Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Therapeutics Related Abstracts

4 Anti-Fibrillation Propensity of a Flavonoid Baicalein against the Fibrils of Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Potential Therapeutics for Lysozyme Amyloidosis

Authors: Naveed Ahmad Fazili

Abstract:

More than 20 human diseases involve the fibrillation of a specific protein/peptide which forms pathological deposits at various sites. Hereditary lysozyme amyloidosis is a systemic disorder which mostly affects liver, spleen and kidney. This conformational disorder is featured by lysozyme fibril formation. In vivo lysozyme fibrillation was simulated under in vitro conditions using a strong denaturant GdHCl at 3M concentration. Sharp decline in the ANS fluorescence intensity compared to the partially unfolded states, almost 20 fold increase in ThT fluorescence intensity, increase in absorbance at 450 nm suggesting turbidity, negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD at 217 nm, red shift of 50 nm compared to the native state in congo red assay and appearance of a network of long rope like fibrils in TEM analysis suggested HEWL fibrillation. Anti-fibrillation potency of baicalein against the preformed fibrils of HEWL was investigated following ThT assay in which there was a dose dependent decrease in ThT fluorescence intensity compared to the fibrillar state of HEWL with the maximum effect observed at 150 μM baicalein concentration, loss of negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD region, dip in the Rayleigh scattering intensity and absorbance at 350 nm and 450 nm respectively together with a reduction in the density of fibrillar structure in TEM imaging. Thus, it could be suggested that baicalein could prove to be a positive therapeutics for hereditary human lysozyme amyloidosis.

Keywords: Therapeutics, Amyloid Fibrils, Congo Red, baicalein, negative ellipticity

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3 Cloning and Expression of Azurin: A Protein Having Antitumor and Cell Penetrating Ability

Authors: Mohsina Akhter

Abstract:

Cancer has become a wide spread disease around the globe and takes many lives every year. Different treatments are being practiced but all have potential side effects with somewhat less specificity towards target sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to secrete a protein azurin with special anti-cancer function. It has unique cell penetrating peptide comprising of 18 amino acids that have ability to enter cancer cells specifically. Reported function of Azurin is to stabilize p53 inside the tumor cells and induces apoptosis through Bax mediated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. At laboratory scale, we have made recombinant azurin through cloning rpTZ57R/T-azu vector into E.coli strain DH-5α and subcloning rpET28-azu vector into E.coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3). High expression was ensured with IPTG induction at different concentrations then optimized high expression level at 1mM concentration of IPTG for 5 hours. Purification has been done by using Ni+2 affinity chromatography. We have concluded that azurin can be a remarkable improvement in cancer therapeutics if it produces on a large scale. Azurin does not enter into the normal cells so it will prove a safe and secure treatment for patients and prevent them from hazardous anomalies.

Keywords: Cancer, Therapeutics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, azurin

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2 The Effect of Heat Stress on the Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota of Pigs

Authors: Yadnyavalkya Patil, Ravi Gooneratne, Xiang-Hong Ju

Abstract:

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects the physiology of pigs. In this study, 6 pigs will be subjected to temperatures of 35 ± 2℃ for 12 hrs/day for a duration of 21 days. The changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota will be observed by analyzing the freshly collected faeces on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The changes will be compared to faeces from a set of 6 control pigs kept simultaneously at temperatures of 26 ± 2℃ for the same duration of 21 days. Different types of stresses such a weaning have a detrimental effect on GIT microflora. Similarly, HS is expected to have a harmful effect on the microbial diversity of the GIT. How these changes affect the immune system of the pigs will be studied and therapeutics to reduce the negative effects of HS will be developed.

Keywords: Therapeutics, Immune System, Heat Stress, GIT microbiota

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1 Exploration of Probiotics and Anti-Microbial Agents in Fermented Milk from Pakistani Camel spp. Breeds

Authors: Deeba N. Baig, Ateeqa Ijaz, Saloome Rafiq

Abstract:

Camel is a religious and culturally significant animal in Asian and African regions. In Pakistan Dromedary and Bactrian are common camel breeds. Other than the transportation use, it is a pivotal source of milk and meat. The quality of its milk and meat is predominantly dependent on the geographical location and variety of vegetation available for the diet. Camel milk (CM) is highly nutritious because of its reduced cholesterol and sugar contents along with enhanced minerals and vitamins level. The absence of beta-lactoglobulin (like human milk), makes CM a safer alternative for infants and children having Cow Milk Allergy (CMA). In addition to this, it has a unique probiotic profile both in raw and fermented form. Number of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including lactococcus, lactobacillus, enterococcus, streptococcus, weissella, pediococcus and many other bacteria have been detected. From these LAB Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus are widely used commercially for fermentation purpose. CM has high therapeutic value as its effectiveness is known against various ailments like fever, arthritis, asthma, gastritis, hepatitis, Jaundice, constipation, postpartum care of women, anti-venom, dropsy etc. It also has anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, antitumor potential along with its robust efficacy in the treatment of auto-immune disorders. Recently, the role of CM has been explored in brain-gut axis for the therapeutics of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this connection, a lot of grey area was available to explore the probiotics and therapeutics latent in the CM available in Pakistan. Thus, current study was designed to explore the predominant probiotic flora and antimicrobial potential of CM from different local breeds of Pakistan. The probiotics have been identified through biochemical, physiological and ribo-typing methods. In addition to this, bacteriocins (antimicrobial-agents) were screened through PCR-based approach. Results of this study revealed that CM from different breeds of camel depicted a number of similar probiotic candidates along with the range of limited variability. However, the nucleotide sequence analysis of selected anti-listerial bacteriocins exposed least variability. As a conclusion, the CM has sufficient probiotic availability and significant anti-microbial potential.

Keywords: Therapeutics, Camel Milk, bacteriocins, probiotics potential

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