Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

thermodynamic parameters Related Abstracts

3 Physico-Chemical Basis of Thermal Destruction of Benzo(a)Pyrene and Reducing Their Concentration in the Gas Phase

Authors: K. A. Kemelov, Z. K. Maymekov, D. A. Sambaeva, W. Frenzel

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene is widespread carcinogenic and mutagenic environmental pollutant, which is formed in combustion processes of carbonaceous materials at high temperature and still health safety problem related benz(a)pyrene continues to remain actual. At the moment the mechanisms of formation of benzo(a)pyrene are not studied in detail, there is not concrete certain full scheme of synthesis of benzo(a)pyrene. Studies in this area are mainly dedicated to development of measuring tools and chemical reactions analyzes, or to obtain specific evidence of a large group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Consequently in this study we try to create physical and chemical model of oxidation and thermo destruction processes of benzo(a)pyrene, using critical thermodynamical parameters in order to estimate theoretical derivatives of benzo(a)pyrene and which conditions benzo(a)pyrene degraded into more harmful substances. According to this physical and chemical modeling of thermal destruction process of benzo(a)pyrene in wide ranges of change of temperature value were calculated. C20H12 - H2O-O2 system was taken for modeling of thermal destruction process of benzo(a)pyrene in order to establish distribution range of equilibrium structures and concentrations of molecules in a gas phase. Also technological ways of reduction of concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in a gas phase were supposed.

Keywords: Emission, benzo(a)pyrene, PAH, thermodynamic parameters

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2 Effect of Acid-Basic Treatments of Lingocellulosic Material Forest Wastes Wild Carob on Ethyl Violet Dye Adsorption

Authors: Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Tariq Yahyaoui, Hichem Attout

Abstract:

The effect of acid -basic treatment of lingocellulosic material (forest wastes wild carob) on Ethyl violet adsorption was investigated. It was found that surface chemistry plays an important role in Ethyl violet (EV) adsorption. HCl treatment produces more active acidic surface groups such as carboxylic and lactone, resulting in an increase in the adsorption of EV dye. The adsorption efficiency was higher for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH. Maximum biosorption capacity was 170 and 130 mg/g, for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH at pH 6 respectively. It was also found that the time to reach equilibrium takes less than 25 min for both treated materials. The adsorption of basic dye (i.e., ethyl violet or basic violet 4) was carried out by varying some process parameters, such as initial concentration, pH and temperature. The adsorption process can be well described by means of a pseudo-second-order reaction model showing that boundary layer resistance was not the rate-limiting step, as confirmed by intraparticle diffusion since the linear plot of Qt versus t^0.5 did not pass through the origin. In addition, experimental data were accurately expressed by the Sips equation if compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The values of ΔG° and ΔH° confirmed that the adsorption of EV on acid-basic treated forest wast wild carob was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The positive values of ΔS° suggested an irregular increase of the randomness at the treated lingocellulosic material -solution interface during the adsorption process.

Keywords: Adsorption, thermodynamic parameters, isotherm models, wild carob

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1 Applicability and Reusability of Fly Ash and Base Treated Fly Ash for Adsorption of Catechol from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Modeling

Authors: S. Agarwal, A. Rani

Abstract:

Catechol is a natural polyphenolic compound that widely exists in higher plants such as teas, vegetables, fruits, tobaccos, and some traditional Chinese medicines. The fly ash-based zeolites are capable of absorbing a wide range of pollutants. But the process of zeolite synthesis is time-consuming and requires technical setups by the industries. The marketed costs of zeolites are quite high restricting its use by small-scale industries for the removal of phenolic compounds. The present research proposes a simple method of alkaline treatment of FA to produce an effective adsorbent for catechol removal from wastewater. The experimental parameter such as pH, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of catechol were studied in batch reactor. For this purpose the adsorbent materials were mixed with aqueous solutions containing catechol ranging in 50 – 200 mg/L initial concentrations and then shaken continuously in a thermostatic Orbital Incubator Shaker at 30 ± 0.1 °C for 24 h. The samples were withdrawn from the shaker at predetermined time interval and separated by centrifugation (Centrifuge machine MBL-20) at 2000 rpm for 4 min. to yield a clear supernatant for analysis of the equilibrium concentrations of the solutes. The concentrations were measured with Double Beam UV/Visible spectrophotometer (model Spectrscan UV 2600/02) at the wavelength of 275 nm for catechol. In the present study, the use of low-cost adsorbent (BTFA) derived from coal fly ash (FA), has been investigated as a substitute of expensive methods for the sequestration of catechol. The FA and BTFA adsorbents were well characterized by XRF, FE-SEM with EDX, FTIR, and surface area and porosity measurement which proves the chemical constituents, functional groups and morphology of the adsorbents. The catechol adsorption capacities of synthesized BTFA and native material were determined. The adsorption was slightly increased with an increase in pH value. The monolayer adsorption capacities of FA and BTFA for catechol were 100 mg g⁻¹ and 333.33 mg g⁻¹ respectively, and maximum adsorption occurs within 60 minutes for both adsorbents used in this test. The equilibrium data are fitted by Freundlich isotherm found on the basis of error analysis (RMSE, SSE, and χ²). Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and exothermic on the basis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS°, and ΔH°). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model better fitted the data for both FA and BTFA. BTFA showed large adsorptive characteristics, high separation selectivity, and excellent recyclability than FA. These findings indicate that BTFA could be employed as an effective and inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of catechol from wastewater.

Keywords: Kinetics, fly ash, isotherms, catechol, thermodynamic parameters

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