Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Thermal comfort Related Abstracts

67 Monitoring Energy Reduction through Applying Green Roofs to Residential Buildings in Dubai

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb


Since buildings are a major consumer of energy, their potential impact on the environment is considerable. Therefore, expanding the application of low energy architecture is of the utmost importance. Designing with nature is also one of the most attractive methods of design for many architects and designers because it creates a pathway to sustainability. One feature of designing with nature is the use of green roofing which aims to cover the roof with vegetation either partially or completely. Appreciably, green roofing in a building has many advantages including absorbing rainwater, providing thermal insulation, enhancing the ecology, creating a peaceful retreat for people and animals, improving air quality and helping to offset the air temperature and heat island effect. The aim of this paper is to monitor energy saving in the residential buildings of Dubai after applying green roofing techniques. The paper also attempts to provide a thermal analysis after the application of green roofs. A villa in Dubai was chosen as a case study. With the aid of energy simulation software, namely Design Builder, as well as manual recording and calculations, the energy savings after applying the green roofing were detected. To that extent, the paper draws some recommendations with regard to the types of green roofing that should be used in these particular climatic conditions based on this real experiment that took place over a one year period.

Keywords: Energy Saving, CFD, Residential Buildings, Thermal comfort, Dubai, green roofing

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66 Effects of the Air Supply Outlets Geometry on Human Comfort inside Living Rooms: CFD vs. ADPI

Authors: Taher M. Abou-deif, Esmail M. El-Bialy, Essam E. Khalil


The paper is devoted to numerically investigating the influence of the air supply outlets geometry on human comfort inside living looms. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed to examine the air flow characteristics of a room with different supply air diffusers. The work focuses on air flow patterns, thermal behavior in the room with few number of occupants. As an input to the full-scale 3-D room model, a 2-D air supply diffuser model that supplies direction and magnitude of air flow into the room is developed. Air distribution effect on thermal comfort parameters was investigated depending on changing the air supply diffusers type, angles and velocity. Air supply diffusers locations and numbers were also investigated. The pre-processor Gambit is used to create the geometric model with parametric features. Commercially available simulation software “Fluent 6.3” is incorporated to solve the differential equations governing the conservation of mass, three momentum and energy in the processing of air flow distribution. Turbulence effects of the flow are represented by the well-developed two equation turbulence model. In this work, the so-called standard k-ε turbulence model, one of the most widespread turbulence models for industrial applications, was utilized. Basic parameters included in this work are air dry bulb temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and turbulence parameters are used for numerical predictions of indoor air distribution and thermal comfort. The thermal comfort predictions through this work were based on ADPI (Air Diffusion Performance Index),the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) model and the PPD (Percentage People Dissatisfied) model, the PMV and PPD were estimated using Fanger’s model.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Fanger's model, ADPI, energy effeciency

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65 Thermal Comfort Investigation Based on Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) Index Using Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation: Case Study of University of Brawijaya, Malang-Indonesia

Authors: Dewi Hardiningtyas Sugiono


Concerning towards the quality of air comfort and safety to pedestrians in the University area should be increased as Indonesia economics booming. Hence, the University management needs guidelines of thermal comfort to innovate a new layout building. The objectives of this study is to investigate and then to evaluate the distribution of thermal comfort which is indicated by predicted mean vote (PMV) index at the University of Brawijaya (UB), Malang. The PMV figures are used to evaluate and to redesign the UB layout. The research is started with study literature and early survey to collect all information of building layout and building shape at the University of Brawijaya. The information is used to create a 3D model in CAD software. The model is simulated by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software to measure the PMV factors of air temperature, relative humidity and air speed in some locations. Validation is done by comparing between PMV value from observation and PMV value from simulation. The resuls of the research shows the most sensitive of microclimatic factors is air temperature surrounding the UB building. Finally, the research is successfully figure out the UB layout and provides further actions to increase the thermal comfort.

Keywords: CFD, Thermal comfort, layout, heat index (HI)

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64 An Analysis of Insulation Defects in TRNC: The Case of Toros Dormitory of Eastern Mediterranean University

