Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Testing Related Abstracts

21 Automated Testing of Workshop Robot Behavior

Authors: Arne Hitzmann, Philipp Wentscher, Alexander Gabel, Reinhard Gerndt

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots can be found in a wide field of applications. Their types range from household robots over workshop robots to autonomous cars and many more. All of them undergo a number of testing steps during development, production and maintenance. This paper describes an approach to improve testing of robot behavior. It was inspired by the RoboCup @work competition that itself reflects a robotics benchmark for industrial robotics. There, scaled down versions of mobile industrial robots have to navigate through a workshop-like environment or operation area and have to perform tasks of manipulating and transporting work pieces. This paper will introduce an approach of automated vision-based testing of the behavior of the so called youBot robot, which is the most widely used robot platform in the RoboCup @work competition. The proposed system allows automated testing of multiple tries of the robot to perform a specific missions and it allows for the flexibility of the robot, e.g. selecting different paths between two tasks within a mission. The approach is based on a multi-camera setup using, off the shelf cameras and optical markers. It has been applied for test-driven development (TDD) and maintenance-like verification of the robot behavior and performance.

Keywords: Automation, Testing, supervisory control, markers, mono vision

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20 Flashover Voltage of Silicone Insulating Surface Covered by Water Drops under AC Voltage

Authors: Abdelhafid Bayadi, Fatiha Aouabed, Rabah Boudissa

Abstract:

Nowadays, silicone rubber insulation materials are widely used in high voltage outdoor insulation systems as they can combat pollution flashover problems. The difference in pollution flashover performance of silicone rubber and other insulating materials is due to the way that water wets their surfaces. It resides as discrete drops on silicone rubber, and the mechanism of flashover is due to the breakdown of the air between the water drops and the distortion of these drops in the direction of the electric field which brings the insulation to degradation and failure. The main objective of this work is to quantify the effect of different types of water drops arrangements, their position and dry bands width on the flashover voltage of the silicone insulating surface with non-uniform electric field systems. The tests were carried out on a rectangular sample under AC voltage. A rod-rod electrode system is used. The findings of this work indicate that the performance of the samples decreases with the presence of water drops on their surfaces. Further, these experimental findings show that there is a limiting number of rows from which the flashover voltage of the insulation is minimal and constant. This minimum is a function of the distance between two successive rows. Finally, it is concluded that the system withstand voltage increases when the row of droplets on the electrode axis is removed.

Keywords: Testing, Contamination, flashover, silicone rubber insulators, surface wettability, water droplets

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19 Features of Testing of the Neuronetwork Converter Biometrics-Code with Correlation Communications between Bits of the Output Code

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. I. Ivanov, A. Y. Malygin, K. Mukapil, S. D. Tolybayev

Abstract:

The article examines the testing of the neural network converter of biometrics code. Determined the main reasons that prevented the use adopted in the works of foreign researchers classical a Binomial Law when describing distribution of measures of Hamming "Alien" codes-responses.

Keywords: Biometrics, Neural Network, Testing, converter of biometrics-code, Hamming's measure

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18 Some Pertinent Issues and Considerations on CBSE

Authors: Anil Kumar Tripathi, Ratneshwer Gupta

Abstract:

All the software engineering researches and best industry practices aim at providing software products with high degree of quality and functionality at low cost and less time. These requirements are addressed by the Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) as well. CBSE, which deals with the software construction by components’ assembly, is a revolutionary extension of Software Engineering. CBSE must define and describe processes to assure timely completion of high quality software systems that are composed of a variety of pre built software components. Though these features provide distinct and visible benefits in software design and programming, they also raise some challenging problems. The aim of this work is to summarize the pertinent issues and considerations in CBSE to make an understanding in forms of concepts and observations that may lead to development of newer ways of dealing with the problems and challenges in CBSE.

Keywords: Maintenance, Testing, Software Process, software component, component based software engineering

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17 The Legal Procedure of Attestation of Public Servants

Authors: Armen Yezekyan

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to comprehensively explore and identify the problems of attestation of the public servants and to propose solutions for these issues through deeply analyzing laws and the legal theoretical literature. For the detailed analysis of the above-mentioned problems we will use some research methods, the implementation of which has a goal to ensure the objectivity and clarity of scientific research and its results.

