrosion resistance has increased in military and industry applications. However, the poor surface properties can limit their widely usage. Many researches were carried out to improve their surface properties. The most effective technique is based on solid-state diffusion of elements that can form intermetallic compounds with the substrate. In the present work, inter-diffusion of nickel and titanium and formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds in nickel-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy have been studied. Initially, nickel was electrodeposited on the alloy using Watts bath at a current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 1 hour. The coated specimens were then heat treated in a tubular furnace under argon atmosphere at different temperatures near Ti β-transus to maximize the diffusion rate for various durations in order to improve the surface properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effect of temperature and time on the thickness of diffusion layer and characteristics of intermetallic phases was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and microhardness test. The results showed that a multilayer structure was formed after heat treatment: an outer layer of remaining nickel, an area of intermetallic layers with different compositions and solid solution of Ni-Ti. Three intermetallic layers was detected by EDS analysis, namely an outer layer with about 75 at.% Ni (Ni3Ti), an intermediate layer with 50 at.% Ni (NiTi) and finally an inner layer with 36 at.% Ni (NiTi2). It was also observed that the increase in time or temperature led to the formation of thicker intermetallic layers. Meanwhile, the microhardness of heat treated samples increased with formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics; however, its value depended on heat treatment parameters.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microhardness, Ni coating, Ti-6Al-4V

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8 Microstructure Analysis of TI-6AL-4V Friction Stir Welded Joints

Authors: P. Leo, E. Cerri, L. Fratini, G. Buffa


The Friction Stir Welding process uses an inert rotating mandrel and a force on the mandrel normal to the plane of the sheets to generate the frictional heat. The heat and the stirring action of the mandrel create a bond between the two sheets without melting the base metal. As matter of fact, the use of a solid state welding process limits the insurgence of defects, due to the presence of gas in melting bath, and avoids the negative effects of materials metallurgical transformation strictly connected with the change of phase. The industrial importance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is well known. It provides an exceptional good balance of strength, ductility, fatigue and fracture properties together with good corrosion resistance and good metallurgical stability. In this paper, the authors analyze the microstructure of friction stir welded joints of Ti-6Al-4V processed at the same travel speed (35 mm/min) but at different rotation speeds (300-500 rpm). The microstructure of base material (BM), as result from both optical microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis is not homogenous. It is characterized by distorted α/β lamellar microstructure together with smashed zone of fragmented β layer and β retained grain boundary phase. The BM has been welded in the-as received state, without any previous heat treatment. Even the microstructure of the transverse and longitudinal sections of joints is not homogeneous. Close to the top of weld cross sections a much finer microstructure than the initial condition has been observed, while in the center of the joints the microstructure is less refined. Along longitudinal sections, the microstructure is characterized by equiaxed grains and lamellae. Both the length and area fraction of lamellas increases with distance from longitudinal axis. The hardness of joints is higher than that of BM. As the process temperature increases the average microhardness slightly decreases.

Keywords: Microstructure, Microhardness, Friction Stir Welding, Ti-6Al-4V

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7 Effect of Cutting Tools and Working Conditions on the Machinability of Ti-6Al-4V Using Vegetable Oil-Based Cutting Fluids

Authors: S. Gariani, I. Shyha


Cutting titanium alloys are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality, short tool life and high machining costs. This is due to the excessive generation of heat at the cutting zone and difficulties in heat dissipation due to relatively low heat conductivity of this metal. The cooling applications in machining processes are crucial as many operations cannot be performed efficiently without cooling. Improving machinability, increasing productivity, enhancing surface integrity and part accuracy are the main advantages of cutting fluids. Conventional fluids such as mineral oil-based, synthetic and semi-synthetic are the most common cutting fluids in the machining industry. Although, these cutting fluids are beneficial in the industries, they pose a great threat to human health and ecosystem. Vegetable oils (VOs) are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, good lubricous properties, low toxicity, high flash points, low volatility, high viscosity indices and thermal stability. Fatty acids of vegetable oils are known to provide thick, strong, and durable lubricant films. These strong lubricating films give the vegetable oil base stock a greater capability to absorb pressure and high load carrying capacity. This paper details preliminary experimental results when turning Ti-6Al-4V. The impact of various VO-based cutting fluids, cutting tool materials, working conditions was investigated. The full factorial experimental design was employed involving 24 tests to evaluate the influence of process variables on average surface roughness (Ra), tool wear and chip formation. In general, Ra varied between 0.5 and 1.56 µm and Vasco1000 cutting fluid presented comparable performance with other fluids in terms of surface roughness while uncoated coarse grain WC carbide tool achieved lower flank wear at all cutting speeds. On the other hand, all tools tips were subjected to uniform flank wear during whole cutting trails. Additionally, formed chip thickness ranged between 0.1 and 0.14 mm with a noticeable decrease in chip size when higher cutting speed was used.