Authors: Arash Imani Fooladi


In recent years, with the growing population and decrease in the amount of non-renewable energy supplies, which is caused by the uncontrolled energy use, the world witnesses air pollution and destruction of the natural resources. Most of the buildings which are constructed in order to inhabit this great amount of population have minimum facilities. With the passing time researchers began to feel anxious about increase in the amount of energy which people are continuously using and they tried to find some ways to solve it. One of the methods, which human being has used all during the history, was considering the orientation, size, form and shape of the building during design process and trying to take advantage of the methods which his ancestors used in order to make buildings thermally comfortable. In the last forty years with the development of building materials a new way of conserving energy, called insulation, was invented. In North Cyprus, with its adverse weather condition (hot and dry summers and rainy winters) no method was used to make buildings thermally comfortable. This fact leads to wasting a noticeable amount of energy for heating and cooling the buildings. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the defects of insulation in North Cyprus and to introduce some suggestions to improve the current defects of insulation. Therefore, this paper focuses on the Toros dormitory and the construction firms in TRNC. Toros Dormitory is situated in North Cyprus and it is one of the dormitories of Eastern Mediterranean University. Lots of problems are observed with its insulation. Forty students who inhabit in this dormitory are selected randomly in order to study these defects. Close ended questionnaires are used to find out the level of satisfaction of these students on the subject. Furthermore, eight constructors in North Cyprus are selected to study their level of satisfaction, the most important factors for choosing an insulation type and the material they often use as insulation. The results demonstrated that most of the students in the dormitory are not satisfied with the thermal conditions. Constructors are also unsatisfied with the insulating conditions in TRNC. They claimed that polystyrene which is commonly used is not the proper material for insulation in this area. Finally ICF system is evaluated, it is a new system of construction which also works as an insulation and recently it is being used all over the world. The material is suggested as a proper insulation type for North Cyprus.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, insulation, building envelop, hot and humid climate, ICF system

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63 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain


The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Indoor Environment, Thermal comfort, Acoustic Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, Visual Comfort, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Ventilation effectiveness

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62 Thermal Comfort Characteristics in an Enclosure with a Radiant Ceiling Heating and Floor Air Heating System

Authors: Seung-Ho Yoo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn


An environmental friendly or efficient heating & cooling systems attract a great attention, due to the energy or environmental problems. Especially the heat balance of human body is about 50% influenced by radiation exchange in built environment. Therefore, a thermal comfort characteristics in a radiant built environment need to be accessed through the development of an efficient evaluation method. Almost of Korean housings use traditionally the radiant floor heating system. A radiant cooling system attracts also many attention nowadays in the viewpoint of energy conservation and comfort. Thermal comfort characteristics in an enclosure with a radiant heating and cooling system are investigated by experiment, thermal sensation vote analysis and mean radiant temperature simulation. Asymmetric radiation between radiant heating ceiling and air heating system in 9 points of room is compared with each other.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, radiant heating and cooling ceiling, asymmetric radiation, thermal sensation vote

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61 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling of Local with a Hot Temperature in Sahara

Authors: Selma Bouasria, Mahi Abdelkader, Abbès Azzi, Herouz Keltoum


This paper reports concept was used into the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code cfx through user-defined functions to assess ventilation efficiency inside (forced-ventilation local). CFX is a simulation tool which uses powerful computer and applied mathematics, to model fluid flow situations for the prediction of heat, mass and momentum transfer and optimal design in various heat transfer and fluid flow processes to evaluate thermal comfort in a room ventilated (highly-glazed). The quality of the solutions obtained from CFD simulations is an effective tool for predicting the behavior and performance indoor thermo-aéraulique comfort.

Keywords: CFD, Indoor Environment, Thermal comfort, ventilation, solar air heater

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60 Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving Evaluation of a Combined System in an Office Room Using Displacement Ventilation

Authors: A. Q. Ahmed, S. Gao


In this paper, the energy saving and human thermal comfort in a typical office room are investigated. The impact of a combined system of exhaust inlet air with light slots located at the ceiling level in a room served by displacement ventilation system is numerically modelled. Previous experimental data are used to validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. A case study of simulated office room includes two seating occupants, two computers, two data loggers and four lamps. The combined system is located at the ceiling level above the heat sources. A new method of calculation for the cooling coil load in stratified air distribution (STRAD) system is used in this study. The results show that 47.4 % energy saving of space cooling load can be achieved by combing the exhaust inlet air with light slots at the ceiling level above the heat sources.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Energy Saving, Thermal comfort, displacement ventilation

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59 Using Tilted Façade to Reduce Thermal Discomfort in a UK Passivhaus Dwelling for a Warming Climate

Authors: Yahya Lavafpour, Steve Sharples


This study investigated the potential negative impacts of future UK climate change on dwellings. In particular, the risk of overheating was considered for a Passivhaus dwelling in London. The study used dynamic simulation modelling software to investigate the potential use of building geometry to control current and future overheating risks in the dwelling for London climate. Specifically, the focus was on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building’s shape to self-protect itself. A range of different inclined façades were examined to test their effectiveness in reducing the overheating risk. The research found that implementing a 115° tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating in current climate, but with some consequence for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of overheating particularly by the 2080s. The study also used CFD modelling and sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the façade geometry on the wind pressure distributions on and around the building surface. This was done to assess natural ventilation flows for alternative façade inclinations.

