Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

throughput Related Abstracts

15 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: throughput, DCF, PCF, NS2

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14 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson


This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: Simulation, throughput, average buffer level, merging lines, unbalanced

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13 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Tom Mcnamara, Sabry Shaaban, Sarah Hudson


This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: Simulation, throughput, average buffer level, unreliable unpaced serial lines, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance

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12 Performance of LTE Multicast Systems in the Presence of the Colored Noise Jamming

Authors: S. Malisuwan, J. Sivaraks, N. Madan and N. Suriyakrai


The ever going evolution of advanced wireless technologies makes it financially impossible for military operations to completely manufacture their own equipment. Therefore, Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and Modified-Off-The-Shelf (MOTS) are being considered in military mission with low-cost modifications. In this paper, we focus on the LTE multicast systems for military communication systems under tactical environments with jamming condition. We examine the influence of the colored noise jamming on the performance of the LTE multicast systems in terms of the average throughput. The simulation results demonstrate the degradation of the average throughput for different dynamic ranges of the colored noise jamming versus average SNR.

Keywords: Performance, throughput, multicast, LTE, jamming

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11 A Survey of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, M. R. Gurupriya


Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay Tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.

Keywords: throughput, ETX, opportunistic routing, PSR

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10 Analysis of Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Planning Using High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)

Authors: Yosika Dian Komala, Uke Kurniawan Usman, Yuyun Siti Rohmah


The enable technology fills up needs of high-speed data service is Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). UMTS has a data rate up to 2Mbps.UMTS terrestrial system has a coverage area about 1-2km. High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) can be built by a macro cell that is able to serve the wider area. Design method of UMTS using HAPS is planning base on coverage and capacity. The planning method is simulated with 2.8.1 Atoll’s software. Determination of radius of the cell based on the coverage uses free space loss propagation model. While the capacity planning to determine the average cell through put is available with the Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ).

Keywords: capacity planning, throughput, UMTS, HAPS, coverage planning, signal level, Ec/Io, overlapping zone

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9 Unreliable Production Lines with Simultaneously Unbalanced Operation Time Means, Breakdown, and Repair Rates

Authors: Tom Mcnamara, Sabry Shaaban, Sarah Hudson


This paper investigates the benefits of deliberately unbalancing both operation time means (MTs) and unreliability (failure and repair rates) for non-automated production lines.The lines were simulated with various line lengths, buffer capacities, degrees of imbalance and patterns of MT and unreliability imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput (TR) and average buffer level (ABL) were gathered, analyzed and compared to a balanced line counterpart. A number of conclusions were made with respect to the ranking of configurations, as well as to the relationships among the independent design parameters and the dependent variables. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing MT order, coupled with either a decreasing or a bowl unreliability configuration, with the first generally resulting in a reduced TR and the second leading to a lower ABL than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: throughput, average buffer level, unequal mean operation times, unreliable production lines, unbalanced failure and repair rates

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8 Avoiding Packet Drop for Improved through Put in the Multi-Hop Wireless N/W

Authors: Sanjay Gupta, Manish Kumar Rajak


Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure less and intercommunicate using single-hop and multi-hop paths. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. QoS: A set of service requirements that are met by the network while transferring a packet stream from a source to a destination. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.

Keywords: throughput, manet, mesh networks, threshold, packet count

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7 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta


Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating fiber delay lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: throughput, Non-Linearity, WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering

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6 Theory of Constraints: Approach for Performance Enhancement and Boosting Overhaul Activities

Authors: Sunil Dutta


Synchronization is defined as ‘the sequencing and re-sequencing of all relative and absolute activities in time and space and continuous alignment of those actions with purposeful objective in a complex and dynamic atmosphere. In a complex and dynamic production / maintenance setup, no single group can work in isolation for long. In addition, many activities in projects take place simultaneously at the same time. Work of every section / group is interwoven with work of others. The various activities / interactions which take place in production / overhaul workshops are interlinked because of physical requirements (information, material, workforces, equipment, and space) and dependencies. The activity sequencing is determined by physical dependencies of various department / sections / units (e.g., inventory availability must be ensured before stripping and disassembling of equipment), whereas resource dependencies do not. Theory of constraint facilitates identification, analyses and exploitation of the constraint in methodical manner. These constraints (equipment, manpower, policies etc.) prevent the department / sections / units from getting optimum exploitation of available resources. The significance of theory of constraints for achieving synchronization at overhaul workshop is illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: Uncertainty, throughput, Obsolescence, Synchronization, overhaul

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5 Bottleneck Modeling in Information Technology Service Management

Authors: Abhinay Puvvala, Veerendra Kumar Rai


A bottleneck situation arises when the outflow is lesser than the inflow in a pipe-like setup. A more practical interpretation of bottlenecks emphasizes on the realization of Service Level Objectives (SLOs) at given workloads. Our approach detects two key aspects of bottlenecks – when and where. To identify ‘when’ we continuously poll on certain key metrics such as resource utilization, processing time, request backlog and throughput at a system level. Further, when the slope of the expected sojourn time at a workload is greater than ‘K’ times the slope of expected sojourn time at the previous step of the workload while the workload is being gradually increased in discrete steps, a bottleneck situation arises. ‘K’ defines the threshold condition and is computed based on the system’s service level objectives. The second aspect of our approach is to identify the location of the bottleneck. In multi-tier systems with a complex network of layers, it is a challenging problem to locate bottleneck that affects the overall system performance. We stage the system by varying workload incrementally to draw a correlation between load increase and system performance to the point where Service Level Objectives are violated. During the staging process, multiple metrics are monitored at hardware and application levels. The correlations are drawn between metrics and the overall system performance. These correlations along with the Service Level Objectives are used to arrive at the threshold conditions for each of these metrics. Subsequently, the same method used to identify when a bottleneck occurs is used on metrics data with threshold conditions to locate bottlenecks.

