Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Thermal analysis Related Abstracts

27 Thermal Effects of Disc Brake Rotor Design for Automotive Brake Application

Authors: K. Shahril, M. Sabri, M. Ridzuan


The disc rotor is solid, ventilated or drilled. The ventilated type disc rotor consists of a wider disc with cooling fins cast through the middle to ensure good cooling. The disc brakes use pads that are pressed axially against a rotor or disc. Solid and ventilated disc design are same which it free with any form, unless inside the ventilated disc has several ventilation holes. Different with drilled disc has some construction on the surface which is has six lines of drill hole penetrate the disc and a little bit deep twelve curves. From the thermal analysis that was conducted by using ANSYS Software, temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on the disc were obtained on each design. Temperature occurred on the drilled disc was lowest than ventilated and solid disc, it is 66% better than ventilated while ventilated is 21% good than solid disc.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, disc brakes, drilled disc, ANSYS software

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26 Thermal Performance of Reheat, Regenerative, Inter-Cooled Gas Turbine Cycle

Authors: Milind S. Patil, Purushottam S. Desale, Eknath R. Deore


Thermal analysis of reheat, regenerative, inter-cooled gas turbine cycle is presented. Specific work output, thermal efficiency and SFC is simulated with respect to operating conditions. Analytical formulas were developed taking into account the effect of operational parameters like ambient temperature, compression ratio, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency, regenerator effectiveness, pressure loss in inter cooling, reheating and regenerator. Calculations were made for wide range of parameters using engineering equation solver and the results were presented here. For pressure ratio of 12, regenerator effectiveness 0.95, and maximum turbine inlet temperature 1200 K, thermal efficiency decreases by 27% with increase in ambient temperature (278 K to 328 K). With decrease in regenerator effectiveness thermal efficiency decreases linearly. With increase in ambient temperature (278 K to 328 K) for the same maximum temperature and regenerator effectiveness SFC decreases up to a pressure ratio of 10 and then increases. Sharp rise in SFC is noted for higher ambient temperature. With increase in isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine, thermal efficiency increases by about 40% for low ambient temperature (278 K to 298 K) however, for higher ambient temperature (308 K to 328 K) thermal efficiency increases by about 70%.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Regeneration, Gas Turbine, reheating, inter-cooled

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25 Heat Transfer in Direct-Driven Generator for Large-Scaled Wind Turbine

Authors: Yun-Hyun Cho, Dae-Gyun Ahn, Eun-Teak Woo, Seung-Ho Han


For the sustainable development of wind energy, energy industries have invested in the development of highly efficient wind generators such as the Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator. The AFPM generator, however, has a history of overheating on the surface of the stator, so that power production decreases significantly. A proper cooling system, therefore, is needed. Although a convective-type cooling system has been developed, the size of the air blower must be increased when the generator’s capacity exceeds 2.5MW. In this study, a newly developed conductive-type cooling system was proposed for the 2.5MW AFPM generator installed on an offshore wind turbine. Through electromagnetic thermal analysis, the efficiency of the heat transfer on the stator surface was investigated. When using the proposed cooling system, the temperatures on the stator surface and on the permanent magnet under conditions of thermal saturation were 76 and 66 C, respectively. (KETEP 20134030200320)

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Thermal analysis, axial flux permanent magnet, conductive-type cooling system

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24 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič


Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Firing, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, TPS method, electro-ceramics

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23 Synthesis and Characterization of a Type Oxide Ca1-x Srx MnO3

Authors: A. Guemache, M. Omari


Oxides with formula Ca1-xSrx MnO3(0≤x≤0.2) were synthesized using co precipitation method. The identification of the obtained phase was carried out using infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric and differential analysis was permitted to characterize different transformations of precursors which take place during one heating cycle. The study of electrochemical behavior was carried out by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that apparent catalytic activity improved when increasing the concentration of strontium. Anodic current densities varies from 1.3 to 5.9 mA/cm2 at the rate scan of 20 mV.s-1 and a potential 0.8 V for oxides with composition x=0 to 0.2.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, co-precipitation, oxide, electrochemical properties

