Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

termites Related Abstracts

5 Elasticity of Soil Fertility Indicators and pH in Termite Infested Cassava Field as Influenced by Tillage and Organic Manure Sources

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, T. T. Epidi, E. U. Onweremadu, E. E. Ihem


Apart from the devastating nature of termites as pest of cassava, nearly all termite species have been implicated in soil fertility modifications. Elasticity of soil fertility indicators and pH in termite infested cassava field as influenced by tillage and organic manure sources in Owerri, Southeast, Nigeria was investigated in this study. Three years of of field trials were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons respectively at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. The experiments were laid out in a 3x6 split-plot factorial arrangement fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The TMS 4 (2)1425 was the cassava cultivar used. Treatments consists three tillage methods (zero, flat and mound), two rates of municipal waste (1.5 and 3.0tonnes/ha), two rates of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves (20 and 30tonnes/ha), control (0.0 tonnes/ha) and a unit dose of carbofuran (chemical check). Data were collected on pre-planting soil physical and chemical properties, post-harvest soil pH (both in water and KCl) and residual total exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg and Na). These were analyzed using a Mixed-model procedure of Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD.) at 5% level of probability. Result shows that the native soil fertility status of the experimental site was poor. However soil pH increased substantially in plots where mounds, A.indica leaves at 30t/ha and municipal waste (1.5 and 3.0t/ha) were treated especially in 2008 and 2009. In 2007 trial, highest soil pH was maintained with flat (5.41 in water and 4.97 in KCl). Control on the other hand, recorded least soil pH especially in 2009 with values of 5.18 and 4.63 in water and KCl respectively. Equally, mound, A. indica leaves at 30t/ha and municipal waste at 3.0t/ha consistently increased organic matter content of the soil than other treatments. Finally, mound and A. indica leaves at 30t/ha linearly and consistently increased residual total exchangeable bases of the soil.

Keywords: Elasticity, Fertility, indicators, tillage, termites, cassava and manure sources

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4 Antibacterial Studies on Cellulolytic Bacteria for Termite Control

Authors: Mashitah M. Yusoff, Essam A. Makky, Chan Cai Wen, Muna Jalal


Termites are considered as important pests that could cause severe wood damage and economic losses in urban, agriculture and forest of Malaysia. The ability of termites to degrade cellulose depends on association of gut cellulolytic microflora or better known as mutual symbionts. With the idea of disrupting the mutual symbiotic association, better pest control practices can be attained. This study is aimed to isolate cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of termites and carry out antibacterial studies for the termite. Confirmation of cellulase activity is done by qualitative and quantitative methods. Impacts of antibiotics and their combinations, as well as heavy metals and disinfectants, are conducted by using disc diffusion method. Effective antibacterial agents are then subjected for termite treatment to study the effectiveness of the agents as termiticides. 24 cellulolytic bacteria are isolated, purified and screened from the gut of termites. All isolates were identified as Gram-negative with either rod or cocci in shape. For antibacterial studies result, isolates were found to be 100% sensitive to 4 antibiotics (rifampicin, tetracycline, gentamycin, and neomycin), 2 heavy metals (cadmium and mercury) and 3 disinfectants (lactic acid, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide). 22 out of 36 antibiotic combinations showed synergistic effect while 15 antibiotic combinations showed an antagonistic effect on isolates. The 2 heavy metals and 3 disinfectants that showed 100% effectiveness, as well as 22 antibiotic combinations, that showed synergistic effect were used for termite control. Among the 27 selected antibacterial agents, 12 of them were found to be effective to kill all the termites within 1 to 6 days. Mercury, lactic acid, formalin and hydrogen peroxide were found to be the most effective termiticides in which all termites were killed within 1 day only. These effective antibacterial agents possess a great potential to be a new application to control the termite pest species in the future.

