Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Thermal Related Abstracts

15 Analysis of Solar Thermal Power Plant in Algeria

Authors: M. Laissaoui


The present work has for objective the simulation of a hybrid solar combined cycle power plant, compared with combined cycle conventional (gas turbine and steam turbine), this type of power plants disposed an solar tour (heliostat field and volumetric receiver) insurant a part of the thermal energy necessary for the functioning of the gas turbine. This solar energy serves to feed with heat the combustion air of the gas turbine when he out of the compressor and the front entered the combustion chamber. The simulation of even central and made for three zones deferential to know the zone of Hassi R' mel, Bechare, and the zone of Messaad wilaya of El djelfa. The radiometric and meteorological data arise directly from the software meteonorme 7. The simulation of the energy performances is made by the software TRNSYS 16.1.

Keywords: Thermal, Concentrating solar power, Algeria, heliostat

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14 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna M. Zain


Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation, and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 1500C. Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: Thermal, Regeneration, activated carbon, palm shell-PEEK

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13 Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Calculating the Installable Photovoltaic and Thermal Power on All the Roofs of the City of Aix-en-Provence, France

Authors: Sofiane Bourchak, Sébastien Bridier


The objective of this study is to show how to calculate and map solar energy’s quantity (instantaneous and accumulated global solar radiation during the year) available on roofs in the city Aix-en-Provence which has a population of 140,000 inhabitants. The result is a geographic information system (GIS) layer, which represents hourly and monthly the production of solar energy on roofs throughout the year. Solar energy professionals can use it to optimize implementations and to size energy production systems. The results are presented as a set of maps, tables and histograms in order to determine the most effective costs in Aix-en-Provence in terms of photovoltaic power (electricity) and thermal power (hot water).

Keywords: Thermal, Geographic Information System, Photovoltaic, Solar Radiation, solar potential

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12 Acoustic and Thermal Isolation Performance Comparison between Recycled and Ceramic Roof Tiles Using Digital Holographic Interferometry

Authors: A. Araceli Sánchez, I. Manuel H. De la Torre, S. Fernando Mendoza, R. Cesar Tavera, R. Manuel de J. Briones


Recycling, as part of any sustainable environment, is continuously evolving and impacting on new materials in manufacturing. One example of this is the recycled solid waste of Tetra Pak ™ packaging, which is a highly pollutant waste as it is not biodegradable since it is manufactured with different materials. The Tetra Pak ™ container consists of thermally joined layers of paper, aluminum and polyethylene. Once disposed, this packaging is recycled by completely separating the paperboard from the rest of the materials. The aluminum and the polyethylene remain together and are used to create the poly-aluminum, which is widely used to manufacture roof tiles. These recycled tiles have different thermal and acoustic properties compared with traditional manufactured ceramic and cement tiles. In this work, we compare a group of tiles using nondestructive optical testing to measure the superficial micro deformations of the tiles under well controlled experiments. The results of the acoustic and thermal tests show remarkable differences between the recycled tile and the traditional ones. These results help to determine which tile could be better suited to the specific environmental conditions in countries where extreme climates, ranging from tropical, desert-like, to very cold are experienced throughout the year.

Keywords: Sustainable, Thermal, acoustic, Isolation, recycled, digital holographic interferometry, roof tiles

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11 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma


This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Keywords: Composites, Thermal, Mechanical, square tubes

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10 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde


Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: Thermal, Vacuum, insulation, flat-plate solar collector

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9 Development of Personal Protection Equipment for Dental Surgeon

Authors: Thi. A. D. Tran, Matthieu Arnold, Dominique Adolphe, Laurence Schcher, Guillaume Reys