Keywords: Testing, Public Service, attestation, attestation commission, competition commission, public servant

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16 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar

Abstract:

Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: Testing, Survey, test automation, status of test automation

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15 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Test Predictive Modeling and Identify Determinants of HIV Testing for People with Age above Fourteen Years in Ethiopia Using Data Mining Techniques: EDHS 2011

Authors: S. Abera, T. Gidey, W. Terefe

Abstract:

Introduction: Testing for HIV is the key entry point to HIV prevention, treatment, and care and support services. Hence, predictive data mining techniques can greatly benefit to analyze and discover new patterns from huge datasets like that of EDHS 2011 data. Objectives: The objective of this study is to build a predictive modeling for HIV testing and identify determinants of HIV testing for adults with age above fourteen years using data mining techniques. Methods: Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) was used to predict the model for HIV testing and explore association rules between HIV testing and the selected attributes among adult Ethiopians. Decision tree, Naïve-Bayes, logistic regression and artificial neural networks of data mining techniques were used to build the predictive models. Results: The target dataset contained 30,625 study participants; of which 16, 515 (53.9%) were women. Nearly two-fifth; 17,719 (58%), have never been tested for HIV while the rest 12,906 (42%) had been tested. Ethiopians with higher wealth index, higher educational level, belonging 20 to 29 years old, having no stigmatizing attitude towards HIV positive person, urban residents, having HIV related knowledge, information about family planning on mass media and knowing a place where to get testing for HIV showed an increased patterns with respect to HIV testing. Conclusion and Recommendation: Public health interventions should consider the identified determinants to promote people to get testing for HIV.

Keywords: Data Mining, HIV, Testing, Ethiopia

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14 Turkish University Level EFL Learners’ Collocational Knowledge at Receptive and Productive Levels

Authors: Nazife Duygu Bagci

Abstract:

Collocations are an important part of vocabulary knowledge, and it is a subject that has recently attracted attention, while still in need of more research. The aim of this study is to answer three research questions related to the collocational knowledge of Turkish university level EFL learners at different proficiency levels of English. The first research question aims to compare the pre-intermediate (PIN) and the advanced (ADV) level learners’ collocational knowledge at receptive and productive levels. The second one is to analyze the performance of the PIN and the ADV students in two main collocation categories; lexical and grammatical. Lastly, the performance of both groups are focused on to find the collocation type (among verb-noun, adjective- noun, adjective-preposition, noun-preposition collocation types) they show the best performance in. Two offline tests were used to answer these questions. The results show that there is a significant difference between the PIN and the ADV groups at both receptive and productive levels. It can be concluded that proficiency is an important criterion in collocational knowledge, and learners do not necessarily know the collocates of the vocabulary items that they know. Although there is no significant difference between the PIN group’s performance in lexical and grammatical collocations, the ADV group showed a better performance in lexical collocations. Lastly, the PIN group at receptive and the ADV group at both receptive and productive levels showed the best performance in verb-noun collocations, which is in line with the previous research focusing on different collocation types.

Keywords: Testing, EFL, language proficiency, collocational knowledge

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13 Relationship between Dynamic Balance and Explosive Leg Power in Young Female Gymnasts

Authors: A. Aleksic-Veljkovic, K. Herodek, M. Bratic, M. Mitic

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of dynamic balance and countermovement jump in young, female gymnasts. A single-group design was used. Forty-seven young, female gymnasts (Mean±SD; age: 8-12 years, height: 42.88±10.38 cm, mass: 35.59±8.15 kg; body mass index: 17.18±1.62 kg/m2; training hours per week: 15-18 h/week) performed measurements of dynamic balance and countermovement jump with and without arm swing. Significant, but small to medium associations were observed between variables of balance and height of the jump in both protocols of the countermovement jump ranging from r = +0.313 to +0.426. No significant associations were observed between variables of dynamic balance and relative power and peak power of countermovement jump with or without arm swings. The data indicate that dynamic balance and leg power imply that balance and power are independent of each other and may have to be tested and trained complementarily in young gymnasts.