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22 Modification of Date Palm Leaflets Fibers Used as Thermoplastic Reinforcement

Authors: A. Benchabane, K. Almi, A. Kriker, S.Lakel


The fiber–matrix compatibility can be improved if suitable enforcements are chosen. Whenever the reinforcements have more thermal stability, they can resist to the main processes for wood–thermoplastic composites. This paper is an investigation of effect of different treatment process on the mechanical proprieties and on the thermal stability of date palm leaflets fibers with a view to improve the date palm fiber proprieties used as reinforcement of thermoplastic materials which main processes require extrusion, hot press. To compare the effect of alkali and acid treatment on the date palm leaflets fiber properties, different treatment were used such as Sodium hydroxide NaOH solution, aluminium chloride AlCl3 and acid treatment with HCL solution. All treatments were performed at 70°C for 4h and 48 h. The mechanical performance (tensile strength and elongation) is affected by immersion time in alkaline and acid solutions. The reduction of the tensile strength and elongation of fibers at 48h was higher in acid treatment than in alkali treatment at high concentration. No significant differences were observed in mechanical and thermal proprieties of raw fibers and fibers submerged in AlCl3 at low concentration 1% for 48h. Fibers treated by NaOH at 6% for 4h showed significant increase in the mechanical proprieties and thermal stability of date palm leaflets fibers. Hence, soda treatment is necessary to improve the fibers proprieties and consequently optimize the composite performance.

Keywords: thermoplastic Composites, Thermal analysis, Surface Treatments, date palm fibers

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21 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Bi0.82La0.2Fe1-xCrxO3 Nanoparticles

Authors: H. Nematifar, D. Sanavi Khoshnoud, S. Feyz


Bi0.82La0.2Fe1-xCrxO3 (BLFCxO, x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.08) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the lattice parameters decrease for x ≤ 0.05, firstly, and then they increase for x > 0.05. A transformation from rhombohedral structure to orthorhombic structure occurs at x = 0.08. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that the average nanoparticle size is about 60-70 nm. The remnant magnetisation (Mr) increases gradually with x to 0.02, then decreases with further increasing x up to 0.05, and finally enchases abruptly in x = 0.08. The coercivity (HC) increases gradually with x to 0.05, and then significantly reduced with increasing Cr substitution. The magnetic ordering temperature (TN) decreases with Cr doping concentration. The M-H curves of all samples exhibit a wasp-waist hysteresis loop in low magnetic region. This property can play an important role for the applications of some multiferroic nano-device.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Nanoparticles, Thermal analysis, BiFeO3, sol-gel preparation

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20 Development of Potato Starch Based Active Packaging Films Loaded with Antioxidants and Its Effect on Shelf Life of Beef

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Ashwar, Asima Shah, Adil Gani, Inam u nisa, Farooq Ahmad Masoodi


The effects of 5% BHT and green tea extracts (GTE) on the physical, barrier, mechanical, thermal and antioxidant properties of potato starch films were investigated. Results showed both BHT and GTE significantly lowered solubility of films. Addition of BHT significantly decreased water vapour transmission rate. Both BHT and GTE promoted significant increase in the elastic modulus but a decrease in % EAB, however BHT was more effective in increasing elastic modulus. Increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy of transition (ΔH) of films was observed with the incorporation of GTE and BHT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed smooth surface of the films. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of both BHT and GTE films were stronger in fatty food stimulant (95% ethanol. The GTE and BHT films were individually applied to fresh beef samples and were stored at 4 0C and room temperature for 10 days. Metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation (TBARS) were monitored periodically. The addition of GTE extracts and BHT resulted in decreases in metmyoglobin and TBARS values. We conclude that extracts of GTE and BHT have potential as preservatives for fresh beef.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, SEM, tensile properties, starch film, WVTR, DPPH scavenging activity, TBARS, metmyoglobin

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19 Cooling Profile Analysis of Hot Strip Coil Using Finite Volume Method

Authors: Subhamita Chakraborty, Shubhabrata Datta, Sujay Kumar Mukherjea, Partha Protim Chattopadhyay


