Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Thin Films Related Abstracts

48 Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: C. L Popa, C.S. Ciobanu, S. L. Iconaru, P. Chapon, A. Costescu, P. Le Coustumer, D. Predoi

Abstract:

In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.

Keywords: Thin Films, Silver, SEM, hydroxyapatite, GDOES, FTIR, antimicrobial effect

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47 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: Thin Films, aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching

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46 Photovoltaic Performance of AgInSe2-Conjugated Polymer Hybrid Systems

Authors: Dinesh Pathaka, Tomas Wagnera, J. M. Nunzib

Abstract:

We investigated blends of MdPVV.PCBM.AIS for photovoltaic application. AgInSe2 powder was synthesized by sealing and heating the stoichiometric constituents in evacuated quartz tube ampule. Fine grinded AIS powder was dispersed in MD-MOPVV and PCBM with and without surfactant. Different concentrations of these particles were suspended in the polymer solutions and spin casted onto ITO glass. Morphological studies have been performed by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. The blend layers were also investigated by various techniques like XRD, UV-VIS optical spectroscopy, AFM, PL, after a series of various optimizations with polymers/concentration/deposition/ suspension/surfactants etc. XRD investigation of blend layers shows clear evidence of AIS dispersion in polymers. Diode behavior and cell parameters also revealed it. Bulk heterojunction hybrid photovoltaic device Ag/MoO3/MdPVV.PCBM.AIS/ZnO/ITO was fabricated and tested with standard solar simulator and device characterization system. The best performance and photovoltaic parameters we obtained was an open-circuit voltage of about Voc 0.54 V and a photocurrent of Isc 117 micro A and an efficiency of 0.2 percent using a white light illumination intensity of 23 mW/cm2. Our results are encouraging for further research on the fourth generation inorganic organic hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaics for energy. More optimization with spinning rate/thickness/solvents/deposition rates for active layers etc. need to be explored for improved photovoltaic response of these bulk heterojunction devices.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Thin Films, Photovoltaic, heterojunction

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
45 Microstructural and Transport Properties of La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 Thin Films Obtained by Metal-Organic Deposition

Authors: K. Daoudi, Z. Othmen, S. El Helali, M.Oueslati, M. Oumezzine

Abstract:

La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 thin films have been epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (001) single-crystal substrates by metal organic deposition process. The structural and micro structural properties of the obtained films have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission microscopy observations on cross-sections techniques. We noted a close dependence of the crystallinity on the used substrate and the film thickness. By increasing the annealing temperature to 1000ºC and the film thickness to 100 nm, the electrical resistivity was decreased by several orders of magnitude. The film resistivity reaches approximately 3~4 x10-4 Ω.cm in a wide interval of temperature 77-320 K, making this material a promising candidate for a variety of applications.

Keywords: Thin Films, Epitaxial Growth, TEM, cobaltite, MOD

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44 Study of Nanocrystalline Al Doped Zns Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: Hamid Merzouk, Djahida Touati-Talantikite, Amina Zaabar

Abstract:

New nanosized materials are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made to the design and control fabrication of nanostructured semiconductors such zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work the preparation and characterization of ZnS and Al doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Al doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and manganese acetate as manganese ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuKα radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1.The transmittance (70 %) is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Al doping.

Keywords: Thin Films, ZnS, nanostructured semiconductors, chemical bath deposition

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43 Study Of Cu Doped Zns Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: H. Merzouka, D. T. Talantikitea, S. Fettouchib, L. Nessarkb

Abstract:

Recently New nanosized materials studies are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made in design and control fabrication of nano-structured semiconductors such as zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Cu doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and copper acetate as Cu ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuK radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1. The transmittance is more than 70 % is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Cu doping.

Keywords: Thin Films, Nanostructured, FTIR, XRD, Cu doped ZnS, CBD

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42 Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry

Authors: K. Kefif, Y. Bouizem, A. Belfedal, D. J. Sib, K. Zellama, l. Chahed

Abstract:

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.