During daily oral health cares, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. In order to take into account these risks, a product development process has been unrolled to propose to the dental surgeon a personal protection equipment that is suitable with their expectations in terms of images, protection and comfort. After a consumer study, to evaluate how the users wear the garment and their expectations, specifications have been carried out and technical solutions have been developed in order to answer to the maximum of the desiderata. Thermal studies and comfort studies have been performed. The obtained results lead to define the technical solutions concerning the design of the new scrub. Three main functions have been investigated, the ergonomic aspect, the protection and the thermal comfort. In terms of ergonomic aspect, instrumented garments have been worn and pressure measurements have been done. The results highlight that a raglan shape for the sleeves has to be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Moreover, spray tests helped us to localize the potential contamination area and therefore protection devices have been placed on the garment. Concerning the thermal comfort, an I-R study was conducted in consulting room under the real working conditions; the heating zones have been detected. Based on these results, solutions have been proposed and implemented in a new gown. This new gown is currently composed of three different parts; a protective layer placed in the chest area to avoid contamination; a breathable layer placed in the back and in the armpits and a normal PET/Cotton fabric for the rest of the gown. Through the fitting tests conducted in hospital, it was obtained that the new design was highly appreciated. Some points can nevertheless be further improved. A final product will be produced based on necessary improvements.

Keywords: Thermal, Garment, comfort, dentists

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8 Hybrid Quasi-Steady Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Behavior of Oil in Water Emulsions Used in Machining Tool Cooling and Lubrication

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat, A. Alhilo, L. Tamimi


Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.

Keywords: Thermal, hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, surfactant-covered droplet, Marangoni stress

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7 Voxel Models as Input for Heat Transfer Simulations with Siemens NX Based on X-Ray Microtomography Images of Random Fibre Reinforced Composites

Authors: Steven Latré, Frederik Desplentere, Ilya Straumit, Stepan V. Lomov


A method is proposed in order to create a three-dimensional finite element model representing fibre reinforced insulation materials for the simulation software Siemens NX. VoxTex software, a tool for quantification of µCT images of fibrous materials, is used for the transformation of microtomography images of random fibre reinforced composites into finite element models. An automatic tool was developed to execute the import of the models to the thermal solver module of Siemens NX. The paper describes the numerical tools used for the image quantification and the transformation and illustrates them on several thermal simulations of fibre reinforced insulation blankets filled with low thermal conductive fillers. The calculation of thermal conductivity is validated by comparison with the experimental data.

Keywords: Analysis, Modelling, Thermal, voxel

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6 Investigating the Effects of Thermal and Surface Energy on the Two-Dimensional Flow Characteristics of Oil in Water Mixture between Two Parallel Plates: A Lattice Boltzmann Method Study

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat


A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.

Keywords: Thermal, Contact angle, lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, high viscosity ratio

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5 Contribution to the Development of a New Design of Dentist's Gowns: A Case Study of Using Infra-Red Technology and Pressure Sensors

Authors: Tran Thi Anh Dao, M. Arnold, L. Schacher, D. C. Adolphe, G. Reys


During tooth extraction or implant surgery, dentists are in contact with numerous infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. For that reason, dentist's clothes have to play their role of protection from contamination. In addition, dentist's apparels should be not only protective but also comfortable and breathable because dentists have to perform many operations and treatments on patients throughout the day with high concentration and intensity. However, this type of protective garments has not been studied scientifically, whereas dentists are facing new risks and eager for looking for a comfortable personal protective equipment. For that reason, we have proposed some new designs of dentist's gown. They were expected to diminish heat accumulation that are considered as an important factor in reducing the level of comfort experienced by users. Experiments using infra-red technology were carried out in order to compare the breathable properties between a traditional gown and a new design with open zones. Another experiment using pressure sensors was also carried out to study ergonomic aspects trough the flexibility of movements of sleeves. The sleeves-design which is considered comfortable and flexible will be chosen for the further step. The results from the two experiments provide valuable information for the development of a new design of dentists' gowns in order to achieve maximum levels of cooling and comfort for the human body.

Keywords: Design, Thermal, Protection, Garment, comfort, dentists

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4 Effect of Fibres-Chemical Treatment on the Thermal Properties of Natural Composites

Authors: J. S. S. Neto, R. A. A. Lima, D. K. K. Cavalcanti, J. P. B. Souza, R. A. A. Aguiar, M. D. Banea


In the last decade, investments in sustainable processes and products have gained space in several segments, such as in the civil, automobile, textile and other industries. In addition to increasing concern about the development of environmentally friendly materials that reduce, energy costs and reduces environmental impact in the production of these products, as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Natural fibers offer a great alternative to replace synthetic fibers, totally or partially, because of their low cost and their renewable source. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of surface chemical treatment on the thermal properties of hybrid fiber reinforced natural fibers (NFRC), jute + ramie, jute + sisal, jute + curauá, and jute fiber in polymer matrices. Two types of chemical treatment: alkalinization and silanization were employed, besides the condition without treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) were performed to explore the thermal stability and weight loss in the natural fiber reinforced composite as a function of chemical treatment.