Keywords: Climate Change, Thermal comfort, tilt façade, passivhaus, overheating

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58 Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Air-Cooled Absorption Chiller

Authors: A. Roukbi, B. Draoui


Due to the high cost and the environmental problems caused by the conventional air-conditioning systems, various researches are being increasingly focused on thermal comfort in the building sector integrating renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy. For that purpose, this study aims to present a modeling and performance analysis of a direct air-cooled Water/LiBr absorption chiller. The chiller is considered to be coupled to a small residential building at an arid zone situated in south Algeria. The system is modeled with TRNSYS simulation program. The main objective is to study the feasibility of the chosen system in arid zones and to apply a simplified method to predict the performance of the system by mean of the characteristic equation approach tacking in account the influence of the climatic conditions of the considered site, the collector area and storage volume of the hot water tank on the performance of the installation. First, the results of the system modeling are compared with an experimental data from the open literature and the developed model is then validated. In another hand, a parametric study is performed to analyze the performance of the direct air-cooled absorption chiller at the operating conditions of interest for the present study. Thus, the obtained results has shown that the studied system can present a good alternative for cooling systems in arid zones since the cooling load is roughly in phase with solar availability.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, absorption chiller, air-cooled, arid zone

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57 The Performance Evaluation of the Modular Design of Hybrid Wall with Surface Heating and Cooling System

Authors: Selcen Nur Eri̇kci̇ Çeli̇k, Burcu İbaş Parlakyildiz, Gülay Zorer Gedi̇k


Reducing the use of mechanical heating and cooling systems in buildings, which accounts for approximately 30-40% of total energy consumption in the world has a major impact in terms of energy conservation. Formations of buildings that have sustainable and low energy utilization, structural elements with mechanical systems should be evaluated with a holistic approach. In point of reduction of building energy consumption ratio, wall elements that are vertical building elements and have an area broadly (m2) have proposed as a regulation with a different system. In the study, designing surface heating and cooling energy with a hybrid type of modular wall system and the integration of building elements will be evaluated. The design of wall element; - Identification of certain standards in terms of architectural design and size, -Elaboration according to the area where the wall elements (interior walls, exterior walls) -Solution of the joints, -Obtaining the surface in terms of building compatible with both conceptual structural put emphasis on upper stages, these elements will be formed. The durability of the product to the various forces, stability and resistance are so much substantial that are used the establishment of ready-wall element section and the planning of structural design. All created ready-wall alternatives will be paid attention at some parameters; such as adapting to performance-cost by optimum level and size that can be easily processed and reached. The restrictions such as the size of the zoning regulations, building function, structural system, wheelbase that are imposed by building laws, should be evaluated. The building aims to intend to function according to a certain standardization system and construction of wall elements will be used. The scope of performance criteria determined on the wall elements, utilization (operation, maintenance) and renovation phase, alternative material options will be evaluated with interim materials located in the contents. Design, implementation and technical combination of modular wall elements in the use phase and installation details together with the integration of energy saving, heat-saving and useful effects on the environmental aspects will be discussed in detail. As a result, the ready-wall product with surface heating and cooling modules will be created and defined as hybrid wall and will be compared with the conventional system in terms of thermal comfort. After preliminary architectural evaluations, certain decisions for all architectural design processes (pre and post design) such as the implementation and performance in use, maintenance, renewal will be evaluated in the results.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Architectural Design, Hybrid, Thermal comfort, modular ready-wall element

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56 Characterization of the Airtightness Level in School Classrooms in Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Miguel A. Campano, Jesica Fernández-Agüera, Samuel Domínguez-Amarillo, Juan J. Sendra


An analysis of the air tightness level is performed on a representative sample of school classrooms in Southern Spain, which allows knowing the infiltration level of these classrooms, mainly through its envelope, which can affect both energy demand and occupant's thermal comfort. By using a pressurization/depressurization equipment (Blower-Door test), a characterization of 45 multipurpose classrooms have been performed in nine non-university educational institutions of the main climate zones of Southern Spain. In spite of having two doors and a high ratio between glass surface and outer surface, it is possible to see in these classrooms that there is an adequate level of airtightness, since all the n50 values obtained are lower than 9.0 ACH, with an average value around 7.0 ACH.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Thermal comfort, ventilation, Indoor Air Quality, school buildings, air infiltration

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55 Thermodynamic Performance of a Low-Cost House Coated with Transparent Infrared Reflective Paint