Keywords: Thin Films, Raman spectroscopy, Silicon, structural properties, Ellipsometry

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41 Microstructural Study of Mechanically Alloyed Powders and the Thin Films of Cufe Alloys

Authors: Mechri hanane, Azzaz Mohammed

Abstract:

Polycrystalline CuFe thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation process (Physical vapor deposition), using the nanocrystalline CuFe powder obtained by mechanical alloying After 24 h of milling elemental powders. The microscopic study of nanocrystalline powder and the thin film of Cu70Fe30 binary alloy were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cross-sectional TEM images showed that the obtained CuFe layer was polycrystalline film of about 20 nm thick and composed of grains of different size ranging from 4 nm to 18 nm.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Thin Films, SEM, TEM

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40 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: Thin Films, X-Ray Diffraction, MEB, thin disulfide, ultrasonic spray, UV spectroscopy visible

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39 Elaboration and Characterization of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf, I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by spray ultrasonic technique on glass substrates at different experimental conditions. The effect of deposition time (2, 4, 6, and 7 min) on different properties of SnS2 thin films was investigated by XRD and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction study detected the preferential orientation growth of SnS2 compound having structure along (001) plane increased with the deposition time. The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum showed that films deposited at 4 min have high transmittance, up to 60%, in the visible region.

Keywords: Thin Films, ultrasonic spray, structural and optical properties, tin sulfide

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38 Sol-Gel SiO2-TiO2 Multilayer Coatings for Anti-Reflective Applications

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: Thin Films, Multilayer, Optical Properties, sol-gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
37 Anti-Reflective Nanostructured TiO2/SiO2 Multilayer Coatings

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and also nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: Thin Films, Multilayer, Optical Properties, sol-gel

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36 Effect of Deposition Time on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi, A. Attaf

Abstract:

Tin sulfide thin films on glass substrate were prepared by spray ultrasonic technique, at different experimental conditions. The influence of deposition time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on different properties of thin films, such us, (XRD) and (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. X-ray diffraction showing that thin films crystallized in SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3 phases. The results of (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 4 min are large transmittance 60% in the visible region.

Keywords: Thin Films, X-Ray Diffraction, SNS, ultrasonic spray, UV spectroscopy visible

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
35 Influence of the Molar Concentration and Substrate Temperature on Fluorine-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Chemically Sprayed

Authors: J. Ramirez, A. Maldonado, M. de la L. Olvera

Abstract:

The effect of both the molar concentration of the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the electrical, morphological, structural and optical properties of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on glass substrates, is analyzed in this work. All the starting solutions employed were aged for ten days before the deposition. The results show that as the molar concentration increases, a decrease in the electrical resistivity values is obtained, reaching the minimum in films deposited from a 0.4 M solution at 500°C. A further increase in the molar concentration leads to a very slight increase in the resistivity. On the other hand, as the substrate temperature is increased, the resistivity decreases and a tendency towards to minimum value is evidenced; taking the molar concentration as parameter, minimum values are reached at 500°C. The attain of ZnO:F thin films, with a resistivity as low as 7.8×10-3 Ώcm (sheet resistance of 130 Ώ/☐ and film thickness of 600 nm) measured in as-deposited films is reported here for the first time. The concurrent effect of the high molar concentration of the starting solution, the substrate temperature values used, and the ageing of the starting solution, which might cause polymerization of the zinc ions with the fluorine species, enhance the electrical properties. The structure of the films is polycrystalline, with a (002) preferential growth. Molar concentration rules the surface morphology as at low concentration an hexagonal and porous structure is developed changing to a uniform compact and small grain size surface in the films deposited with the high molar concentrations.

