Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

tensile test Related Abstracts

10 Terminal Ballistic Analysis of Non-Filled and Water-Filled Tank

Authors: M. R. Aziz, W. Kuntjoro, N. V. David

Abstract:

This paper presents the ballistic terminal study of the non-filled and water-filled aluminum tank. The objective was to determine the failure stages for both cases. The tank was impacted by fragment simulating projectile (FSP) with 260 m/s for non-filled and 972 m/s for water-filled. The aluminum tank was 3 mm thick, 150 mm wide and 750 mm long. The ends of the tank were closed with two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) windows. The test was conducted at the Science and Technology Research Institute for Defense (STRIDE) Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia. The results showed four main stages for non-filled tank, which were first contact between FSP and the tank, partially perforated, fully perforated with FSP and plug still intact and lastly fully perforated with FSP and plug separated. Meanwhile, for the water-filled tank, there were seven main stages, which were first contact between FSP and the tank, partial perforation, full perforation, drag phase, cavity phase, bounce wave event and the collapse of the cavity.

Keywords: fragment simulating projectile, high speed camera, tensile test, terminal ballistic

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9 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: tensile test, injection molding, melt viscosity, pressure sensor bushing (PSB)

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8 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanical properties of Spiny (Kawayan Tinik) Bamboo Layers

Authors: Ma. Doreen E. Candelaria, Ma. Louise Margaret A. Ramos, Dr. Jaime Y. Hernandez

Abstract:

Bamboo has been introduced as a possible alternative to some construction materials nowadays. Its potential use in the field of engineering, however, is still not widely practiced due to insufficient engineering knowledge on the material’s properties and characteristics. Although there are researches and studies proving its advantages, it is still not enough to say that bamboo can sustain and provide the strength and capacity required of common structures. In line with this, a more detailed analysis was made to observe the layered structure of the bamboo, particularly the species of Kawayan Tinik. It is the main intent of this research to provide the necessary experiments to determine the tensile strength of dried bamboo samples. The test includes tensile strength parallel to fibers with samples taken at internodes only. Throughout the experiment, methods suggested by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were followed. The specimens were tested using 3366 INSTRON Universal Testing Machine, with a rate of loading set to 0.6 mm/min. It was then observed from the results of these experiments that dried bamboo samples recorded high layered tensile strengths, as high as 600 MPa. Likewise, along the culm’s length and across its cross section, higher tensile strength were observed at the top part and at its outer layers. Overall, the top part recorded the highest tensile strength per layer, with its outer layers having tensile strength as high as 600 MPa. The recorded tensile strength of its middle and inner layers, on the other hand, were approximately 450 MPa and 180 MPa, respectively. From this variation in tensile strength across the cross section, it may be concluded that an increase in tensile strength may be observed towards the outer periphery of the bamboo. With these preliminary investigations on the layered tensile strength of bamboo, it is highly recommended to conduct experimental investigations on the layered compressive strength properties as well. It is also suggested to conduct investigations evaluating perpendicular layered tensile strength of the material.

Keywords: tensile test, bamboo strength, layered strength tests, strength test

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7 Development and Characterization of Sandwich Bio-Composites Based on Short Alfa Fiber and Jute Fabric

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Said Abdi, Selsabil Rokia Laraba, Mourad Ancer

Abstract:

