Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Thermal Storage Related Abstracts

5 The Effect of Internal Electrical Ion Mobility on Molten Salts through Atomistic Simulations

Authors: Carlos F. Sanz-Navarro, Sonia Fereres


Binary and ternary mixtures of molten salts are excellent thermal energy storage systems and have been widely used in commercial tanks both in nuclear and solar thermal applications. However, the energy density of the commercially used mixtures is still insufficient, and therefore, new systems based on latent heat storage (or phase change materials, PCM) are currently being investigated. In order to shed some light on the macroscopic physical properties of the molten salt phases, knowledge of the microscopic structure and dynamics is required. Several molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to model the thermal behavior of (Li,K)2CO3 mixtures. Up to this date, this particular molten salt mixture has not been extensively studied but it is of fundamental interest for understanding the behavior of other commercial salts. Molten salt diffusivities, the internal electrical ion mobility, and the physical properties of the solid-liquid phase transition have been calculated and compared to available data from literature. The effect of anion polarization and the application of a strong external electric field have also been investigated. The influence of electrical ion mobility on local composition is explained through the Chemla effect, well known in electrochemistry. These results open a new way to design optimal high temperature energy storage materials.

Keywords: Ion Mobility, Thermal Storage, molten salt, atomistic simulations, latent heat

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4 Design of a Solar Water Heating System with Thermal Storage for a Three-Bedroom House in Newfoundland

Authors: Ahmed Aisa, Tariq Iqbal


This letter talks about the ready-to-use design of a solar water heating system because, in Canada, the average consumption of hot water per person is approximately 50 to 75 L per day and the average Canadian household uses 225 L. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the method of designing a solar water heating system with thermal storage. It highlights the renewable hybrid power system, allowing you to obtain a reliable, independent system with the optimization of the ingredient size and at an improved capital cost. The system can provide hot water for a big building. The main power for the system comes from solar panels. Solar Advisory Model (SAM) and HOMER are used. HOMER and SAM are design models that calculate the consumption of hot water and cost for a house. Some results, obtained through simulation, were for monthly energy production, annual energy production, after tax cash flow, the lifetime of the system and monthly energy usage represented by three types of energy. These are system energy, electricity load electricity and net metering credit.

Keywords: consumption, Thermal Storage, water heating, capital cost solar

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3 Solar System with Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Christer Frennfelt


Solar heating is the most environmentally friendly way to heat water. Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs) are a key component in many solar heating applications for harvesting solar energy into accumulator tanks, producing hot tap water, and heating pools. The combination of high capacity in a compact format, efficient heat transfer, and fast response makes the BPHE the ideal heat exchanger for solar thermal systems. Solar heating is common as a standalone heat source, and as an add-on heat source for boilers, heat pumps, or district heating systems. An accumulator provides the possibility to store heat, which enables combination of different heat sources to a larger extent. In turn this works as protection to reduced access to energy or increased energy prices. For example heat from solar panels is preferably stored during the day for use at night.

Keywords: Thermal Storage, district heating and cooling, brazed plate heat exchanger, solar domestic hot water and combisystems

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2 Hourly Solar Radiations Predictions for Anticipatory Control of Electrically Heated Floor: Use of Online Weather Conditions Forecast

Authors: Helene Thieblemont, Fariborz Haghighat


Energy storage systems play a crucial role in decreasing building energy consumption during peak periods and expand the use of renewable energies in buildings. To provide a high building thermal performance, the energy storage system has to be properly controlled to insure a good energy performance while maintaining a satisfactory thermal comfort for building’s occupant. In the case of passive discharge storages, defining in advance the required amount of energy is required to avoid overheating in the building. Consequently, anticipatory supervisory control strategies have been developed forecasting future energy demand and production to coordinate systems. Anticipatory supervisory control strategies are based on some predictions, mainly of the weather forecast. However, if the forecasted hourly outdoor temperature may be found online with a high accuracy, solar radiations predictions are most of the time not available online. To estimate them, this paper proposes an advanced approach based on the forecast of weather conditions. Several methods to correlate hourly weather conditions forecast to real hourly solar radiations are compared. Results show that using weather conditions forecast allows estimating with an acceptable accuracy solar radiations of the next day. Moreover, this technique allows obtaining hourly data that may be used for building models. As a result, this solar radiation prediction model may help to implement model-based controller as Model Predictive Control.

Keywords: Model Predictive Control, Thermal Storage, anticipatory control, solar radiation forecast

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1 Assessment of Multi-Domain Energy Systems Modelling Methods

Authors: M. Stewart, Ameer Al-Khaykan, J. M. Counsell


Emissions are a consequence of electricity generation. A major option for low carbon generation, local energy systems featuring Combined Heat and Power with solar PV (CHPV) has significant potential to increase energy performance, increase resilience, and offer greater control of local energy prices while complementing the UK’s emissions standards and targets. Recent advances in dynamic modelling and simulation of buildings and clusters of buildings using the IDEAS framework have successfully validated a novel multi-vector (simultaneous control of both heat and electricity) approach to integrating the wide range of primary and secondary plant typical of local energy systems designs including CHP, solar PV, gas boilers, absorption chillers and thermal energy storage, and associated electrical and hot water networks, all operating under a single unified control strategy. Results from this work indicate through simulation that integrated control of thermal storage can have a pivotal role in optimizing system performance well beyond the present expectations. Environmental impact analysis and reporting of all energy systems including CHPV LES presently employ a static annual average carbon emissions intensity for grid supplied electricity. This paper focuses on establishing and validating CHPV environmental performance against conventional emissions values and assessment benchmarks to analyze emissions performance without and with an active thermal store in a notional group of non-domestic buildings. Results of this analysis are presented and discussed in context of performance validation and quantifying the reduced environmental impact of CHPV systems with active energy storage in comparison with conventional LES designs.

Keywords: Control, Thermal Storage, dynamic simulation, CHPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 129