Keywords: Thin Films, zinc oxide, chemical spray, TCO

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34 Solar Cell Using Chemical Bath Deposited PbS:Bi3+ Films as Electron Collecting Layer

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Chemical bath deposited PbS:Bi3+ as an electron collection layer is introduced between the silicon wafer and the Ag electrode the performance of the PbS heterojunction thin film solar thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area. We employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. The experimental results reveal that the cell response parameters depend critically on the deposition procedures in terms of bath temperature, deposition time. The device achieves an open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Thin Films, Solar Cell, Pbs, Bi doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
33 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: Thin Films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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32 Low Temperature Solution Processed Solar Cell Based on ITO/PbS/PbS:Bi3+ Heterojunction

Authors: M. Chavez, H. Juarez, M. Pacio, O. Portillo

Abstract:

PbS chemical bath heterojunction sollar cells have shown significant improvements in performance. Here we demonstrate a solar cell based on the heterojunction formed between PbS layer and PbS:Bi3+ thin films that are deposited via solution process at 40°C. The device achieve an current density of 4 mA/cm2. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Thin Films, Solar Cell, Bismuth, PbS doped

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31 Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

Authors: Janella Salamania, Marcedon Fernandez, Matthew Villanueva Henry Ramos

Abstract:

Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.

Keywords: Coatings, Thin Films, Nitrides, reactive magnetron sputtering

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30 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by CBD at Different Bath pH

Authors: Lynda Beddek, Nadhir Attaf, Mohamed Salah Aida

Abstract:

PbS thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precursor aqueous bath contained 1 mole of lead nitrate, 1 mole of Thiourea and complexing agents (triethanolamine (TEA) and NaOH). Bath temperature and deposition time were fixed at 60°C and 3 hours, respectively. However, the PH of bath was varied from 10.5 to 12.5. Structural properties of the deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The preferred direction was revealed to be along (111) and the PbS crystal structure was confirmed. Strains and grains sizes were also calculated. Optical studies showed that films thicknesses do not exceed 600nm. Energy band gap values of films decreases with increase in pH and reached a value ~ 0.4eV at pH equal 12.5. The small value of the energy band gap makes PbS one of the most interesting candidate for solar energy conversion near the infrared ray.

Keywords: Thin Films, X-Ray Diffraction, Pbs, CBD

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29 Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres

Authors: J. Pantoja Enríquez, G. P. Hernández, G. I. Duharte, X. Mathew, J. Moreira, P. J. Sebastian

Abstract:

Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.

Keywords: Optical, Thin Films, Electrical Properties, annealing, CDS

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28 Thorium-Doped PbS Thin Films for Radiation Damage Studies

Authors: Michael Shandalov, Tzvi Templeman, Michael Schmidt, Itzhak Kelson, Eyal Yahel

Abstract:

We present a new method to produce a model system for the study of radiation damage in non-radioactive materials. The method is based on homogeneously incorporating 228Th ions in PbS thin films using a small volume chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The common way to alloy metals with radioactive elements is by melting pure elements, which requires considerable amounts of radioactive material with its safety consequences such as high sample activity. Controlled doping of the thin films with (very) small amounts (100-200ppm) of radioactive elements such as thorium is expected to provide a unique path for studying radiation damage in materials due to decay processes without the need of sealed enclosure. As a first stage, we developed CBD process for controlled doping of PbS thin films (~100 nm thick) with the stable isotope (t1/2~106 years), 232Th. Next, we developed CBD process for controlled doping of PbS thin films with active 228Th isotope. This was achieved by altering deposition parameters such as temperature, pH, reagent concentrations and time. The 228Th-doped films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, which indicated a single phase material. Film morphology and thickness were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping in the analytical transmission electron microscope (A-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles and autoradiography indicated that the Th ions were homogeneously distributed throughout the films, suggesting Pb substitution by Th ions in the crystal lattice. The properties of the PbS (228Th) film activity were investigated by using alpha-spectroscopy and gamma spectroscopy. The resulting films are applicable for isochronal annealing of resistivity measurements and currently under investigation. This work shows promise as a model system for the analysis of dilute defect systems in semiconductor thin films.