Manufacturing of multiphase high strength steel in hot strip mill have drawn significant attention due to the possibility of forming low temperature transformation product of austenite under continuous cooling condition. In such endeavor, reliable prediction of temperature profile of hot strip coil is essential in order to accesses the evolution of microstructure at different location of hot strip coil, on the basis of corresponding Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram. Temperature distribution profile of the hot strip coil has been determined by using finite volume method (FVM) vis-à-vis finite difference method (FDM). It has been demonstrated that FVM offer greater computational reliability in estimation of contact pressure distribution and hence the temperature distribution for curved and irregular profiles, owing to the flexibility in selection of grid geometry and discrete point position, Moreover, use of finite volume concept allows enforcing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy, leading to enhanced accuracy of prediction.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Thermal analysis, finite volume method, contact pressure, coil cooling

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18 ELectromagnetic-Thermal Coupled Analysis of PMSM with Cooling Channel

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee, Tae-Chul Jeong, Hyun-Woo Jun


The paper presents the electromagnetic-thermal flow coupled analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which has cooling channel in stator core for forced air cooling. Unlike the general PMSM design, to achieve ohmic loss reduction for high efficiency, cooling channel actively used in the stator core. Equivalent thermal network model was made to analyze the effect of the formation of the additional flow path in the core. According to the shape and position changing of the channel design, electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis results were reviewed.

Keywords: fluid flow, Coupled problems, Thermal analysis, Electric Motors, Equivalent Circuits

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17 Comparison of Processing Conditions for Plasticized PVC and PVB

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Jaroslav Císař, Pavel Mokrejš


The worldwide problem is that the recycled PVB is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB have very similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of them are used in plasticized form. Thus, the thermal properties of plasticized PVC obtained from primary production and the PVB was obtained by recycling of windshields are compared. It is carried out in order to find degradable conditions and decide if blend of PVB/PVC can be processable together. Tested PVC contained 38 % of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28 % of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). Thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared such as DSC and OOT analysis. The tensile strength analysis is added.

Keywords: Recycling, Thermal analysis, Reprocessing, Decomposition, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral

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16 Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Liquidity and Mechanical Properties of Phase Formation Reaction Change in Cast Iron by Cooling Curve Analysis

Authors: S. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. M. Lim


In this research analyzed the effects that phase formation reaction change in the grey cast iron makes on characteristics of microstructures, liquidity, and mechanical properties through cooling curve when adding rare earth elements (R.E). This research was analyzed with comparison between the case of not adding the rare earth elements (R.E) into the grey cast iron with the standard composition (as 3.3%C-2.1%Si-0.7%Mn-0.1%S) and the case of adding 0.3% rare earth elements (R.E). The thermal analysis parameters have been drawn through eutectic temperature theoretically calculated, recalescence temperature, and undercooling temperature measured from start of eutectic reaction to end of solidification in the cooling curve obtained by thermal analysis to analyze formation behavior of graphite, and the effects by addition of rare earth elements on this have been reviewed. When adding rare earth elements (R.E), the cause of liquidity slowdown was analyzed trough the solidification starting temperature and change of solidification ending temperature. The strength and hardness have been measured to evaluate the mechanical properties, and the sound tensile strength has been evaluated through quality coefficient after measuring relative hardness and normality degree of tensile strength by calculating theoretical tensile strength and theoretical hardness. The change of Pearlite Inter-lamellar Spacing of matrix microstructure and eutectic cell count of macrostructure was measured to analyze the effects of the rare earth elements on the sound tensile strength. The change of eutectic cell count has been clarified through activation of the eutectic reaction, and the cause of pearlite inter-lamellar spacing clarified through eutectoid reaction temperature.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Element, grey cast iron, cooling curve, rare earth element

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15 Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-Textile Structures

Authors: Hande Sezgin, Senem Kursun Bahadır, Yakup Erhan Boke, Fatma Kalaoğlu


Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns (cotton and acrylic) and three conductive steel yarns with different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal behavior of samples were examined by thermal camera.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Smart Textiles, E-Textiles, conductive yarn

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14 Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass

Authors: Farid M. Abdel-Rahim


In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Heat Treatment, Thermal analysis, SEM, DSC, chalcogenides

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13 Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak


Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Thermal analysis, Hardness, Copper, thermal fatigue

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12 Design and Thermal Analysis of a Concrete House in Libya Using BEopt

Authors: Tariq Iqbal, Gamal Alamri


This paper presents an optimum designs and thermal analysis of concrete house in the hot climate of Libya. For this goal we have used BEopt software (building energy optimization) that provides capabilities for estimating residential building design and thermal analysis. The most area of the house that is exposed to the sunlight’s is the roof leading to heat gain. Therefore, house cooling consumes high energy. The cooling energy consumption is three times the heating energy consumption. In order to maintain comfortable indoor conditions in a low-energy house, the entire building envelope needs to be perfectly insulated and prevented from air leakages. Insulated roof is selected to reduce cooling demand, and the paper presents details and BEopt simulation results. Designed house needs 12.02mmbtus/year. Furthermore, the modeling indicates that the designed house is close to achieving the Passive standard.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Hot Climate, concrete house design, BEopt software

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11 Aerothermal Analysis of the Brazilian 14-X Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicle at Mach Number 7

Authors: Paulo G. P. Toro, Antonio C. Oliveira, João F. A. Martos, Felipe J. Costa, Israel S. Rêgo, Ronaldo L. Cardoso, Marco A. S. Minucci


The Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, at the Institute for Advanced Studies designed the Brazilian 14-X Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicle, which is a technological demonstrator endowed with two innovative technologies: waverider technology, to obtain lift from conical shockwave during the hypersonic flight; and uses hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system called scramjet that is based on supersonic combustion, to perform flights on Earth's atmosphere at 30 km altitude at Mach numbers 7 and 10. The scramjet is an aeronautical engine without moving parts that promote compression and deceleration of freestream atmospheric air at the inlet through the conical/oblique shockwaves generated during the hypersonic flight. During high speed flight, the shock waves and the viscous forces yield the phenomenon called aerodynamic heating, where this physical meaning is the friction between the fluid filaments and the body or compression at the stagnation regions of the leading edge that converts the kinetic energy into heat within a thin layer of air which blankets the body. The temperature of this layer increases with the square of the speed. This high temperature is concentrated in the boundary-layer, where heat will flow readily from the boundary-layer to the hypersonic aerospace vehicle structure. Fay and Riddell and Eckert methods are applied to the stagnation point and to the flat plate segments in order to calculate the aerodynamic heating. On the understanding of the aerodynamic heating it is important to analyze the heat conduction transfer to the 14-X waverider internal structure. ANSYS Workbench software provides the Thermal Numerical Analysis, using Finite Element Method of the 14-X waverider unpowered scramjet at 30 km altitude at Mach number 7 and 10 in terms of temperature and heat flux. Finally, it is possible to verify if the internal temperature complies with the requirements for embedded systems, and, if is necessary to do modifications on the structure in terms of wall thickness and materials.

Keywords: Hypersonic, Thermal analysis, Aerodynamic Heating, scramjet

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10 Comparative Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Fins Using Ansys Software

Authors: Anees K. Ahamed, Aakash Kumar R. G., Raj M. Mohan


Effective engine cooling can improve the engine’s life and efficacy. The design of the fin of the cylinder head and block determines the cooling mechanism of air cooled engine. The heat conduction takes place through the engine parts and convection of heat from the surface of the fins takes place with air as the heat transferring medium. The air surrounding the cooling fins helps in removal of heat built up by the air cooled engine. If the heat removal rate is inadequate, it will result in lower engine efficiency and high thermal stresses in the engine. The main drawback of the air cooled engine is the low heat transfer rate of the cooling fins .This work is based on scrutiny of previous researches that involves enhancing of heat transfer rate of cooling fins. The current research is about augmentation of heat transfer rate of longitudinal rectangular fin profiles by varying the length of the fin and diameter of holes on the fins. Thermal and flow analysis is done for two different models of fins. One is simple fin without holes and the other is perforated (consist of holes). It can be inferred from the research that the fins with holes have a higher fin efficiency than the fins without holes. The geometry of the fin is done in CREO. The heat transfer analysis is done using ANSYS software.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Thermal analysis, fins, perforated fins, thermal flux