Keywords: Testing, artistic gymnastics, countermovement jump, jump height

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12 Assessment of Utilization of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling and Associated Factors among Adult out Patient Department Patients in Wonchi Woreda, South West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Dinka Fikadu

Abstract:

Background: Currently in health facility, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus testing is the key entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support services, but most people remains unaware of their HIV status due to various reasons. In many high-prevalence countries, fewer than one in ten people with HIV are aware of their HIV status. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, "has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges. Reaching individuals with HIV who do not know their serostatus is a global public health priority. Objective: To assess utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and associated factors among adult outpatient department patients. Methods: Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 392 adult outpatient department patients in Wonchi woreda from February 24 to March 24 /2013. The study participant was recruited patients from all adult outpatient department patients of all four public health facilities of wonchi woreda using systematic sampling. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to elicit all important variables from the study participants and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Result: A total of 371 adult outpatient department patients aged between 15 to 64 years were actively participated in the study and 291(78.4%) of them utilized provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and 80(21.6%) of them refused. Knowledge on HIV is low in the study population; majority of the participants didn’t have comprehensive knowledge (64.7%) and (35.3%) fail to reject misconception about means of HIV transmission and prevention. Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling were associated with divorced/widowed marital status[AOR (95%CI) = 0.32(0.15, 0.69)], being male sex [AOR (95%CI) =1.81(1.01, 3.24)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [AOR (95%CI) =0.408(0.220,0.759)],having awareness about provider initiated HIV testing and counseling [AOR(95%CI) =2.89(1.48,5.66)] and receiving test on HIV before[AOR (95%CI)=4.15(2.30, 7.47)]. Conclusion: Utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling among adult outpatient departments in wonchi woreda public health facility was [(78.4%)].Strengthening health information through mass media and peer education on HIV to address barrier to testing in the community such as low awareness on PITC, to increase up take of PITC among adult OPD patients.

Keywords: Utilization, Testing, human immune deficiency, provider, initiate

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11 Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Three-Leaf Masonry Walls under In-Plane Loading

Authors: Osama Amer, Yaser Abdel-Aty, Mohamed Abd El Hady

Abstract:

The present paper illustrates an experimental approach to provide understanding of the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of different typologies of unreinforced three-leaf masonry walls of historical Islamic architectural heritage in Egypt. The main objective of this study is to investigate the propagation of possible cracking, ultimate load, deformations and failure mechanisms. Experimental data on interface-shear and compression tests on large scale three-leaf masonry wallets are provided. The wallets were built basically of Egyptian limestone and modified lime mortar. External wallets were built of stone blocks while the inner leaf was built of rubble limestone. Different loading conditions and dimensions of core layer for two types of collar joints (with and without shear keys) are considered in the tests. Mechanical properties of the constituent materials of masonry were tested and a database of characteristic properties was created. The results of the experiments will highlight the properties, force-displacement curves, stress distribution of multiple-leaf masonry walls contributing to the derivation of rational design rules and validation of numerical models.

Keywords: Masonry, Testing, Mechanical Behavior, Architectural Heritage, three-leaf walls

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10 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace

Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel

Abstract:

In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.

Keywords: Modelling, Testing, Fuel Cell, real time emulation

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9 Comparison of Selected Behavioural Patterns of German Shepherd Puppies in Open-Field Test by Practical Assessment Report

Authors: Igor Miňo, Lenka Lešková

Abstract:

Over the past 80 years, open-field method has evolved as a commonly used tool for the analysis of animal behaviour. The study was carried out using 50 kennel-reared purebred puppies of the German Shepherd dog breed. All dogs were tested in 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. For the purpose of behavioural analysis, an open-field evaluation report was designed prior to testing to ensure the most convenient, rapid, and suitable way to assess selected behavioural patterns in field conditions. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity, response to sound, and overall behaviour was monitored in the study. Correlations between measures of height, weight and chest circumference, and behavioural characteristics in the 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age were not statistically significant. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity and response to sound differed on statistically significant level between 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. Results suggest that our practical assessment report may be used as an applicable method to evaluate the suitability of service dog puppies for future working roles.