Authors: Ochuko K. Overen, Edson L. Meyer


Uncontrolled heat transfer between the inner and outer space of low-cost housings through the thermal envelope result in indoor thermal discomfort. As a result, an excessive amount of energy is consumed for space heating and cooling. Thermo-optical properties are the ability of paints to reduce the rate of heat transfer through the thermal envelope. The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal performance of a low-cost house with its walls inner surface coated with transparent infrared reflective paint. The thermo-optical properties of the paint were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy/ Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and thermal photographic technique. Meteorological indoor and ambient parameters such as; air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction of a low-cost house in Golf-course settlement, South Africa were monitored. The monitoring period covers both winter and summer period before and after coating. The thermal performance of the coated walls was evaluated using time lag and decrement factor. The SEM image shows that the coat is transparent to light. The presence of Al as Al2O and other elements were revealed by the EDX spectrum. Before coating, the average decrement factor of the walls in summer was found to be 0.773 with a corresponding time lag of 1.3 hours. In winter, the average decrement factor and corresponding time lag were 0.467 and 1.6 hours, respectively. After coating, the average decrement factor and corresponding time lag were 0.533 and 2.3 hour, respectively in summer. In winter, an average decrement factor of 1.120 and corresponding time lag of 3 hours was observed. The findings show that the performance of the coats is influenced by the seasons. With a 74% reduction in decrement factor and 1.4 time lag increase in winter, it implies that the coatings have more ability to retain heat within the inner space of the house than preventing heat flow into the house. In conclusion, the results have shown that transparent infrared reflective paint has the ability to reduce the propagation of heat flux through building walls. Hence, it can serve as a remedy to the poor thermal performance of low-cost housings in South Africa.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Rural development, Paints, Thermal comfort, time lag, low-cost housing, decrement factor

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54 Determining Design Parameters for Sizing of Hydronic Heating Systems in Concrete Thermally Activated Building Systems

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Inamullah Khan, Amjad Naseer, Abid A. Shah


Hydronic Heating and Cooling systems in concrete slab based buildings are increasingly becoming a popular substitute to conventional heating and cooling systems. In exploring the materials, techniques employed, and their relative performance measures, a fair bit of uncertainty exists. This research has identified the simplest method of determining the thermal field of a single hydronic pipe when acting as a part of a concrete slab, based on which the spacing and positioning of pipes for a best thermal performance and surface temperature control are determined. The pipe material chosen is the commonly used PEX pipe, which has an all-around performance and thermal characteristics with a thermal conductivity of 0.5W/mK. Concrete Test samples were constructed and their thermal fields tested under varying input conditions. Temperature sensing devices were embedded into the wet concrete at fixed distances from the pipe and other touch sensing temperature devices were employed for determining the extent of the thermal field and validation studies. In the first stage, it was found that the temperature along a specific distance was the same and that heat dissipation occurred in well-defined layers. The temperature obtained in concrete was then related to the different control parameters including water supply temperature. From the results, the temperature of water required for a specific temperature rise in concrete is determined. The thermally effective area is also determined which is then used to calculate the pipe spacing and positioning for the desired level of thermal comfort.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Thermal comfort, thermally activated building systems, concrete slab temperature, thermal field, pipe spacing

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53 Application of Biomimetic Approach in Optimizing Buildings Heat Regulating System Using Parametric Design Tools to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Indoor Spaces in Hot Arid Regions

Authors: Aya M. H. Eissa, Ayman H. A. Mahmoud


When it comes to energy efficient thermal regulation system, natural systems do not only offer an inspirational source of innovative strategies but also sustainable and even regenerative ones. Using biomimetic design an energy efficient thermal regulation system can be developed. Although, conventional design process methods achieved fairly efficient systems, they still had limitations which can be overcome by using parametric design software. Accordingly, the main objective of this study is to apply and assess the efficiency of heat regulation strategies inspired from termite mounds in residential buildings’ thermal regulation system. Parametric design software is used to pave the way for further and more complex biomimetic design studies and implementations. A hot arid region is selected due to the deficiency of research in this climatic region. First, the analysis phase in which the stimuli, affecting, and the parameters, to be optimized, are set mimicking the natural system. Then, based on climatic data and using parametric design software Grasshopper, building form and openings height and areas are altered till settling on an optimized solution. Finally, an assessment of the efficiency of the optimized system, in comparison with a conventional system, is determined by firstly, indoors airflow and indoors temperature, by Ansys Fluent (CFD) simulation. Secondly by and total solar radiation falling on the building envelope, which was calculated using Ladybug, Grasshopper plugin. The results show an increase in the average indoor airflow speed from 0.5m/s to 1.5 m/s. Also, a slight decrease in temperature was noticed. And finally, the total radiation was decreased by 4%. In conclusion, despite the fact that applying a single bio-inspired heat regulation strategy might not be enough to achieve an optimum system, the concluded system is more energy efficient than the conventional ones as it aids achieving indoors comfort through passive techniques. Thus demonstrating the potential of parametric design software in biomimetic design.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Parametric Design, Biomimicry, heat regulation systems, hot arid regions

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52 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin


Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: Heating, Thermal comfort, Cooling, Ventilation Systems, passive solar systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
51 Co-Alignment of Comfort and Energy Saving Objectives for U.S. Office Buildings and Restaurants