Keywords: Thermal, Chemical Treatment, jute, hybrid composite

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3 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: Thermal, Mechanical, dairy cow, IVRA, hind limb, electrical threshold, NBA

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2 Experimental Characterization of the Thermal Behavior of a Sawdust Mortar

Authors: F. Taouche-Kheloui, O. Fedaoui-Akmoussi, K. Ait tahar, Li. Alex


Currently, the reduction of energy consumption, through the use of abundant and recyclable natural materials, for better thermal insulation represents an important area of research. To this end, the use of bio-sourced materials has been identified as one of the green sectors with a very high economic development potential for the future. Because of its role in reducing the consumption of fossil-based raw materials, it contributes significantly to the storage of atmospheric carbon, limits greenhouse gas emissions and creates new economic opportunities. This study constitutes a contribution to the elaboration and the experimental characterization of the thermal behavior of a sawdust-reduced mortar matrix. We have taken into account the influence of the size of the grain fibers of sawdust, hence the use of three different ranges and also different percentage in the different confections. The intended practical application consists of producing a light weight compound at a lower cost to ensure a better thermal and acoustic behavior compared to that existing in the field, in addition to the desired resistances. Improving energy performance, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector, is amongst the objectives to be achieved. The results are very encouraging and highlight the value of the proposed design of organic-source mortar panels which have specific mechanical properties acceptable for their use, low densities, lower cost of manufacture and labor, and above all a positive impact on the environment.

Keywords: Experimental, Analysis, Thermal, mortar, sawdust waste

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1 Physicochemical-Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties Analysis of Pili Tree (Canarium Ovatum) Resin as Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Sealant

Authors: Mark Kennedy, E. Bantugon, Noruane A. Daileg


Leaks arising from aircraft fuel tanks is a protracted problem for the aircraft manufacturers, operators, and maintenance crews. It principally arises from stress, structural defects, or degraded sealants as the aircraft age. It can be ignited by different sources, which can result in catastrophic flight and consequences, exhibiting a major drain both on time and budget. In order to mitigate and eliminate this kind of problem, the researcher produced an experimental sealant having a base material of natural tree resin, the Pili Tree Resin. Aside from producing an experimental sealant, the main objective of this research is to analyze its physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties, which is beneficial and effective for specific aircraft parts, particularly the integral fuel tank. The experimental method of research was utilized in this study since it is a product invention. This study comprises two parts, specifically the Optimization Process and the Characterization Process. In the Optimization Process, the experimental sealant was subjected to the Flammability Test, an important test and consideration according to 14 Code of Federal Regulation Appendix N, Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis, to get the most suitable formulation. Followed by the Characterization Process, where the formulated experimental sealant has undergone thirty-eight (38) different standard testing including Organoleptic, Instrumental Color Measurement Test, Smoothness of Appearance Test, Miscibility Test, Boiling Point Test, Flash Point Test, Curing Time, Adhesive Test, Toxicity Test, Shore A Hardness Test, Compressive Strength, Shear Strength, Static Bending Strength, Tensile Strength, Peel Strength Test, Knife Test, Adhesion by Tape Test, Leakage Test), Drip Test, Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Calorific Value, Viscosity Test, Creep Test, and Anti-Sag Resistance Test to determine and analyze the five (5) material properties of the sealant. The numerical values of the mentioned tests are determined using product application, testing, and calculation. These values are then used to calculate the efficiency of the experimental sealant. Accordingly, this efficiency is the means of comparison between the experimental and commercial sealant. Based on the results of the different standard testing conducted, the experimental sealant exceeded all the data results of the commercial sealant. This result shows that the physicochemical-mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of the experimental sealant are far more effective as an aircraft integral fuel tank sealant alternative in comparison to the commercial sealant. Therefore, Pili Tree possesses a new role and function: a source of ingredients in sealant production.

Keywords: Thermal, Properties, rheological, Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank, Physicochemi-mechanical, Pili Tree Resin, Sealant

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