Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

terpenes Related Abstracts

5 Artificial Neural Network Regression Modelling of GC/MS Retention of Terpenes Present in Satureja montana Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Jelena Vladić, Senka Vidović, Zoran Zeković, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac Kuzmanović

Abstract:

Supercritical extracts of highly valuated medicinal plant Satureja montana were prepared by application of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction in the carbon dioxide pressure range from 125 to 350 bar and temperature range from 40 to 60°C. Using GC/MS method of analysis chemical profiles (aromatic constituents) of S. montana extracts were obtained. Self-training artificial neural networks were applied to predict the retention time of the analyzed terpenes in GC/MS system. The best ANN model obtained was multilayer perceptron (MLP 11-11-1). Hidden activation was tanh and output activation was identity with Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno training algorithm. Correlation measures of the obtained network were the following: R(training) = 0.9975, R(test) = 0.9971 and R(validation) = 0.9999. The comparison of the experimental and predicted retention times of the analyzed compounds showed very high correlation (R = 0.9913) and significant predictive power of the established neural network.

Keywords: ANN regression, GC/MS, Satureja montana, terpenes

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4 Transdermal Delivery of Sodium Diclofenac from Palm Kernel Oil Esteres Nanoemulsions

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that has been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of the drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using the surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils, contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research aimed to study the effect of terpene type and concentration on sodium diclofenac permeation from palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions and physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions systems. The effect of various terpenes of geraniol, menthone, menthol, cineol and nerolidol at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% on permeation of sodium diclofenac were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells and rat skin as permeation membrane. The results of this part demonstrated that all terpenes showed promoting effect on sodium diclofenac penetration. However, menthol and menthone at all concentrations showed significant effects (<0.05) on drug permeation. The most outstanding terpene was menthol with the most significant effect for skin permeability of sodium diclofenac. The effect of terpenes on physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion systems was investigated on the parameters of particle size, zeta potential, pH, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The result showed that all terpenes had the significant effect on particle size and non-significant effects on the zeta potential of the nanoemulsion systems. The effect of terpenes was significant on pH, excluding the menthone at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, and cineol and nerolidol at the concentration of 2.0%. Terpenes also had significant effect on viscosity of nanoemulsions exception of menthone and cineol at the concentration of 0.5%. The result of conductivity measurements showed that all terpenes at all concentration except cineol at the concentration of 0.5% represented significant effect on electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Nanoemulsions, terpenes, skin permeation, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac

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3 Microbial Reduction of Terpenes from Pine Wood Material

Authors: Bernhard Widhalm, Cornelia Rieder-Gradinger, Thomas Ters, Ewald Srebotnik, Thomas Kuncinger

Abstract:

Terpenes are natural components in softwoods and rank among the most frequently emitted volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wood-processing industry. In this study, the main focus was on α- and β-pinene as well as Δ3-carene, which are the major terpenes in softwoods. To lower the total emission level of wood composites, defined terpene degrading microorganisms were applied to basic raw materials (e.g. pine wood particles and strands) in an optimised and industry-compatible testing procedure. In preliminary laboratory tests, bacterial species suitable for the utilisation of α-pinene as single carbon source in liquid culture were selected and then subjected to wood material inoculation. The two species Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens were inoculated onto wood particles and strands and incubated at room temperature. Applying specific pre-cultivation and daily ventilation of the samples enabled a reduction of incubation time from six days to one day. SPME measurements and subsequent GC-MS analysis indicated a complete absence of α- and β-pinene emissions after 24 hours from pine wood particles. When using pine wood strands rather than particles, bacterial treatment resulted in a reduction of α- and β-pinene by 50%, while Δ3-carene emissions were reduced by 30% in comparison to untreated strands. Other terpenes were also reduced in the course of the microbial treatment. The method developed here appears to be feasible for industrial application. However, growth parameters such as time and temperature as well as the technical implementation of the inoculation step will have to be adapted for the production process.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, terpenes, GC-MS, SPME

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2 Exploitation of Terpenes as Guardians in Plant Biotechnology

Authors: Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Farnaz Alaeimoghadam

Abstract:

Plants are always being threatened by biotic and abiotic elements in their abode. Although they have inherited mechanisms to defend themselves, sometimes due to overpowering of their enemies or weakening of themselves, they just suffer from those elements. Human, as to help plants defend themselves, have developed several methods among which application of terpenes via plant biotechnology is promising. Terpenes are the most frequent and diverse secondary metabolites in plants. In these plants, terpenes are involved in different protective aspects. In this field, by utilizing biotechnological approaches on them, a delicate, precise, and an economic intervention will be achieved. In this review, first, the importance of terpenes as guardians in plants, which include their allelopathy effect, a call for alliances, and a mitigation impact on abiotic stresses will be pointed out. Second, problems concerning terpenes application in plant biotechnology comprising: damage to cell, undesirable terpene production and undesirable concentration and proportion of terpenes will be discussed. At the end, the approaches in plant biotechnology of terpenes including tampering with terpene gene sequences, compartmentalization, and localization and utilization of membrane transporters will be expressed. It is concluded with some useful notions concerning the topic.

Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Plant protection, terpenes, terpenoids

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1 Mentha crispa Essential Oil and Rotundifolone Analogues: Cytotoxic Effect on Glioblastoma

Authors: Hasan Turkez, Damião Sousa, Ozlem Tozlu, Tamires Lima

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer from the brain and with high prevalence and significant morbimortality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate new therapeutic options against this pathology. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity from Mentha crispa essential oil (MCEO), its major constituent rotundifolone (ROT) and a series of six analogues on human U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The antitumor effects of the compounds on human U87MG-GBM cell line were assessed using in vitro cell viability assays. In addition, biosafety tests were performed on cultured human blood cells. The data show that MCEO, 1,2-perillaldehyde epoxide (EPER1) and perillaldehyde (PALD) were the most cytotoxic compounds against the U87MG cells, with IC50 values of 16.263, 15.087 and 14.888 μg/mL, respectively. The treatment with MCEO, EPER1 and PALD did not lead to damage in blood cells. These chemical analogues may be useful as prototypes for development of novel antitumor drugs due to their promising activities and toxicological safety.

Keywords: Cancer, Natural Products, terpenes, antitumor activity

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