Authors: Lourdes Gutierrez, Eric Williams


Post-occupancy research shows that only 11% of commercial buildings met the ASHRAE thermal comfort standard. Many buildings are too warm in winter and/or too cool in summer, wasting energy and not providing comfort. In this paper, potential energy savings in U.S. offices and restaurants if thermostat settings are calculated according the updated ASHRAE 55-2013 comfort model that accounts for outdoor temperature and clothing choice for different climate zones. eQUEST building models are calibrated to reproduce aggregate energy consumption as reported in the U.S. Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey. Changes in energy consumption due to the new settings are analyzed for 14 cities in different climate zones and then the results are extrapolated to estimate potential national savings. It is found that, depending on the climate zone, each degree increase in the summer saves 0.6 to 1.0% of total building electricity consumption. Each degree the winter setting is lowered saves 1.2% to 8.7% of total building natural gas consumption. With new thermostat settings, national savings are 2.5% of the total consumed in all office buildings and restaurants, summing up to national savings of 69.6 million GJ annually, comparable to all 2015 total solar PV generation in US. The goals of improved comfort and energy/economic savings are thus co-aligned, raising the importance of thermostat management as an energy efficiency strategy.

Keywords: Energy Management, Thermal comfort, energy savings quantifications, commercial building stocks, dynamic clothing insulation model, operation-focused interventions, thermostat settings

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50 Thermal Behaviour of a Low-Cost Passive Solar House in Somerset East, South Africa

Authors: Ochuko K. Overen, Golden Makaka, Edson L. Meyer, Sampson Mamphweli


Low-cost housing provided for people with small incomes in South Africa are characterized by poor thermal performance. This is due to inferior craftsmanship with no regard to energy efficient design during the building process. On average, South African households spend 14% of their total monthly income on energy needs, in particular space heating; which is higher than the international benchmark of 10% for energy poverty. Adopting energy efficient passive solar design strategies and superior thermal building materials can create a stable thermal comfort environment indoors. Thereby, reducing energy consumption for space heating. The aim of this study is to analyse the thermal behaviour of a low-cost house integrated with passive solar design features. A low-cost passive solar house with superstructure fly ash brick walls was designed and constructed in Somerset East, South Africa. Indoor and outdoor meteorological parameters of the house were monitored for a period of one year. The ASTM E741-11 Standard was adopted to perform ventilation test in the house. In summer, the house was found to be thermally comfortable for 66% of the period monitored, while for winter it was about 79%. The ventilation heat flow rate of the windows and doors were found to be 140 J/s and 68 J/s, respectively. Air leakage through cracks and openings in the building envelope was 0.16 m3/m2h with a corresponding ventilation heat flow rate of 24 J/s. The indoor carbon dioxide concentration monitored overnight was found to be 0.248%, which is less than the maximum range limit of 0.500%. The prediction percentage dissatisfaction of the house shows that 86% of the occupants will express the thermal satisfaction of the indoor environment. With a good operation of the house, it can create a well-ventilated, thermal comfortable and nature luminous indoor environment for the occupants. Incorporating passive solar design in low-cost housing can be one of the long and immediate solutions to the energy crisis facing South Africa.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Rural development, Thermal comfort, low-cost housing, passive solar design

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
49 Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings

Authors: K. C. Rajan, H. B. Rijal, Kazui Yoshida, Masanori Shukuya


The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Energy Reduction, thermal environment, HEMS utility

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48 The Impact of Roof Thermal Performance on the Indoor Thermal Comfort in a Natural Ventilated Building Envelope in Hot Climatic Climates

Authors: J. Iwaro, A. Mwasha, K. Ramsubhag


Global warming has become a threat of our time. It poses challenges to the existence of beings on earth, the built environment, natural environment and has made a clear impact on the level of energy and water consumption. As such, increase in the ambient temperature increases indoor and outdoor temperature level of the buildings which brings about the use of more energy and mechanical air conditioning systems. In addition, in view of the increased modernization and economic growth in the developing countries, a significant amount of energy is being used, especially those with hot climatic conditions. Since modernization in developing countries is rising rapidly, more pressure is being placed on the buildings and energy resources to satisfy the indoor comfort requirements. This paper presents a sustainable passive roof solution as a means of reducing energy cooling loads for satisfying human comfort requirements in a hot climate. As such, the study based on the field study data discusses indoor thermal roof design strategies for a hot climate by investigating the impacts of roof thermal performance on indoor thermal comfort in naturally ventilated building envelope small scaled structures. In this respect, the traditional concrete flat roof, corrugated galvanised iron roof and pre-painted standing seam roof were used. The experiment made used of three identical small scale physical models constructed and sited on the roof of a building at the University of the West Indies. The results show that the utilization of insulation in traditional roofing systems will significantly reduce heat transfer between the internal and ambient environment, thus reducing the energy demand of the structure and the relative carbon footprint of a structure per unit area over its lifetime. Also, the application of flat slab concrete roofing system showed the best performance as opposed to the metal roof sheeting alternative systems. In addition, it has been shown experimentally through this study that a sustainable passive roof solution such as insulated flat concrete roof in hot dry climate has a better cooling strength that can provide building occupant with a better thermal comfort, conducive indoor conditions and energy efficiency.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Thermal comfort, Building Envelope, roof