Keywords: Behaviour, Testing, Dog, open-field

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8 A Mechanism of Reusable, Portable, and Reliable Script Generator on Android

Authors: Kuei-Chun Liu, Yu-Yu Lai, Ching-Hong Wu

Abstract:

A good automated testing tool could reduce as much as possible the manual work done by testers. Traditional record-replay testing tool provides an automated testing solution by recording mouse coordinates as test scripts, but it will be easily broken if any change of resolutions. Therefore, more and more testers design multiple test scripts to automate the testing process for different devices. In order to improve the traditional record-replay approach and reduce the effort that the testers spending on writing test scripts, we propose an approach for generating the Android application test scripts based on accessibility service without connecting to a computer. This approach simulates user input actions and replays them correctly even at the different conditions such as the internet connection is unstable when the device under test, the different resolutions on Android devices. In this paper, we describe how to generate test scripts automatically and make a comparison with existing tools for Android such as Robotium, Appium, UIAutomator, and MonkeyTalk.

Keywords: Testing, automated testing, accessibility service, Appium, MonkeyTalk, Robotium, UIAutomator

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7 A Review of End-of-Term Oral Tests for English-Majored Students of HCMC Open University

Authors: Khoa K. Doan

Abstract:

Assessment plays an essential role in teaching and learning English as it aims to measure the learning outcomes. Designing appropriate test types and procedures for four skills, especially productive skills, is a very challenging task for teachers of English. The assessment scheme is supposed to provide precise measures and fair opportunities for students to demonstrate what they can do with their language skills. This involves content domains, measurement techniques, administrative feasibility, target populations, and potential sources of testing bias. Based on these elements, a review of end-of-term speaking tests for English-majored students at Ho Chi Minh City Open University (Viet Nam) was undertaken for the purpose of analyzing the strengths and limitations of the testing tool for the speaking assessment. It helped to identify what could be done to facilitate the process of teaching and learning in that context.

Keywords: Assessment, Testing, speaking, oral tests

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6 Computer-Based versus Paper-Based Tests: A Comparative Study of Two Types of Indonesian National Examination for Senior High School Students

Authors: Faizal Mansyur

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to find out whether there is a significant difference in the English language scores of senior high school students in the Indonesia National Examination for students tested by using computer-based and paper-based tests. The population of this research is senior high school students in South Sulawesi Province who sat the Indonesian National Examination for 2015/2016 academic year. The samples of this research are 800 students’ scores from 8 schools taken by employing the multistage random sampling technique. The data of this research is a secondary data since it is obtained from the education office for South Sulawesi. In analyzing the collected data, the researcher employed the independent samples T-Test with the help of SPSS v.24 program. The finding of this research reveals that there is a significant difference in the English language scores of senior high school students in the Indonesia National Examination for students tested by using computer-based and paper-based Tests (p < .05). Moreover, students tested by using PBT (Mean = 63.13, SD = 13.63) achieve higher score than those tested by using CBT (Mean = 46.33, SD = 14.68).

Keywords: Testing, computer-based test, paper-based test, Indonesian national examination

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5 Creation of a Test Machine for the Scientific Investigation of Chain Shot

Authors: Mark McGuire, Eric Shannon, John Parmigiani

Abstract:

