Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

thermodynamic Related Abstracts

6 A Thermodynamic Study of Parameters that Affect the Nitration of Glycerol with Nitric Acid

Authors: Erna Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Rochmadi, Supranto

Abstract:

Biodiesel production from vegetable oil will produce glycerol as by-product about 10% of the biodiesel production. The amount of glycerol that was produced needed alternative way to handling immediately so as to not become the waste that polluted environment. One of the solutions was to process glycerol to polyglycidyl nitrate (PGN). PGN is synthesized from glycerol by three-step reactions i.e. nitration of glycerol, cyclization of 13- dinitroglycerine and polymerization of glycosyl nitrate. Optimum condition of nitration of glycerol with nitric acid has not been known. Thermodynamic feasibility should be done before run experiments in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to determine the parameters those affect nitration of glycerol and nitric acid and chose the operation condition. Many parameters were simulated to verify its possibility to experiment under conditions which would get the highest conversion of 1, 3-dinitroglycerine and which was the ideal condition to get it. The parameters that need to be studied to obtain the highest conversion of 1, 3-dinitroglycerine were mol ratio of nitric acid/glycerol, reaction temperature, mol ratio of glycerol/dichloromethane and pressure. The highest conversion was obtained in the range of mol ratio of nitric acid /glycerol between 2/1 – 5/1, reaction temperature of 5-25o C and pressure of 1 atm. The parameters that need to be studied further to obtain the highest conversion of 1.3 DNG are mol ratio of nitric acid/glycerol and reaction temperature.

Keywords: thermodynamic, glycerol, Nitration, optimum condition

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5 Enhanced Biosorption of Copper Ions by Luffa Cylindrica: Biosorbent Characterization and Batch Experiments

Authors: Nouacer Imane, Benalia Mokhtar, Djedid Mabrouk

Abstract:

The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbons (PAC) derived from Luffa cylindrica investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbents for the control of Cu(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from local luffa cylindrica, were prepared by chemical activation methods using ZnCl2 as activating reagents. Adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of pH, initial adsorbent concentration, the effect of particle size, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper onto grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber was found to be 14.23 mg/g with best fit for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, ∆H (-0.823 kJ/mol), entropy change, ∆S (-9.35 J/molK) and free energy change, ∆G (−1.56 kJ/mol) were also calculated. Adsorption process was found spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Finally, the luffa cylindrica has been evaluated by FTIR, MO and x-ray diffraction in order to determine if the biosorption process modifies its chemical structure and morphology, respectively. Luffa cylindrica has been proven to be an efficient biomaterial useful for heavy metal separation purposes that is not altered by the process.

Keywords: thermodynamic, Adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, luffa sponge

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4 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Discharge Modes of an Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage System

Authors: Shane D. Inder, Mehrdad Khamooshi

Abstract:

Efficient energy storage is a crucial factor in facilitating the uptake of renewable energy resources. Among the many options available for energy storage systems required to balance imbalanced supply and demand cycles, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven technology in grid-scale applications. This paper reviews the current state of micro scale CAES technology and describes a micro-scale advanced adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) system, where heat generated during compression is stored for use in the discharge phase. It will also describe a thermodynamic model, developed in EES (Engineering Equation Solver) to evaluate the performance and critical parameters of the discharge phase of the proposed system. Three configurations are explained including: single turbine without preheater, two turbines with preheaters, and three turbines with preheaters. It is shown that the micro-scale A-CAES is highly dependent upon key parameters including; regulator pressure, air pressure and volume, thermal energy storage temperature and flow rate and the number of turbines. It was found that a micro-scale AA-CAES, when optimized with an appropriate configuration, could deliver energy input to output efficiency of up to 70%.

Keywords: thermodynamic, CAES, adiabatic compressed air energy storage, expansion phase, micro generation

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3 Environmental and Economic Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Unit Onboard Marine Vehicles: Case Study of Passenger Vessel

Authors: Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Nader R. Ammar

Abstract:

One of the most important equipment that affects the performance of passenger ships is the air conditioning system, which in turn consumes considerable electric loads. In this paper, the waste heat energies of exhaust gases and jacket cooling water of marine diesel engines for these ships are analyzed to be used as heat sources for absorption refrigeration unit (ARU). Economic and environmental analysis of the absorption refrigeration cycle operated with the two heat sources that use lithium bromide as absorbent is carried out. In addition, environmental and economic analysis for the absorption cycle is performed. As a case study, high-speed passenger vessel operating in the Red Sea area has been investigated. The results show that a considerable specific economic benefit could be achieved in case of applying absorption air condition that operates by water cooling system over that operates by main engine exhaust gases. Environmentally, applying ARU machine during cruise will reduce total ship’s fuel consumption by about 104 ton per year. This will result in reducing NOₓ, SOₓ, and CO₂ emissions with cost-effectiveness of 6.99 $/kg, 18.44 $/kg, and 0.117 $/kg, respectively.

Keywords: Analysis, thermodynamic, IMO, ship emissions, lithium bromide-water ARU, economic and environmental analysis

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2 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Ahmed I. Shehab, Sabah M. Abdel Basir, M. A. Abdel Khalek, M. H. Soliman, G. Elgemeie

Abstract:

Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

Keywords: thermodynamic, Thermal treatment, Regeneration, Reactivation, dye removal, spent bleaching earth

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1 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717

Authors: Ali Dinarveis

Abstract:

This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.

Keywords: Energy, thermodynamic, Exergy, Refrigeration, vapour

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