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47 Computational Modeling of Thermal Comfort and CO2 Distribution in Common Room-Lecture Room by Using Hybrid Air Ventilation System, Thermoelectric-PV-Silica Gel under IAQ Standard

Authors: Jirod Chaisan, Somchai Maneewan, Chantana Punlek, Ninnart Rachapradit, Surapong Chirarattananon, Pattana Rakkwamsuk


In this paper, simulation modeling of heat transfer, air flow and distribution emitted from CO2 was performed in a regenerated air. The study room was divided in 3 types: common room, small lecture room and large lecture room under evaluated condition in two case: released and unreleased CO2 including of used hybrid air ventilation system for regenerated air under Thailand climate conditions. The carbon dioxide was located on the center of the room and released rate approximately 900-1200 ppm corresponded with indoor air quality standard (IAQs). The indoor air in the thermal comfort zone was calculated and simulated with the numerical method that using real data from the handbook guideline. The results of the study showed that in the case of hybrid air ventilation system explained thermal and CO2 distribution due to the system was adapted significantly in the comfort zone. The results showed that when CO2 released on the center of the other room, the CO2 high concentration in comfort zone so used hybrid air ventilation that decreased CO2 with regeneration air including of reduced temperature indoor. However, the study is simulation modeling and guideline only so the future should be the experiment of hybrid air ventilation system for evaluated comparison of the systems.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Photovoltaic, Indoor Air Quality, thermoelectric, air ventilation, dehumidify

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46 Assessment of Microclimate in Abu Dhabi Neighborhoods: On the Utilization of Native Landscape in Enhancing Thermal Comfort

Authors: Maryam Al Mheiri, Khaled Al Awadi


Urban population is continuously increasing worldwide and the speed at which cities urbanize creates major challenges, particularly in terms of creating sustainable urban environments. Rapid urbanization often leads to negative environmental impacts and changes in the urban microclimates. Moreover, when rapid urbanization is paired with limited landscape elements, the effects on human health due to the increased pollution, and thermal comfort due to Urban Heat Island effects are increased. Urban Heat Island (UHI) describes the increase of urban temperatures in urban areas in comparison to its rural surroundings, and, as we discuss in this paper, it impacts on pedestrian comfort, reducing the number of walking trips and public space use. It is thus very necessary to investigate the quality of outdoor built environments in order to improve the quality of life incites. The main objective of this paper is to address the morphology of Emirati neighborhoods, setting a quantitative baseline by which to assess and compare spatial characteristics and microclimate performance of existing typologies in Abu Dhabi. This morphological mapping and analysis will help to understand the built landscape of Emirati neighborhoods in this city, whose form has changed and evolved across different periods. This will eventually help to model the use of different design strategies, such as landscaping, to mitigate UHI effects and enhance outdoor urban comfort. Further, the impact of different native plants types and native species in reducing UHI effects and enhancing outdoor urban comfort, allowing for the assessment of the impact of increasing landscaped areas in these neighborhoods. This study uses ENVI-met, an analytical, three-dimensional, high-resolution microclimate modeling software. This micro-scale urban climate model will be used to evaluate existing conditions and generate scenarios in different residential areas, with different vegetation surfaces and landscaping, and examine their impact on surface temperatures during summer and autumn. In parallel to these simulations, field measurement will be included to calibrate the Envi-met model. This research therefore takes an experimental approach, using simulation software, and a case study strategy for the evaluation of a sample of residential neighborhoods. A comparison of the results of these scenarios constitute a first step towards making recommendations about what constitutes sustainable landscapes for Abu Dhabi neighborhoods.

Keywords: Landscape, Native Plants, Thermal comfort, Microclimate, Urban Heat Island, sustainable neighborhoods

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45 A Review of Critical Framework Assessment Matrices for Data Analysis on Overheating in Buildings Impact

Authors: Martin Adlington, Boris Ceranic, Sally Shazhad


In an effort to reduce carbon emissions, changes in UK regulations, such as Part L Conservation of heat and power, dictates improved thermal insulation and enhanced air tightness. These changes were a direct response to the UK Government being fully committed to achieving its carbon targets under the Climate Change Act 2008. The goal is to reduce emissions by at least 80% by 2050. Factors such as climate change are likely to exacerbate the problem of overheating, as this phenomenon expects to increase the frequency of extreme heat events exemplified by stagnant air masses and successive high minimum overnight temperatures. However, climate change is not the only concern relevant to overheating, as research signifies, location, design, and occupation; construction type and layout can also play a part. Because of this growing problem, research shows the possibility of health effects on occupants of buildings could be an issue. Increases in temperature can perhaps have a direct impact on the human body’s ability to retain thermoregulation and therefore the effects of heat-related illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope and even death can be imminent. This review paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the current literature on the causes and health effects of overheating in buildings and has examined the differing applied assessment approaches used to measure the concept. Firstly, an overview of the topic was presented followed by an examination of overheating research work from the last decade. These papers form the body of the article and are grouped into a framework matrix summarizing the source material identifying the differing methods of analysis of overheating. Cross case evaluation has identified systematic relationships between different variables within the matrix. Key areas focused on include, building types and country, occupants behavior, health effects, simulation tools, computational methods.

