Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Thermal Resistance Related Abstracts

10 Entropy Generation Analysis of Cylindrical Heat Pipe Using Nanofluid

Authors: Morteza Ghanbarpour, Rahmatollah Khodabandeh


In this study, second law of thermodynamic is employed to evaluate heat pipe thermal performance. In fact, nanofluids potential to decrease the entropy generation of cylindrical heat pipes are studied and the results are compared with experimental data. Some cylindrical copper heat pipes of 200 mm length and 6.35 mm outer diameter were fabricated and tested with distilled water and water based Al2O3 nanofluids with volume concentrations of 1-5% as working fluids. Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to enhance heat transfer properties of the base liquids used in heat transfer application. When the working fluid undergoes between different states in heat pipe cycle the entropy is generated. Different sources of irreversibility in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle are investigated and nanofluid effect on each of these sources is studied. Both experimental and theoretical studies reveal that nanofluid is a good choice to minimize the entropy generation in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle which results in higher thermal performance and efficiency of the system.

Keywords: Thermodynamics, Nanofluid, Thermal Resistance, entropy generation, heat pipe

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9 Optimization of Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Tu-Chieh Hung, Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yu-Xian Huang


This work employs a combined optimization procedure including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model to study the optimal geometric parameter design of double-layered microchannel heat sinks. The overall thermal resistance RT is the objective function to be minimized with number of channels, N, the channel width ratio, β, the bottom channel aspect ratio, αb, and upper channel aspect ratio, αu, as the search variables. It is shown that, for the given bottom area (10 mm×10 mm) and heat flux (100 W cm-2), the optimal (minimum) thermal resistance of double-layered microchannel heat sinks is about RT=0.12 ℃/m2W with the corresponding optimal geometric parameters N=73, β=0.50, αb=3.52, and, αu= 7.21 under a constant pumping power of 0.05 W. The optimization process produces a maximum reduction by 52.8% in the overall thermal resistance compared with an initial guess (N=112, β=0.37, αb=10.32 and, αu=10.93). The results also show that the optimal thermal resistance decreases rapidly with the pumping power and tends to be a saturated value afterward. The corresponding optimal values of parameters N, αb, and αu increase while that of β decrease as the pumping power increases. However, further increasing pumping power is not always cost-effective for the application of heat sink designs.

Keywords: Optimization, Thermal Resistance, double-layered microchannel heat sink, simplified conjugate-gradient method

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8 Contemplation of Thermal Characteristics by Filling Ratio of Aluminium Oxide Nano Fluid in Wire Mesh Heat Pipe

Authors: D. Mala, S. Sendhilnathan, D. Ratchagaraja


In this paper, the performance of heat pipe in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance is quantified by varying the volume of working fluid and the performance parameters are contemplated. For this purpose Al2O3 nano particles with a density of 9.8 gm/cm3 and a volume concentration of 1% is used as the working fluid in experimental heat pipe. The performance of heat pipe was evaluated by conducting experiments with different thermal loads and different angle of inclinations. Thermocouples are used to record the temperature distribution across the experiment. The results provide evidence that the suspension of Al2O3 nano particles in the base fluid increases the thermal efficiency of heat pipe and can be used in practical heat exchange applications.

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, Thermal Efficiency, heat pipe, angle of inclination

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7 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati


This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PC-CPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of the experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have a significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rt, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66(ºC/W).

Keywords: Nanofluid, Optimization, Thermal Resistance, loop heat pipe

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6 Heat Source Temperature for Centered Heat Source on Isotropic Plate with Lower Surface Forced Cooling Using Neural Network and Three Different Materials

Authors: Fadwa Haraka, Ahmad Elouatouati, Mourad Taha Janan


In this study, we propose a neural network based method in order to calculate the heat source temperature of isotropic plate with lower surface forced cooling. To validate the proposed model, the heat source temperatures values will be compared to the analytical method -variables separation- and finite element model. The mathematical simulation is done through 3D numerical simulation by COMSOL software considering three different materials: Aluminum, Copper, and Graphite. The proposed method will lead to a formulation of the heat source temperature based on the thermal and geometric properties of the base plate.

Keywords: Neural Network, Thermal Resistance, finite element simulation, thermal model

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5 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Flexible Composites Based on Al2O3 Aerogels

Authors: Jianzheng Wei, Duo Zhen, Zhihan Yang, Huifeng Tan


The deployable descent technology is a lightweight entry method using an inflatable heat shield. The heatshield consists of a pressurized core which is covered by different layers of thermal insulation and flexible ablative materials in order to protect against the thermal loads. In this paper, both aluminum and silicon-aluminum aerogels were prepared by freeze-drying method. The latter material has bigger specific surface area and nano-scale pores. Mullite fibers are used as the reinforcing fibers to prepare the aerogel matrix to improve composite flexibility. The flexible composite materials were performed as an insulation layer to an underlying aramid fabric by a thermal shock test at a heat flux density of 120 kW/m2 and uniaxial tensile test. These results show that the aramid fabric with untreated mullite fibers as the thermal protective layer is completely carbonized at the heat of about 60 s. The aramid fabric as a thermal resistance layer of the composite material still has good mechanical properties at the same heat condition.