Keywords: Doping, Thin Films, Radiation Damage, chemical bath deposition

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27 Electrodeposition and Selenization of Cuin Alloys for the Synthesis of Photoactive Cu2in1-X Gax Se2 (Cigs) Thin Films

Authors: Mohamed Benaicha, Mahdi Allam

Abstract:

A new two stage electrochemical process as a safe, large area and low processing cost technique for the production of semi-conducting CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films is studied. CuIn precursors were first potentiostatically electrodeposited onto molybdenum substrates from an acidic thiocyanate electrolyte. In a second stage, the prepared metallic CuIn layers were used as substrate in the selenium electrochemical deposition system and subjected to a thermal treatment in vacuum atmosphere, to eliminate binary phase formation by reaction of the Cu2-x Se and InxSey selenides, leading to the formation of CuInSe2 thin film. Electrochemical selenization from aqueous electrolyte is introduced as an alternative to toxic and hazardous H2Se or Se vapor phase selenization used in physical techniques. In this study, the influence of film deposition parameters such as bath composition, temperature and potential on film properties was studied. The electrochemical, morphological, structural and compositional properties of electrodeposited thin films were characterized using various techniques. Results of Cyclic and Stripping-Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, SCV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (EDX) investigations revealed good reproducibility and homogeneity of the film composition. Thereby optimal technological parameters for the electrochemical production of CuIn, Se as precursors for CuInSe2 thin layers are determined.

Keywords: Thin Films, Photovoltaic, Copper Alloys, electrodeposition, CIGS

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26 Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured Acropora-Like Lead Sulfide Thin Films

Authors: S. Kaci, A. Keffous, O. Fellahi, I. Bozetine, H. Menari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of Acropora-like lead sulfide nanostructured thin films using chemical bath deposition. The method has the strong points of low temperature and no surfactant, comparing with the other method. The preferential growth directions of the broad branches were indexed as along (200) directions. The photoelectrochemical property of the as-deposited thin films was also investigated. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed in the aim to determine the flat band potential (Vfb) and to confirm the n-type character of PbS, elucidated from the J(V) curves both in the dark and under illumination. The apparition of the photocurrent Jph started at a potential VON of −0.41 V/ECS and increased towards the anodic direction, which is typical of n-type behavior. The near infrared absorbance spectrum displayed an absorbance edge at 1959 nm, showing blue shift comparing to bulk PbS (3020 nm). These nanostructured lead sulfide thin films may have potential application as dispersed photoelectrode capable of generating H2 under visible light.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Thin Films, lead sulfide, photo-conversion

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25 The Development of Solar Cells to Maximize the Utilization of Solar Energy in Al-Baha Area

Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Alghamdi, Hazem Mahmoud Ali Darwish, Mostafa Mohamed Abdelraheem

Abstract:

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) possess low resistivity, exhibit good adherence to many substrates, and have good transmission characteristics from the visible to near-infrared wavelengths, which make it useful for various applications. Thin films of transparent conducting oxide (TCO’s) have received much attention because of their wide applications in the field of optoelectronic devices. Advancement of transparent conducting oxides TCO’s may not only lie within the improvement of existing materials in use, but also the development of novel materials. Solar cells are devices, which convert solar energy into electricity, either directly via the photovoltaic effect, or indirectly by first converting the solar energy to heat or chemical energy. Solar power has attracted attention of late as the most advanced of the alternative energy resources. The project aims to access the solar energy in Al-Baha region by search for materials (transparent-conductive oxides (TCO's)) to use in solar cells with highly transparent to the solar spectrum, have low electrical resistivity, be stable under H-plasma, and have a suitable structure in particular for a-Si solar cells. As the PV surface is exposed to the sunlight, the module temperature increases. High ambient temperatures along with long sunlight exposure time increases the temperature impact on PV cells efficiency. Since Al-Baha area is characterized by an atmosphere and pressure different from their counterparts in Saudi Arabia due to the height above sea level, hence it is appropriate to do studies to improve the efficiency of solar cells under these conditions. In this work, some ion change materials will be deposited using either sputtering/ or electron beam evaporation techniques. The optical properties of the synthesized materials will be studied in details for solar cell application. As we will study the effect of some dyes on the optical properties of the prepared films. The efficiency and other parameters of solar cell will be determined.