Keywords: Climate Change, Health, Thermal comfort, overheating

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44 Determining the Thermal Performance and Comfort Indices of a Naturally Ventilated Room with Reduced Density Reinforced Concrete Wall Construction over Conventional M-25 Grade Concrete

Authors: P. Crosby, Shiva Krishna Pavuluri, S. Rajkumar


Purpose: Occupied built-up space can be broadly classified as air-conditioned and naturally ventilated. Regardless of the building type, the objective of all occupied built-up space is to provide a thermally acceptable environment for human occupancy. Considering this aspect, air-conditioned spaces allow a greater degree of flexibility to control and modulate the comfort parameters during the operation phase. However, in the case of naturally ventilated space, a number of design features favoring indoor thermal comfort should be mandatorily conceptualized starting from the design phase. One such primary design feature that requires to be prioritized is, selection of building envelope material, as it decides the flow of energy from outside environment to occupied spaces. Research Methodology: In India and many countries across globe, the standardized material used for building envelope is re-enforced concrete (i.e. M-25 grade concrete). The comfort inside the RC built environment for warm & humid climate (i.e. mid-day temp of 30-35˚C, diurnal variation of 5-8˚C & RH of 70-90%) is unsatisfying to say the least. This study is mainly focused on reviewing the impact of mix design of conventional M25 grade concrete on inside thermal comfort. In this mix design, air entrainment in the range of 2000 to 2100 kg/m3 is introduced to reduce the density of M-25 grade concrete. Thermal performance parameters & indoor comfort indices are analyzed for the proposed mix and compared in relation to the conventional M-25 grade. There are diverse methodologies which govern indoor comfort calculation. In this study, three varied approaches specifically a) Indian Adaptive Thermal comfort model, b) Tropical Summer Index (TSI) c) Air temperature less than 33˚C & RH less than 70% to calculate comfort is adopted. The data required for the thermal comfort study is acquired by field measurement approach (i.e. for the new mix design) and simulation approach by using design builder (i.e. for the conventional concrete grade). Findings: The analysis points that the Tropical Summer Index has a higher degree of stringency in determining the occupant comfort band whereas also providing a leverage in thermally tolerable band over & above other methodologies in the context of the study. Another important finding is the new mix design ensures a 10% reduction in indoor air temperature (IAT) over the outdoor dry bulb temperature (ODBT) during the day. This translates to a significant temperature difference of 6 ˚C IAT and ODBT.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Indian adaptive thermal comfort, indoor air temperature, tropical summer index

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43 Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study

Authors: Christina Kalogirou


The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.

Keywords: Vernacular Architecture, Thermal comfort, in situ measurements, occupant behaviour

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42 Thermal Comfort in Office Rooms in a Historic Building with Modernized Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: Hossein Bakhtiari, Mathias Cehlin, Jan Akander


Envelopes with low thermal performance is a common characteristic in many European historic buildings which leads to higher energy demand for heating and cooling as well as insufficient thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort in the City Hall (Rådhuset) in Gävle, Sweden. This historic building is currently used as an office building. It is equipped with two relatively modern mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices in the offices. The district heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from an electric heat pump that rejects heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system controls HVAC equipment (heating, ventilation and air conditioning). The methodology is based on on-site measurements, data logging on the management system and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. The main aim of the study is to investigate whether or not it is enough to have modernized HVAC systems to get adequate thermal comfort in a historic building with poor envelope performance used as an office building in Nordic climate conditions.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Historic Buildings, on-site measurements, standardized questionnaire

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41 Thermal Comfort Study of School Buildings in South Minahasa Regency Case Study: SMA Negeri 1 Amurang, Indonesia

Authors: Virgino Stephano Moniaga


Thermal comfort inside a building can affect students in their learning process. The learning process of students can be improved if the condition of the classrooms is comfortable. This study will be conducted in SMA Negeri 1 Amurang which is a senior high school building located in South Minahasa Regency. Based on preliminary survey, generally, students were not satisfied with the existing level of comfort, which subsequently affected the teaching and learning process in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to analyze the comfort level of classrooms occupants and recommend building design solutions that can improve the thermal comfort of classrooms. In this study, three classrooms will be selected for thermal comfort measurements. The thermal comfort measurements will be taken in naturally ventilated classrooms. The measured data comprise of personal data (clothing and students activity), air humidity, air temperature, mean radiant temperature and air flow velocity. Simultaneously, the students will be asked to fill out a questionnaire that asked about the level of comfort that was felt at the time. The results of field measurements and questionnaires will be analyzed based on the PMV and PPD indices. The results of the analysis will decide whether the classrooms are comfortable or not. This study can be continued to obtain a more optimal design solution to improve the thermal comfort of the classrooms. The expected results from this study can improve the quality of teaching and learning process between teachers and students which can further assist the government efforts to improve the quality of national education.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Classrooms, PPD, PMV