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9 Thermal Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Cryopump

Authors: Yong Wang, Wei Sun, Yue Shuai Zhao, Rong Ping Shao, Guo Hua Ren, Li Chen Sun


A large-scale cryopump (DN1250) used in large vacuum leak detecting system was designed and its performance experimentally investigated by Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering. The cryopump was cooled by four closed cycle helium refrigerators (two dual stage refrigerators and two single stage refrigerators). Detailed numerical analysis of the heat transfer in the first stage array and the second stage array were performed by using computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). Several design parameters were considered to find the effect on the temperature distribution and the cooldown time. The variation of thermal conductivity and heat capacity with temperature was taken into account. The thermal analysis method based on numerical techniques was introduced in this study, the heat transfer in the first stage array and the second stage cryopanel was carefully analyzed to determine important considerations in the thermal design of the cryopump. A performance test system according to the RNEUROP standards was built to test main performance of the cryopump. The experimental results showed that the structure of first stage array which was optimized by the method could meet the requirement of the cryopump well. The temperature of the cryopanel was down to 10K within 300 min, and the result of the experiment was accordant with theoretical analysis' conclusion. The test also showed that the pumping speed for N2 of the pump was up to 57,000 L/s, and the crossover was over than 300,000 Pa•L.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, temperature distribution, CFD simulation, cryopump

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8 Dielectric Properties of PANI/h-BN Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbaş, Emrah Cakmakci


Polyaniline (PANI), the most studied member of the conductive polymers, has a wide range of uses from several electronic devices to various conductive high-technology applications. Boron nitride (BN) is a boron and nitrogen containing compound with superior chemical and thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Even though several composites of PANI was prepared in literature, the preparation of h-BN/PANI composites is rare. In this work PANI was polymerized in the presence of different amounts of h-BN (1, 3 and 5% with respect to PANI) by using 0.1 M solution of NH4S2O8 in HCl as the oxidizing agent and conductive composites were prepared. Composites were structurally characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Thermal properties of conductive composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric measurements were performed in the frequency range of 106–108 Hz at room temperature. The corresponding bands for the benzenoid and quinoid rings at around 1593 and 1496 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of the composites proved the formation of polyaniline. Together with the FTIR spectra, XRD analysis also revealed the existence of the interactions between PANI and h-BN. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the composites increased with the increasing amount of PANI (from 87 to 101). TGA revealed that the char yield of the composites increased as the amount of h-BN was increased in the composites. Finally the dielectric permittivity of 3 wt.%h-BN-containing composite was measured and found as approximately 17. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Dielectric Permittivity, PANI, h-BN

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7 Influence of Torrefied Biomass on Co-Combustion Behaviors of Biomass/Lignite Blends

Authors: Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman, Aysen Caliskan


Co-firing of coal and biomass blends is an effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released by burning coals, thanks to the carbon-neutral nature of biomass. Besides, usage of biomass that is renewable and sustainable energy resource mitigates the dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. However, most of the biomass species has negative aspects such as low calorific value, high moisture and volatile matter contents compared to coal. Torrefaction is a promising technique in order to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass through thermal treatment. That is, this technique improves the calorific value of biomass along with serious reductions in the moisture and volatile matter contents. In this context, several woody biomass materials including Rhododendron, hybrid poplar, and ash-tree were subjected to torrefaction process in a horizontal tube furnace at 200°C under nitrogen flow. In this way, the solid residue obtained from torrefaction that is also called as 'biochar' was obtained and analyzed to monitor the variations taking place in biomass properties. On the other hand, some Turkish lignites from Elbistan, Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Çorum-Dodurga deposits were chosen as coal samples since these lignites are of great importance in lignite-fired power stations in Turkey. These lignites were blended with the obtained biochars for which the blending ratio of biochars was kept at 10 wt% and the lignites were the dominant constituents in the fuel blends. Burning tests of the lignites, biomasses, biochars, and blends were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer up to 900°C with a heating rate of 40°C/min under dry air atmosphere. Based on these burning tests, properties relevant to burning characteristics such as the burning reactivity and burnout yields etc. could be compared to justify the effects of torrefaction and blending. Besides, some characterization techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also conducted for the untreated biomass and torrefied biomass (biochar) samples, lignites and their blends to examine the co-combustion characteristics elaborately. Results of this study revealed the fact that blending of lignite with 10 wt% biochar created synergistic behaviors during co-combustion in comparison to the individual burning of the ingredient fuels in the blends. Burnout and ignition performances of each blend were compared by taking into account the lignite and biomass structures and characteristics. The blend that has the best co-combustion profile and ignition properties was selected. Even though final burnouts of the lignites were decreased due to the addition of biomass, co-combustion process acts as a reasonable and sustainable solution due to its environmentally friendly benefits such as reductions in net carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx and hazardous organic chemicals derived from volatiles.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, co-combustion, burnout performance, torrefaction pretreatment