Keywords: Thin Films, Electrical Properties, Solar Cell, Optical Properties

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24 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal

Abstract:

We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Thin Films, Sol-Gel Method, ferromagnetic, Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2

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23 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties

Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutebakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf

Abstract:

CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: Copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Thin Films, spray pyrolysis, cuprous oxide, precursor solution

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22 Microstructure Analysis and Multiple Photoluminescence in High Temperature Electronic Conducting InZrZnO Thin Films

Authors: P. Jayaram, Prasoon Prasannan, N. K. Deepak, P. P. Pradyumnan

Abstract:

Indium and Zirconium co doped zinc oxide (InZrZnO) thin films are prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method on pre-heated quartz substrates. The films are subjected to vacuum annealing at 400ᵒC for three hours in an appropriate air (10-5mbar) ambience after deposition. X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence are used to characterize the films. Temperature dependent electrical measurements are conducted on the films and the films exhibit exceptional conductivity at higher temperatures. XRD analysis shows that all the films prepared in this work have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite sizes of the films were calculated using Scherrer’s formula, and uniform deformation model (UDM) of Williamson-Hall method is used to establish the micro-strain values. The dislocation density is determined from the Williamson and Smallman’s formula. Intense, broad and strongly coupled multiple photoluminescence were observed from photoluminescence spectra. PL indicated relatively high concentration defective oxygen and Zn vacancies in the film composition. Strongly coupled ultraviolet near blue emissions authenticate that the dopants are capable of inducing modulated free excitonic (FX), donor accepter pair (DAP) and longitudinal optical phonon emissions in thin films.

Keywords: Thin Films, SEM, XRD, TCOs

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21 Rare-Earth Ions Doped Zirconium Oxide Layers for Optical and Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Sylwia Gieraltowska, Lukasz Wachnicki, Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Marek Godlewski

Abstract:

Oxide layers doped with rare-earth (RE) ions in optimized way can absorb short (ultraviolet light), which will be converted to visible light by so-called down-conversion. Down-conversion mechanisms are usually exploited to modify the incident solar spectrum. In down conversion, multiple low-energy photons are generated to exploit the energy of one incident high-energy photon. These RE-doped oxide materials have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of their potential for optical manipulation in optical devices (detectors, temperature sensors, and compact solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes), bio-analysis, medical therapy, display technologies, and light harvesting (such as in photovoltaic cells). The zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped RE ions (Eu, Tb, Ce) multilayer structures were tested as active layers, which can convert short wave emission to light in the visible range (the down-conversion mechanism). For these applications original approach of deposition ZrO2 layers using the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method and doping these layers with RE ions using the spin-coating technique was used. ALD films are deposited at relatively low temperature (well below 250°C). This can be an effective method to achieve the white-light emission and to improve on this way light conversion efficiency, by an extension of absorbed spectral range by a solar cell material. Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement are analyzed. The research was financially supported by the National Science Centre (decision No. DEC-2012/06/A/ST7/00398 and DEC- 2013/09/N/ST5/00901).

Keywords: Thin Films, photovoltaics, ALD, oxide layers

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20 Inorganic Microporous Membranes Fabricated by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition

Authors: Damian A. Mooney, Michael T. P. Mc Cann, J. M. Don MacElroy, Olli Antson, Denis P. Dowling

Abstract:

Atmospheric pressure plasma liquid deposition (APPLD) is a novel technology used for the deposition of thin films via the injection of a reactive liquid precursor into a high-energy discharge plasma at ambient pressure. In this work, APPLD, utilising a TEOS precursor, was employed to produce asymmetric membranes consisting of a thin (100 nm) layer of deposited silica on a microporous silica support in order to assess their suitability for high temperature gas separation applications. He and N₂ gas permeability measurements were made for each of the fabricated membranes and a maximum ideal He/N₂ selectivity of 66 was observed at room temperature. He, N₂ and CO2 gas permeances were also measured at the elevated temperature of 673K and ideal He/N₂ and CO₂/N₂ selectivities of 300 and 7.4, respectively, were observed. The results suggest that this plasma-based deposition technique can be a viable method for the manufacture of membranes for the efficient separation of high temperature, post-combustion gases, including that of CO₂/N₂ where the constituent gases differ in size by fractions of an Ångstrom.

Keywords: Thin Films, High Temperature, CO2 separation, asymmetric membrane, plasma deposition

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19 Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry

Authors: Aïssa Manallah, Mohamed Bouafia

Abstract:

Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Thin Films, optical constants, Ellipsometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 175