Keywords: Antibacterial, cellulase, termites, termicide

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3 Efficacy of Coconut Shell Pyrolytic Oil Distillate in Protecting Wood Against Bio-Deterioration

Authors: K. S. Shiny, R. Sundararaj


Coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.) are grown in many parts of India and world because of its multiple utilities. During pyrolysis, coconut shells yield oil, which is a dark thick liquid. Upon simple distillation it produces a more or less colourless liquid, termed coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate (CSPOD). This manuscript reports and discusses the use of coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate as a potential wood protectant against bio-deterioration. Since botanical products as ecofriendly wood protectant is being tested worldwide, the utilization of CPSOD as wood protectant is of great importance. The efficacy of CSPOD as wood protectant was evaluated as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in terms of its antifungal, antiborer, and termiticidal activities. Specimens of Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in six replicate each for two treatment methods namely spraying and dipping (48hrs) were employed. CSPOD was found to impart total protection against termites for six months compared to control under field conditions. For assessing the efficacy of CSPOD against fungi, the treated blocks were subjected to the attack of two white rot fungi Tyromyces versicolor (L.) Fr. and Polyporus sanguineus (L.) G. Mey and two brown rot fungi, Polyporus meliae (Undrew.) Murrill. and Oligoporus placenta (Fr.) Gilb. & Ryvarden. Results indicated that treatment with CSPOD significantly protected wood from the damage caused by the decay fungi. Efficacy of CSPOD against wood borer Lyctus africanus Lesne was carried out using six pairs of male and female beetles and it gave promising results in protecting the treated wood blocks when compared to control blocks. As far as the treatment methods were concerned, dip treatment was found to be more effective when compared to spraying. The results of the present investigation indicated that CSPOD is a promising botanical compound which has the potential to replace synthetic wood protectants. As coconut shell, pyrolytic oil is a waste byproduct of coconut shell charcoal industry, its utilization as a wood preservative will expand the economic returns from such industries.

Keywords: termites, coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate, eco-friendly wood protection, wood borers, wood decay fungi

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2 Effect of Palm Bunch Ash and Neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) Leaf Powder on Termite Infestation in Groundnut Field

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, C. P. Ekwe, G. O. Ihejirika, S. A. Dialoke, O. P. Onyewuchi, C. P. Anyanwu, I. E. Kalu


As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development, especially during prolonged dry spell. Effect of palm bunch ash and neem(Azardirachta indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0tons/ha and three rates of neem leaf powder at 0.0(control), 1.0, 2.0 tons/ha respectively. Data were collected on percentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result shows that there were no significant (P= 0.05) differences in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch ash and neem leaf powder applications. Contrarily, palm bunch ash at 2.0 tons/ha recorded the least termite incidence especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) and 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm bunch ash at 2.0tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively. Control plots on the other hand consistently maintained highest termite severity throughout the trial with the highest value at 2 and 12WAP (1.56). Conclusively, palm bunch ash exhibited highest depressive action against termite on groundnut especially at higher application value (2.0tons/ha).

Keywords: severity, incidence, termites, palm, groundnut, neem

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1 A Plant-Insect Association for Enhancing Survival of an Ecosystem Engineer Termite Species in a Semi-Arid Savanna

Authors: G. Nampa, M. Ndlovu


Mutualistic relationships amongst organisms drive diversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, few mutual associations have been documented in the semi-arid savannas of Africa. The levels and benefits of association between Carissa bispinosa, a medium-sized evergreen thorny shrub, and Trinervitermes trinervoides, an ecosystem engineer termite species, were studied at a semi-arid savanna setting in Nylsvley nature reserve, South Africa. It was hypothesized that there would be a close plant-insect association since termite mounds provide nutrients for plant growth and, in return, the thorny shrubs protect mounds from predation and also provide a temperature buffer. Comparative plant and mounds measurements were taken from associated and isolated occurrences seasonally. Soil particle size, macro- and micronutrients were also evaluated from mounds and the adjacent topsoil matrix General Additive Mixed Models were used to assess internal mound temperatures in relation to prevailing ambient and plant shade temperatures. Findings revealed that plants growing on mounds were significantly taller with a wider canopy and remained greener in the dry season with more fruits. On the other hand, termite mounds under plants were less prone to be damaged by aardvarks and pangolins and had a significantly wider diameter than exposed mounds. All soil macronutrients except for calcium and phosphorous were enriched in mounds relative to the matrix. Only Manganese was enriched in mounds while the other micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn and B) were not. Termite mounds under plants maintained a better constant and higher mean internal temperature during winter compared to exposed mounds. To our best knowledge, the study has revealed a previously undocumented survival mechanism that termites use to escape extreme temperatures and predation in semi-arid savannas.

Keywords: Mutualism, thermoregulation, termites, soil nutrients, mound

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