Keywords: Working conditions, Turning, vegetable oils, Ti-6Al-4V, cutting fluids

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6 Optimising Post-Process Heat Treatments of Selective Laser Melting-Produced Ti-6Al-4V Parts to Achieve Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: Gerrit Ter Haar, Thorsten Becker, Deborah Blaine


The Additive Manufacturing (AM) process of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has seen an exponential growth in sales and development in the past fifteen years. Whereas the capability of SLM was initially limited to rapid prototyping, progress in research and development (R&D) has allowed SLM to be capable of fully functional parts. This technology is still at a primitive stage and technical knowledge of the vast number of variables influencing final part quality is limited. Ongoing research and development of the sensitive printing process and post processes is of utmost importance in order to qualify SLM parts to meet international standards. Quality concerns in Ti-6Al-4V manufactured through SLM has been identified, which include: high residual stresses, part porosity, low ductility and anisotropic mechanical properties. Whereas significant quality improvements have been made through optimising printing parameters, research indicates as-produced part ductility to be a major limiting factor when compared to its wrought counterpart. This study aims at achieving an in-depth understanding of the underlining links between SLM produced Ti-6Al-4V microstructure and its mechanical properties. Knowledge of microstructural transformation kinetics of Ti-6Al-4V allows for the optimisation of post-process heat treatments thereby achieving the required process route to manufacture high quality SLM produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Experimental methods used to evaluate the kinematics of microstructural transformation of SLM Ti-6Al-4V are: optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Results show that a low-temperature heat treatment is capable of transforming the as-produced, martensitic microstructure into a duel-phase microstructure exhibiting both a high strength and improved ductility. Furthermore, isotropy of mechanical properties can be achieved through certain annealing routes. Mechanical properties identical to that of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can, therefore, be achieved through an optimised process route.

Keywords: Microstructural characterisation, Tensile Behaviour, Selective Laser Melting, heat treatments, Ti-6Al-4V, EBSD analysis

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5 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh


Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: Texture, Ti-6Al-4V, additive technology, twins, oxygen content

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4 Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Fawad Inam, Islam Shyha, Salah Gariani, Dehong Huo


A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.

Keywords: micro-hardness, Ti-6Al-4V, impinging supply system, shoulder milling, vegetable oil-based cutting fluid

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3 Multi-Response Optimization of EDM for Ti-6Al-4V Using Taguchi-Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Kishan Fuse, Ritesh Joshi, Gopal Zinzala, Nishit Nirmal


Ti-6Al-4V is a titanium alloy having high strength, low weight and corrosion resistant which is a required characteristic for a material to be used in aerospace industry. Titanium, being a hard alloy is difficult to the machine via conventional methods, so it is a call to use non-conventional processes. In present work, the effects on Ti-6Al-4V by drilling a hole of Ø 6 mm using copper (99%) electrode in Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) process is analyzed. Effect of various input parameters like peak current, pulse-on time and pulse-off time on output parameters viz material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) is studied. Multi-objective optimization technique Grey relational analysis is used for process optimization. Experiments are designed using an L9 orthogonal array. ANOVA is used for finding most contributing parameter followed by confirmation tests for validating the results. Improvement of 7.45% in gray relational grade is observed.

Keywords: ANOVA, Ti-6Al-4V, grey relational analysis, electric discharge machining

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2 Tribological Properties of Different Mass Ratio High Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed Al₂O₃-TiO₂ Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Mehmet Fahri Sarac, Gokcen Akgun


Ti–6Al–4V alloys are widely used in biomedical industries because of its attractive mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, they have poor wear resistance. High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings were investigated as a way to improve the wear resistance of this alloy. In this paper, different mass ratio of Al₂O₃-TiO₂ powders (60/40, 87/13 and 97/3) was employed to enhance the tribological properties of Ti–6Al–4V. The tribological behavior was investigated by wear tests using ball-on-disc and pin-on-disc tribometer. The microstructures of the contact surfaces were determined by a scanning electron microscopy before and after the test to study the wear mechanism. Uncoated and coated surfaces after wear test are also subjected to micro-hardness tests. The tribological test results showed that the microhardness, friction and wear resistance of coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys increases by increasing TiO₂ content in the powder composite when other experimental conditions were constant. Finally, Al₂O₃-TiO₂ powder composites for the investigated conditions, both coating samples had satisfactory values of friction and wear resistance, and they could be suitable candidates for Ti–6Al–4V material.

Keywords: Tribology, Ti-6Al-4V, HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel), Al₂O₃-TiO₂

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1 Testing Capabilities and Limitations of EBM Technology to Guide Design with a Test Artifact Design including Unique Features

Authors: Kadir Akkuş, Burcu A. Hamat, Kaan Ciloglu


Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the respectable improvement of this century in the field of manufacturing and regarded as a breakthrough that represents the third industrial revolution by the leading authorities such as Wohlers Associates Inc., The Economist, and MIT Technology Review. Thanks to the stacking and unifying methodology of AM, design of lighter but stiffer parts with really more complex shapes and geometrical features, which were not possible by traditional subtractive manufacturing methods, became achievable. Through analysis of the AM process must be performed and mechanical properties of manufactured test parts must be studied to provide input for design. Furthermore, process capabilities, constraints, limitations and challenges regarding AM must be examined so that the design must be compatible with the process to be able to take all the advantages of the AM. In this paper, capabilities and limitations of AM will be investigated through a test part including unique features and manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V by employing Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology by comparing to the test parts introduced in literature.

Keywords: EBM, Additive manufacturing, Ti-6Al-4V, DfAM, Test Artifact

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