Keywords: throughput, workload, bottleneck, service level objectives (SLOs), system performance

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4 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Eva Selene Hernández-Gress, Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero


A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: throughput, Petri nets, buffer allocation problem, production lines

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3 A Multilevel Authentication Protocol: MAP in VANET for Human Safety

Authors: M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Meddeb, A. M. Makhlouf


Due to the real-time requirement of message in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), it is necessary to authenticate vehicles to achieve security, efficiency, and conditional privacy-preserving. Privacy is of utmost relevance in VANETs. For this reason, we have proposed a new protocol called ‘Multilevel Authentication Protocol’ (MAP) that considers different vehicle categories. The proposed protocol is based on our Multilevel Authentication protocol for Vehicular networks (MAVnet). But the MAP leads to human safety, where the priority is given to the ambulance vehicles. For evaluation, we used the Java language to develop a demo application and deployed it on the Network Security Simulation (Nessi2). Compared with existing authentication protocols, MAP markedly enhance the communication overhead and decreases the delay of exchanging messages while preserving conditional privacy.

Keywords: Privacy, Databases, Safety, Authentication, throughput, delay, Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), vehicle categories

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2 Evaluating the Success of an Intervention Course in a South African Engineering Programme

Authors: Alessandra Chiara Maraschin, Estelle Trengove


In South Africa, only 23% of engineering students attain their degrees in the minimum time of 4 years. This begs the question: Why is the 4-year throughput rate so low? Improving the throughput rate is crucial in assisting students to the shortest possible path to completion. The Electrical Engineering programme has a fixed curriculum and students must pass all courses in order to graduate. In South Africa, as is the case in several other countries, many students rely on external funding such as bursaries from companies in industry. If students fail a course, they often lose their bursaries, and most might not be able to fund their 'repeating year' fees. It is thus important to improve the throughput rate, since for many students, graduating from university is a way out of poverty for an entire family. In Electrical Engineering, it has been found that the Software Development I course (an introduction to C++ programming) is a significant hurdle course for students and has been found to have a low pass rate. It has been well-documented that students struggle with this type of course as it introduces a number of new threshold concepts that can be challenging to grasp in a short time frame. In an attempt to mitigate this situation, a part-time night-school for Software Development I was introduced in 2015 as an intervention measure. The course includes all the course material from the Software Development I module and allows students who failed the course in first semester a second chance by repeating the course through taking the night-school course. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the introduction of this intervention course could be considered a success. The success of the intervention is assessed in two ways. The study will first look at whether the night-school course contributed to improving the pass rate of the Software Development I course. Secondly, the study will examine whether the intervention contributed to improving the overall throughput from the 2nd year to the 3rd year of study at a South African University. Second year academic results for a sample of 1216 students have been collected from 2010-2017. Preliminary results show that the lowest pass rate for Software Development I was found to be in 2017 with a pass rate of 34.9%. Since the intervention course's inception, the pass rate for Software Development I has increased each year from 2015-2017 by 13.75%, 25.53% and 25.81% respectively. To conclude, the preliminary results show that the intervention course is a success in improving the pass rate of Software Development I.

Keywords: Electrical Engineering, Engineering Education, throughput, Academic Performance, intervention course, low pass rate, software development course

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1 A Comparative Study on South-East Asian Leading Container Ports: Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Chennai, Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports

Authors: Jonardan Koner, Avinash Purandare


In today’s globalized world international business is a very key area for the country's growth. Some of the strategic areas for holding up a country’s international business to grow are in the areas of connecting Ports, Road Network, and Rail Network. India’s International Business is booming both in Exports as well as Imports. Ports play a very central part in the growth of international trade and ensuring competitive ports is of critical importance. India has a long coastline which is a big asset for the country as it has given the opportunity for development of a large number of major and minor ports which will contribute to the maritime trades’ development. The National Economic Development of India requires a well-functioning seaport system. To know the comparative strength of Indian ports over South-east Asian similar ports, the study is considering the objectives of (I) to identify the key parameters of an international mega container port, (II) to compare the five selected container ports (JNPT, Chennai, Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports) according to user of the ports and iii) to measure the growth of selected five container ports’ throughput over time and their comparison. The study is based on both primary and secondary databases. The linear time trend analysis is done to show the trend in quantum of exports, imports and total goods/services handled by individual ports over the years. The comparative trend analysis is done for the selected five ports of cargo traffic handled in terms of Tonnage (weight) and number of containers (TEU’s). The comparative trend analysis is done between containerized and non-containerized cargo traffic in the five selected five ports. The primary data analysis is done comprising of comparative analysis of factor ratings through bar diagrams, statistical inference of factor ratings for the selected five ports, consolidated comparative line charts of factor rating for the selected five ports, consolidated comparative bar charts of factor ratings of the selected five ports and the distribution of ratings (frequency terms). The linear regression model is used to forecast the container capacities required for JNPT Port and Chennai Port by the year 2030. Multiple regression analysis is carried out to measure the impact of selected 34 explanatory variables on the ‘Overall Performance of the Port’ for each of the selected five ports. The research outcome is of high significance to the stakeholders of Indian container handling ports. Indian container port of JNPT and Chennai are benchmarked against international ports such as Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports which are the competing ports in the neighbouring region. The study has analysed the feedback ratings for the selected 35 factors regarding physical infrastructure and services rendered to the port users. This feedback would provide valuable data for carrying out improvements in the facilities provided to the port users. These installations would help the ports’ users to carry out their work in more efficient manner.

Keywords: throughput, freight forwarders, twenty equivalent units, TEUs, cargo traffic, shipping lines

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