Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Thermal Diffusivity Related Abstracts

8 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Firing, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, TPS method, electro-ceramics

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7 Emperical Correlation for Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity of Spherical Shaped Food Products under Forced Convection Environment

Authors: Abhishek Sharma, M. Riaz, Inamur Rehman

Abstract:

The present work is the development of an experimental method for determining the thermal diffusivity variations with temperature of selected regular shaped solid fruits and vegetables subjected to forced convection cooling. Experimental investigations were carried on the sample chosen (potato and brinjal), which is approximately of spherical geometry. The variation of temperature within the food product is measured at several locations from centre to skin, under forced convection environment using a deep freezer, maintained at -10°C.This method uses one dimensional Fourier equation applied to regular shapes. For this, the experimental temperature data obtained from cylindrical and spherical shaped products during pre-cooling was utilised. Such temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles can be readily used with other information such as degradation rate, etc. to evaluate thermal treatments based on cold air cooling methods for storage of perishable food products.

Keywords: Thermal Diffusivity, forced convection, skin temperature, precooling, regular shaped

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6 Effects of Aging on Thermal Properties of Some Improved Varieties of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) Roots

Authors: K. O. Oriola, A. O. Raji, O. E. Akintola, O. T. Ismail

Abstract:

Thermal properties of roots of three improved cassava varieties (TME419, TMS 30572, and TMS 0326) were determined on samples harvested at 12, 15 and 18 Months After Planting (MAP) conditioned to moisture contents of 50, 55, 60, 65, 70% (wb). Thermal conductivity at 12, 15 and 18 MAP ranged 0.4770 W/m.K to 0.6052W/m.K; 0.4804 W/m.K to 0.5530 W/m.K and 0.3764 to 0.6102 W/m.K respectively, thermal diffusivity from 1.588 to 2.426 x 10-7m2/s; 1.290 to 2.010 x 10-7m2/s and 0.1692 to 4.464 x 10-7m2/s and specific heat capacity from 2.3626 to 3.8991 kJ/kg.K; 1.8110 to 3.9703 kJ/kgK and 1.7311 to 3.8830 kJ/kg.K respectively within the range of moisture content studied across the varieties. None of the samples over the ages studied showed similar or definite trend in variation with others across the moisture content. However, second order polynomial models fitted all the data. Age on the other hand had a significant effect on the three thermal properties studied for TME 419 but not on thermal conductivity of TMS30572 and specific heat capacity of TMS 0326. Information obtained will provide better insight into thermal processing of cassava roots into stable products.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, moisture content, specific heat capacity, tuber age

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5 Development of an Instrument for Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Tropical Fruit Juice

Authors: T. Ewetumo, K. D. Adedayo, Festus Ben

Abstract:

Knowledge of the thermal properties of foods is of fundamental importance in the food industry to establish the design of processing equipment. However, for tropical fruit juice, there is very little information in literature, seriously hampering processing procedures. This research work describes the development of an instrument for automated thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity measurement of tropical fruit juice using a transient thermal probe technique based on line heat principle. The system consists of two thermocouple sensors, constant current source, heater, thermocouple amplifier, microcontroller, microSD card shield and intelligent liquid crystal. A fixed distance of 6.50mm was maintained between the two probes. When heat is applied, the temperature rise at the heater probe measured with time at time interval of 4s for 240s. The measuring element conforms as closely as possible to an infinite line source of heat in an infinite fluid. Under these conditions, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are simultaneously measured, with thermal conductivity determined from the slope of a plot of the temperature rise of the heating element against the logarithm of time while thermal diffusivity was determined from the time it took the sample to attain a peak temperature and the time duration over a fixed diffusivity distance. A constant current source was designed to apply a power input of 16.33W/m to the probe throughout the experiment. The thermal probe was interfaced with a digital display and data logger by using an application program written in C++. Calibration of the instrument was done by determining the thermal properties of distilled water. Error due to convection was avoided by adding 1.5% agar to the water. The instrument has been used for measurement of thermal properties of banana, orange and watermelon. Thermal conductivity values of 0.593, 0.598, 0.586 W/m^o C and thermal diffusivity values of 1.053 ×〖10〗^(-7), 1.086 ×〖10〗^(-7), and 0.959 ×〖10〗^(-7) 〖m/s〗^2 were obtained for banana, orange and water melon respectively. Measured values were stored in a microSD card. The instrument performed very well as it measured the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the tropical fruit juice samples with statistical analysis (ANOVA) showing no significant difference (p>0.05) between the literature standards and estimated averages of each sample investigated with the developed instrument.