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6 Thermal Analysis and Optimization of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Toroidal Windings

Authors: Yuan Wan, Shumei Cui, Shaopeng Wu


Toroidal windings were taken advantage of to reduce of axial length of the motor, so as to match the applications that have severe restrictions on the axial length. But slotting in the out edge of the stator will decrease the heat-dissipation capacity of the water cooling of the housing. Besides, the windings in the outer slots will increase the copper loss, which will further increase the difficult for heat dissipation of the motor. At present, carbon-fiber composite retaining sleeve are increasingly used to be mounted over the magnets to ensure the rotor strength at high speeds. Due to the poor thermal conductivity of carbon-fiber sleeve, the cooling of the rotor becomes very difficult, which may result in the irreversible demagnetization of magnets for the excessively high temperature. So it is necessary to analyze the temperature rise of such motor. This paper builds a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a toroidal-winding high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with water cooling of housing and forced air cooling of rotor. Thermal analysis was carried out based on the model and the factors that affects the temperature rise were investigated. Then thermal optimization for the prototype was achieved. Finally, a small-size prototype was manufactured and the thermal analysis results were verified.

Keywords: CFD, Thermal analysis, temperature rise, toroidal windings, high-speed PMSM

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5 Analysis of Thermal Damage Characteristics of High Pressure Turbine Blade According to Off-Design Operating Conditions

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Hyung Hee Cho, Seon Ho Kim, Young Moon Lee, Dong Kwan Kim


Gas turbines are heat engines that convert chemical energy into electrical energy through mechanical energy. Since their high energy density per unit volume and low pollutant emissions, gas turbines are classified as clean energy. In order to obtain better performance, the turbine inlet temperature of the current gas turbine is operated at about 1600℃, and thermal damage is a very serious problem. Especially, these thermal damages are more prominent in off-design conditions than in design conditions. In this study, the thermal damage characteristics of high temperature components of a gas turbine made of a single crystal material are studied numerically for the off-design operating conditions. The target gas turbine is configured as a reheat cycle and is operated in peak load operation mode, not normal operation. In particular, the target gas turbine features a lot of low-load operation. In this study, a commercial code, ANSYS 18.2, was used for analyzing the thermal-flow coupling problems. As a result, the flow separation phenomenon on the pressure side due to the flow reduction was remarkable at the off-design condition, and the high heat transfer coefficient at the upper end of the suction surface due to the tip leakage flow was appeared.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Gas Turbine, single crystal blade, off-design

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4 Energy Efficiency Line Guides for School Buildings in Florence in a Postgraduate Master Course