Keywords: Flexibility, Aerogel, Thermal Resistance, aramid fabric

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4 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik


Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rate

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3 Crystallization Fouling from Potable Water in Heat Exchangers and Evaporators

Authors: Amthal Al-Gailani, Olujide Sanni, Thibaut Charpentier, Anne Neville


Formation of inorganic scale on heat transfer surfaces is a serious problem encountered in industrial, commercial, and domestic heat exchangers and systems. Several industries use potable/groundwater sources such as rivers, lakes, and oceans to use water as a working fluid in heat exchangers and steamers. As potable/surface water contains diverse salt ionic species, the scaling kinetics and deposit morphology are expected to be different from those found in artificially hardened solutions. In this work, scale formation on the heat transfer surfaces from potable water has been studied using a once-through open flow cell under atmospheric pressure. The surface scaling mechanism and deposit morphology are investigated at high surface temperature. Thus the water evaporation process has to be considered. The effect of surface temperature, flow rate, and inhibitor deployment on the thermal resistance and morphology of the scale have been investigated. The study findings show how an increase in surface temperature enhances the crystallization reaction kinetics on the surface. There is an increase in the amount of scale and the resistance to heat transfer. The fluid flow rate also increases the fouling resistance and the thickness of the scale layer.

Keywords: Crystallization, Fouling, Potable water, Thermal Resistance, heat exchanger

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2 Investigating the Thermal Comfort Properties of Mohair Fabrics

Authors: Adine Gericke, Jiri Militky, Mohanapriya Venkataraman


Mohair, obtained from the Angora goat, is a luxury fiber and recognized as one of the best quality natural fibers. Expansion of the use of mohair into technical and functional textile products necessitates the need for a better understanding of how the use of mohair in fabrics will impact on its thermo-physiological comfort related properties. Despite its popularity, very little information is available on the quantification of the thermal and moisture management properties of mohair fabrics. This study investigated the effect of fibrous matter composition and fabric structural parameters on conductive and convective heat transfers to attain more information on the thermal comfort properties of mohair fabrics. Dry heat transfer through textiles may involve conduction through the fibrous phase, radiation through fabric interstices and convection of air within the structure. Factors that play a major role in heat transfer by conduction are fabric areal density (g/m2) and derived quantities such as cover factor and porosity. Convective heat transfer through fabrics is found in environmental conditions where there is wind-flow or the object is moving (e.g. running or walking). The thermal comfort properties of mohair fibers were objectively evaluated firstly in comparison with other textile fibers and secondly in a variety of fabric structures. Two sample sets were developed for this purpose, with fibre content, yarn structure and fabric design as main variables. SEM and microscopic images were obtained to closely examine the physical structures of the fibers and fabrics. Thermal comfort properties such as thermal resistance and thermal conductivity, as well as fabric thickness, were measured on the well-known Alambeta test instrument. Clothing insulation (clo) was calculated from the above. The thermal properties of fabrics under heat convection was evaluated using a laboratory model device developed at the Technical University of Liberec (referred to as the TP2-instrument). The effects of the different variables on fabric thermal comfort properties were analyzed statistically using TIBCO Statistica Software. The results showed that fabric structural properties, specifically sample thickness, played a significant role in determining the thermal comfort properties of the fabrics tested. It was found that regarding thermal resistance related to conductive heat flow, the effect of fiber type was not always statistically significant, probably as a result of the amount of trapped air within the fabric structure. The very low thermal conductivity of air, compared to that of the fibers, had a significant influence on the total conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples. This was confirmed by the high correlation of these factors with sample thickness. Regarding convective heat flow, the most important factor influencing the ability of the fabric to allow dry heat to move through the structure, was again fabric thickness. However, it would be wrong to totally disregard the effect of fiber composition on the thermal resistance of textile fabrics. In this study, the samples containing mohair or mohair/wool were consistently thicker than the others even though weaving parameters were kept constant. This can be ascribed to the physical properties of the mohair fibers that renders it exceptionally well towards trapping air among fibers (in a yarn) as well as among yarns (inside a fabric structure). The thicker structures trap more air to provide higher thermal insulation, but also prevent the free flow of air that allow thermal convection.

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, convective heat transfer, mohair fabrics, thermal comfort properties

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1 Understanding the Thermal Resistance of Active Dry Yeast by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Approach

Authors: Pauline Ribert, Gaelle Roudaut, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney


Yeasts, anhydrobiotic organisms, can survive extreme water disturbances, thanks to the prolonged and reversible suspension of their cellular activity as well as the establishment of a defense arsenal. This property is exploited by many industrialists. One of the protection systems implemented by yeast is the vitrification of its cytoplasm by trehalose. The thermal resistance of dry yeasts is a crucial parameter for their use. However, studies on the thermal resistance of dry yeasts are often based on yeasts produced in laboratory conditions with non-optimal drying processes. We, therefore, propose a study on the thermal resistance of industrial dry yeasts in relation to their thermophysical properties. Heat stress was applied at three temperatures (50, 75, and 100°C) for 10, 30, or 60-minute treatments. The survival of yeasts to these treatments was estimated, and their thermophysical properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The industrial dry yeasts resisted 60 minutes at 50°C and 75°C and 10 minutes at a temperature close to 100°C. At 100°C, yeast was above their glass transition temperature. Industrial dry yeasts are therefore capable of withstanding high thermal stress if maintained in a specific thermophysical state.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Thermal Resistance, vitrification, dry yeast

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