Keywords: Diffusion Equation, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, tropical fruit juice

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4 Effect of Internal Heat Generation on Free Convective Power Law Variable Temperature Past Vertical Plate Considering Exponential Variable Viscosity and Thermal Diffusivity

Authors: Mohammad Ferdows, Tania Sharmin Khaleque

Abstract:

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a convection with temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal diffusivity along a vertical plate with internal heat generation effect have been studied. The plate temperature is assumed to follow a power law of the distance from the leading edge. The resulting governing two-dimensional equations are transformed using suitable transformations and then solved numerically by using fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme with a modified version of the Newton-Raphson shooting method. The effects of the various parameters such as variable viscosity parameter β_1, the thermal diffusivity parameter β_2, heat generation parameter c and the Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles, as well as the local skin- friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Our results suggested that the presence of internal heat generation leads to increase flow than that of without exponentially decaying heat generation term.

Keywords: Thermal Diffusivity, heat generation, free convection, variable viscosity

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3 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique

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2 Effects of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Early Age Thermal Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Arnaud Castel, Maryam Ghareh Chaei, Masuzyo Chilwesa, Ali Akbarnezhad, Redmond Lloyd, Stephen Foster

Abstract:

Cement hydration is an exothermic chemical reaction generally leading to a rise in concrete’s temperature. This internal heating of concrete may, in turn, lead to a temperature difference between the hotter interior and the cooler exterior of concrete and thus differential thermal stresses in early ages which could be particularly significant in mass concrete. Such differential thermal stresses result in early age thermal cracking of concrete when exceeding the concrete’s tensile strength. The extent of temperature rise and thus early age differential thermal stresses is generally a function of hydration heat intensity, thermal properties of concrete and size of the concrete element. Both hydration heat intensity and thermal properties of concrete may vary considerably with variations in the type cementitious materials and other constituents. With this in mind, partial replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag has been investigated widely as an effective strategy to moderate the heat generation rate and thus reduce the risk of early age thermal cracking of concrete. However, there is currently a lack of adequate literature on effect of partial replacement of cement with fly ash and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag on the thermal properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of varying percentages of fly ash (up to 60%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (up to 50%) on the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of early age cement paste. The water to cementitious materials ratio is kept 0.45 for all the paste samples. The results of the experimental studies were used in a numerical analysis performed using Comsol Multiphysics to highlight the effects of variations in the thermal properties of concrete, due to variations in the type of aggregate and content of supplemenraty cementitious materials, on the risk of early age cracking of a concrete raft.

Keywords: Concrete, Supplementary Cementitious Materials, Thermal Diffusivity, early age thermal cracking

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1 Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Conductivity of Neodymium and Samarium Melts by a Laser Flash Technique

Authors: Igor V. Savchenko, Dmitrii A. Samoshkin

Abstract:

The active study of the properties of lanthanides has begun in the late 50s of the last century, when methods for their purification were developed and metals with a relatively low content of impurities were obtained. Nevertheless, up to date, many properties of the rare earth metals (REM) have not been experimentally investigated, or insufficiently studied. Currently, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lanthanides have been studied most thoroughly in the low-temperature region and at moderate temperatures (near 293 K). In the high-temperature region, corresponding to the solid phase, data on the thermophysical characteristics of the REM are fragmentary and in some cases contradictory. Analysis of the literature showed that the data on the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of light REM in the liquid state are few in number, little informative (only one point corresponds to the liquid state region), contradictory (the nature of the thermal conductivity change with temperature is not reproduced), as well as the results of measurements diverge significantly beyond the limits of the total errors. Thereby our experimental results allow to fill this gap and to clarify the existing information on the heat transfer coefficients of neodymium and samarium in a wide temperature range from the melting point up to 1770 K. The measurement of the thermal conductivity of investigated metallic melts was carried out by laser flash technique on an automated experimental setup LFA-427. Neodymium sample of brand NM-1 (99.21 wt % purity) and samarium sample of brand SmM-1 (99.94 wt % purity) were cut from metal ingots and then ones were annealed in a vacuum (1 mPa) at a temperature of 1400 K for 3 hours. Measuring cells of a special design from tantalum were used for experiments. Sealing of the cell with a sample inside it was carried out by argon-arc welding in the protective atmosphere of the glovebox. The glovebox was filled with argon with purity of 99.998 vol. %; argon was additionally cleaned up by continuous running through sponge titanium heated to 900–1000 K. The general systematic error in determining the thermal conductivity of investigated metallic melts was 2–5%. The approximation dependences and the reference tables of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity coefficients were developed. New reliable experimental data on the transport properties of the REM and their changes in phase transitions can serve as a scientific basis for optimizing the industrial processes of production and use of these materials, as well as ones are of interest for the theory of thermophysical properties of substances, physics of metals, liquids and phase transformations.

Keywords: Rare Earth Metals, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, high temperatures, laser flash technique, liquid state, metallic melt

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