Timber harvesting increasingly involves mechanized equipment. This has increased the efficiency of harvesting, but has also introduced worker-safety concerns. One such concern arises from the use of harvesters. During operation, harvesters subject saw chain to large dynamic mechanical stresses. These stresses can, under certain conditions, cause the saw chain to fracture. The high speed of harvester saw chain can cause the resulting open chain loop to fracture a second time due to the dynamic loads placed upon it as it travels through space. If a second fracture occurs, it can result in a projectile consisting of one-to-several chain links. This projectile is referred to as a chain shot. It has speeds similar to a bullet but typically has greater mass and is a significant safety concern. Numerous examples exist of chain shots penetrating bullet-proof barriers and causing severe injury and death. Improved harvester-cab barriers can help prevent injury however a comprehensive scientific understanding of chain shot is required to consistently reduce or prevent it. Obtaining this understanding requires a test machine with the capability to cause chain shot to occur under carefully controlled conditions and accurately measure the response. Worldwide few such test machine exist. Those that do focus on validating the ability of barriers to withstand a chain shot impact rather than obtaining a scientific understanding of the chain shot event itself. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, fabrication, and use of a test machine capable of a comprehensive scientific investigation of chain shot. The capabilities of this machine are to test all commercially-available saw chains and bars at chain tensions and speeds meeting and exceeding those typically encountered in harvester use and accurately measure the corresponding key technical parameters. The test machine was constructed inside of a standard shipping container. This provides space for both an operator station and a test chamber. In order to contain the chain shot under any possible test conditions, the test chamber was lined with a base layer of AR500 steel followed by an overlay of HDPE. To accommodate varying bar orientations and fracture-initiation sites, the entire saw chain drive unit and bar mounting system is modular and capable of being located anywhere in the test chamber. The drive unit consists of a high-speed electric motor with a flywheel. Standard Ponsse harvester head components are used to bar mounting and chain tensioning. Chain lubrication is provided by a separate peristaltic pump. Chain fracture is initiated through ISO standard 11837. Measure parameters include shaft speed, motor vibration, bearing temperatures, motor temperature, motor current draw, hydraulic fluid pressure, chain force at fracture, and high-speed camera images. Results show that the machine is capable of consistently causing chain shot. Measurement output shows fracture location and the force associated with fracture as a function of saw chain speed and tension. Use of this machine will result in a scientific understanding of chain shot and consequently improved products and greater harvester operator safety.

Keywords: Safety, Testing, chain shot, timber harvesters

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4 Tailoring of ECSS Standard for Space Qualification Test of CubeSat Nano-Satellite

Authors: B. Tiseo, V. Quaranta, G. Bruno, G. Sisinni

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand of nano-satellite development among universities, small companies, and emerging countries. Low-cost and fast-delivery are the main advantages of such class of satellites achieved by the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components. On the other side, the loss of reliability and the poor success rate are limiting the use of nano-satellite to educational and technology demonstration and not to the commercial purpose. Standardization of nano-satellite environmental testing by tailoring the existing test standard for medium/large satellites is then a crucial step for their market growth. Thus, it is fundamental to find the right trade-off between the improvement of reliability and the need to keep their low-cost/fast-delivery advantages. This is particularly even more essential for satellites of CubeSat family. Such miniaturized and standardized satellites have 10 cm cubic form and mass no more than 1.33 kilograms per 1 unit (1U). For this class of nano-satellites, the qualification process is mandatory to reduce the risk of failure during a space mission. This paper reports the description and results of the space qualification test campaign performed on Endurosat’s CubeSat nano-satellite and modules. Mechanical and environmental tests have been carried out step by step: from the testing of the single subsystem up to the assembled CubeSat nano-satellite. Functional tests have been performed during all the test campaign to verify the functionalities of the systems. The test duration and levels have been selected by tailoring the European Space Agency standard ECSS-E-ST-10-03C and GEVS: GSFC-STD-7000A.

Keywords: Vibration, Testing, shock, CubeSat, nano-satellite

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3 Biaxial Fatigue Specimen Design and Testing Rig Development

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy

Abstract:

An elastic analysis is developed to obtain the distribution of stresses, strains, bending moment and deformation for a thin hollow, variable thickness cylindrical specimen when subjected to different biaxial loadings. The specimen was subjected to a combination of internal pressure, axial tensile loading and external pressure. Several axial to circumferential stress ratios were investigated in detail. The analytical model was then validated using experimental results obtained from a test rig using several biaxial loadings. Based on the preliminary results obtained, the specimen was then modified geometrically to ensure uniform strain distribution through its wall thickness and along its gauge length. The new design of the specimen has a higher buckling strength and a maximum value of equivalent stress according to the maximum distortion energy theory. A cyclic function generator of the standard servo-controlled, electro-hydraulic testing machine is used to generate a specific signal shape (sine, square,…) at a certain frequency. The two independent controllers of the electronic circuit cause an independent movement to each servo-valve piston. The movement of each piston pressurizes the upper and lower sides of the actuators alternately. So, the specimen will be subjected to axial and diametral loads independent of each other. The hydraulic system has two different pressures: one pressure will be responsible for axial stress produced in the specimen and the other will be responsible for the tangential stress. Changing the two pressure ratios will change the stress ratios accordingly. The only restriction on the maximum stress obtained is the capacity of the testing system and specimen instability due to buckling.