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40 Efficiency Validation of Hybrid Geothermal and Radiant Cooling System Implementation in Hot and Humid Climate Houses of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Jamil Hijazi, Stirling Howieson


Over one-quarter of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s total oil production (2.8 million barrels a day) is used for electricity generation. The built environment is estimated to consume 77% of the total energy production. Of this amount, air conditioning systems consume about 80%. Apart from considerations surrounding global warming and CO2 production it has to be recognised that oil is a finite resource and the KSA like many other oil rich countries will have to start to consider a horizon where hydro-carbons are not the dominant energy resource. The employment of hybrid ground cooling pipes in combination with black body solar collection and radiant night cooling systems may have the potential to displace a significant proportion of oil currently used to run conventional air conditioning plant. This paper presents an investigation into the viability of such hybrid systems with the specific aim of reducing carbon emissions while providing all year round thermal comfort in a typical Saudi Arabian urban housing block. At the outset air and soil temperatures were measured in the city of Jeddah. A parametric study then was carried out by computational simulation software (Design Builder) that utilised the field measurements and predicted the cooling energy consumption of both a base case and an ideal scenario (typical block retro-fitted with insulation, solar shading, ground pipes integrated with hypocaust floor slabs/ stack ventilation and radiant cooling pipes embed in floor).Initial simulation results suggest that careful ‘ecological design’ combined with hybrid radiant and ground pipe cooling techniques can displace air conditioning systems, producing significant cost and carbon savings (both capital and running) without appreciable deprivation of amenity.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Thermal comfort, ground pipe, hybrid cooling, radiative cooling

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39 Development of a Suitable Model for Energy Storage in Residential Buildings in Ahvaz Using Energy Plus Software

Authors: Farideh Azimi, Sam Vahedi Tafreshi


This research tries to study the residential buildings in Ahvaz, the common materials used, and the impact of passive methods of energy storage (as one of the most effective ways to reduce energy consumption in residential complexes) in order to achieve patterns for construction of residential buildings in Ahvaz conditions to reduce energy consumption. In this research, after studying Ahvaz conditions, the components of an existing building were simulated in Energy Plus software, and the climatic data of Ahvaz station was introduced to software. Then to achieve the most optimal conditions of energy consumption in Ahvaz conditions, each of the residential building elements was optimized. The results of simulation showed that using inactive materials and design including double glass, outside wall insulation, inverted roof, etc. in the buildings can reduce energy consumption in the hot and dry climate of Ahvaz. Among the parameters investigated, the inverted roof was the most effective energy saving pattern. According to the results of simulation of the entire building with the most optimal parameters, energy consumption can be saved by a mean of 12.51% in buildings of Ahvaz, and the obtained pattern can also be used in similar climates.

Keywords: energy storage, Residential Buildings, Thermal comfort, Ahvaz, Energy Plus software

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38 Effective Thermal Retrofitting Methods to Improve Energy Efficiency of Existing Dwellings in Sydney

Authors: Claire Far, Sara Wilkinson, Deborah Ascher Barnstone


Energy issues have been a growing concern in current decades. Limited energy resources and increasing energy consumption from one side and environmental pollution and waste of resources from the other side have substantially affected the future of human life. Around 40 percent of total energy consumption of Australian buildings goes to heating and cooling due to the low thermal performance of the buildings. Thermal performance of buildings determines the amount of energy used for heating and cooling of the buildings which profoundly influences energy efficiency. Therefore, employing sustainable design principles and effective use of construction materials for building envelope can play crucial role in the improvement of energy efficiency of existing dwellings and enhancement of thermal comfort of the occupants. The energy consumption for heating and cooling normally is determined by the quality of the building envelope. Building envelope is the part of building which separates the habitable areas from exterior environment. Building envelope consists of external walls, external doors, windows, roof, ground and the internal walls that separate conditioned spaces from non-condition spaces. The energy loss from the building envelope is the key factor. Heat loss through conduction, convection and radiation from building envelope. Thermal performance of the building envelope can be improved by using different methods of retrofitting depending on the climate conditions and construction materials. Based on the available studies, the importance of employing sustainable design principles has been highlighted among the Australian building professionals. However, the residential building sector still suffers from a lack of having the best practice examples and experience for effective use of construction materials for building envelope. As a result, this study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing dwellings in Sydney, the most populated city in Australia. Based on the research findings, the best thermal retrofitting methods for increasing thermal comfort and energy efficiency of existing residential dwellings as well as reducing their environmental impact and footprint have been identified and proposed.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Thermal comfort, sustainable design principles, residential dwellings, thermal retrofit

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