Authors: Lucia Ceccherini Nelli, Alessandra Donato


The ABITA Master course of the University of Florence offered by the Department of Architecture covers nearly all the energy-relevant issues that can arise in public and private companies and sectors. The main purpose of the Master course, active since 2003, is to analyse the energy consumption of building technologies, components, and structures at the conceptual design stage, so it could be very helpful, for designers, when making decisions related to the selection of the most suitable design alternatives and for the materials choice that will be used in an energy-efficient building. The training course provides a solid basis for increasing the knowledge and skills of energy managers and is developed with an emphasis on practical experiences related to the knowledge through case studies, measurements, and verification of energy-efficient solutions in buildings, in the industry and in the cities. The main objectives are: i)To raise the professional standards of those engaged in energy auditing, ii) To improve the practice of energy auditors by encouraging energy auditing professionals in a continuing education program of professional development, iii) Implement in the use of instrumentations for the typical measurements, iv) To propose an integrated methodology that links energy analysis tools with green building certification systems. This methodology will be applied at the early design stage of a project’s life. The final output of the practical training is to achieve an elevated professionalism in the study of environmental design and Energy management in buildings. The results are the redaction of line guides instruction for the energy refurbishment of Public schools in Florence. The school heritage of the Municipality of Florence requires interventions for the control of energy performance, as old construction buildings are often made without taking into account the necessary envelope performance. For this reason, every year, the Master's course aims to study groups of public schools to enable the Municipality to carry out energy redevelopment interventions on the existing building heritage. The future challenges of the education and training program are related to follow-up activities, the development of interactive tools and the curriculum's customization to meet the constantly growing needs of energy experts from industry.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, public buildings, expert in energy, energy auditing

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3 Aging Evaluation of Ammonium Perchlorate/Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene-Based Solid Rocket Engine by Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Thermal Analysis

Authors: R. F. B. Gonçalves, E. N. Iwama, J. A. F. F. Rocco, K. Iha


Propellants based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene/Ammonium Perchlorate (HTPB/AP) are the most commonly used in most of the rocket engines used by the Brazilian Armed Forces. This work aimed at the possibility of extending its useful life (currently in 10 years) by performing kinetic-chemical analyzes of its energetic material via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and also performing computer simulation of aging process using the software Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). Thermal analysis via DSC was performed in triplicates and in three heating ratios (5 ºC, 10 ºC, and 15 ºC) of rocket motor with 11 years shelf-life, using the Arrhenius equation to obtain its activation energy, using Ozawa and Kissinger kinetic methods, allowing comparison with manufacturing period data (standard motor). In addition, the kinetic parameters of internal pressure of the combustion chamber in 08 rocket engines with 11 years of shelf-life were also acquired, for comparison purposes with the engine start-up data.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, shelf-life, thrust, Ozawa method, Kissinger method, LAMMPS software

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2 Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Sadeep Sasidharan, T. B. Isha


Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Thermal analysis, Induction Motor, switched reluctance motor, inset permanent magnet motor, loss models

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1 Comfort in Green: Thermal Performance and Comfort Analysis of Sky Garden, SM City, North EDSA, Philippines

Authors: Raul Chavez Jr.


Green roof's body of knowledge appears to be in its infancy stage in the Philippines. To contribute to its development, this study intends to answer the question: Does the existing green roof in Metro Manila perform well in providing thermal comfort and satisfaction to users? Relatively, this study focuses on thermal sensation and satisfaction of users, surface temperature comparison, weather data comparison of the site (Sky Garden) and local weather station (PAG-ASA), and its thermal resistance capacity. Initially, the researcher conducted a point-in-time survey in parallel with weather data gathering from PAG-ASA and Sky Garden. In line with these, ambient and surface temperature are conducted through the use of a digital anemometer, with humidity and temperature, and non-contact infrared thermometer respectively. Furthermore, to determine the Sky Garden's overall thermal resistance, materials found on site were identified and tabulated based on specified locations. It revealed that the Sky Garden can be considered comfortable based from PMV-PPD Model of ASHRAE Standard 55 having similar results from thermal comfort and thermal satisfaction survey, which is contrary to the actual condition of the Sky Garden by means of a psychrometric chart which falls beyond the contextualized comfort zone. In addition, ground floor benefited the most in terms of lower average ambient temperature and humidity compared to the Sky Garden. Lastly, surface temperature data indicates that the green roof portion obtained the highest average temperature yet performed well in terms of heat resistance compared to other locations. These results provided the researcher valuable baseline information of the actual performance of a certain green roof in Metro Manila that could be vital in locally enhancing the system even further and for future studies.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Thermal comfort, Thermal Performance, green roof

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