Keywords: Testing, stress, Fatigue, biaxial

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2 Composition, Velocity, and Mass of Projectiles Generated from a Chain Shot Event

Authors: Eric Shannon, John P. Parmigiani, Mark J. McGuire

Abstract:

A hazard associated with the use of timber harvesters is chain shot. Harvester saw chain is subjected to large dynamic mechanical stresses which can cause it to fracture. The resulting open loop of saw chain can fracture a second time and create a projectile consisting of several saw-chain links referred to as a chain shot. Its high kinetic energy enables it to penetrate operator enclosures and be a significant hazard. Accurate data on projectile composition, mass, and speed are needed for the design of both operator enclosures resistant to projectile penetration and for saw chain resistant to fracture. The work presented here contributes to providing this data through the use of a test machine designed and built at Oregon State University. The machine’s enclosure is a standard shipping container. To safely contain any anticipated chain shot, the container was lined with both 9.5 mm AR500 steel plates and 50 mm high-density polyethylene (HDPE). During normal operation, projectiles are captured virtually undamaged in the HDPE enabling subsequent analysis. Standard harvester components are used for bar mounting and chain tensioning. Standard guide bars and saw chains are used. An electric motor with flywheel drives the system. Testing procedures follow ISO Standard 11837. Chain speed at break was approximately 45.5 m/s. Data was collected using both a 75 cm solid bar (Oregon 752HSFB149) and 90 cm solid bar (Oregon 902HSFB149). Saw chains used were 89 Drive Link .404”-18HX loops made from factory spools. Standard 16-tooth sprockets were used. Projectile speed was measured using both a high-speed camera and a chronograph. Both rotational and translational kinetic energy are calculated. For this study 50 chain shot events were executed. Results showed that projectiles consisted of a variety combinations of drive links, tie straps, and cutter links. Most common (occurring in 60% of the events) was a drive-link / tie-strap / drive-link combination having a mass of approximately 10.33 g. Projectile mass varied from a minimum of 2.99 g corresponding to a drive link only to a maximum of 18.91 g corresponding to a drive-link / tie-strap / drive-link / cutter-link / drive-link combination. Projectile translational speed was measured to be approximately 270 m/s and rotational speed of approximately 14000 r/s. The calculated translational and rotational kinetic energy magnitudes each average over 600 J. This study provides useful information for both timber harvester manufacturers and saw chain manufacturers to design products that reduce the hazards associated with timber harvesting.

Keywords: Safety, Testing, chain shot, timber harvesters

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1 Kazakh Language Assessment in a New Multilingual Kazakhstan

Authors: Karlygash Adamova

Abstract:

This article is focused on the KazTest as one of the most important high-stakes tests and the key tool in Kazakh language assessment. The research will also include the brief introduction to the language policy in Kazakhstan. Particularly, it is going to be changed significantly and turn from bilingualism (Kazakh, Russian) to multilingual policy (three languages - Kazakh, Russian, English). Therefore, the current status of the abovementioned languages will be described. Due to the various educational reforms in the country, the language evaluation system should also be improved and moderated. The research will present the most significant test of Kazakhstan – the KazTest, which is aimed to evaluate the Kazakh language proficiency. Assessment is an ongoing process that encompasses a wide area of knowledge upon the productive performance of the learners. Test is widely defined as a standardized or standard method of research, testing, diagnostics, verification, etc. The two most important characteristics of any test, as the main element of the assessment - validity and reliability - will also be described in this paper. Therefore, the preparation and design of the test, which is assumed to be an indicator of knowledge, and it is highly important to take into account all these properties.

Keywords: Multilingualism, Testing, Language policy, Language Assessment

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