Composite materials are taking center stage in different fields thanks to their mechanical characteristics and their ease of preparation. Environmental constraints have led to the development of composite with natural reinforcements. The sandwich structure has the advantage to have good flexural proprieties for low density, which is why it was chosen in this work. The development of these materials is related to an energy saving strategy and environmental protection. The present work refers to the study of the development and characterization of sandwiches composites based on hybrids laminates with natural reinforcements (Alfa and Jute), a metal fabric was introduced into composite in order to have a compromise between weight and properties. We use different configurations of reinforcements (jute, metallic fabric) to develop laminates in order to use them as thin facings for sandwiches materials. While the core was an epoxy matrix reinforced with Alfa short fibers, a chemical treatment sodium hydroxide was cared to improve the adhesion of the Alfa fibers. The mechanical characterization of our materials was made by the tensile and bending test, to highlight the influence of jute and Alfa. After testing, the fracture surfaces are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscopy allowed us to calculate the degree of porosity and to observe the morphology of the individual layers. Laminates based on jute fabric have shown better results in tensile test as well as to bending, compared to those of the metallic fabric (100%, 65%). Sandwich Panels were also characterized in terms of bending test. Results we had provide, shows that this composite has sufficient properties for possible replacing conventional composite materials by considering the environmental factors.

Keywords: bio-composites, tensile test, bending test, sandwiches

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6 Study the Impact of Welding Poles Type on the Tensile Strength Steel of Low Alloys and High Resistance

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Abdul Fatah M. Emhamed

Abstract:

The steel alloy Introduced after becoming carbon-steel does not meet the requirements of engineering industry; and it cannot be obtained tensile strength from carbon-steel higher than (700MPa), the low alloy steel enters in a lot of heavy engineering equipment parts, molds, agricultural equipment and other industry. In addition, that may be exposed to in-service failure, which may require returned to work, to do the repairs or maintenance by one of the welding methods available. The ability of steel weld determined through palpation of the cracks, which can reduce by many ways. These ways are often expensive and difficult to implement, perhaps the control to choose the type of electrode welding user is one of the easiest and least expensive applications. It has been welding the steel low alloys high resistance by manual metal arc (MMA), and by using a set of welding electrodes which varying in chemical composition and in their prices as well and test their effect on tensile strength. Results showed that using the poles of welding, which have a high proportion of iron powder and low hydrogen. The Tensile resistance is (484MPa) and the weld joint efficiency was (56.9%), but when (OK 47.04) electrode was used the tensile strength increased to (720MPa) and the weld joint efficiency to (84.7%). Using the cheapest electrode (OK 45.00) the weld joint efficiency did not exceed (24.2%), but when using the most expensive electrode (OK 91.28) the weld joint efficiency is (38.1%).

Keywords: tensile test, steel low alloys high resistance, electrodes welding

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5 The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity

Authors: Ugur Buyuk, Sevda Engin, Necmettin Marasli

Abstract:

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.

Keywords: Microstructure, Electrical Properties, Aluminum Alloy, tensile test, directional solidification, hardness test

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4 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Sung-Uk Wee

Abstract:

Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: Fatigue Life, tensile test, gas turbine blade, stress-strain

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3 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium

Authors: Michal Duchek, Jan Palán, Tomas Kubina

Abstract:

Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.

Keywords: Microstructure, Hardness, modulus of elasticity, tensile test, wire, commercial-purity titanium, rotary swaging

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2 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu

Abstract:

To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, strain rate, tensile test, AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, nonlinear viscoelastic

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1 Mechanical Properties of Organic Polymer and Exfoliated Graphite Reinforced Bacteria Cellulose Paper

Authors: T. Thompson, E. F. Zegeye

Abstract:

Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is a structural organic compound produced in the anaerobic process. This material can be a useful eco-friendly substitute for commercial textiles that are used in industries today. BC is easily and sustainably produced and has the capabilities to be used as a replacement in textiles. However, BC is extremely fragile when it completely dries. This research was conducted to improve the mechanical properties of the BC by reinforcing with an organic polymer and exfoliated graphite (EG). The BC films were grown over a period of weeks in a green tea and kombucha solution at 30 °C, then cleaned and added to an enhancing solution. The enhancing solutions were a mixture of 2.5 wt% polymer and 2.5 wt% latex solution, a 5 wt% polymer solution, a 0.20 wt% graphite solution and were each allowed to sit in a furnace for 48 h at 50 °C. Tensile test samples were prepared and tested until fracture at a strain rate of 8 mm/min. From the research with the addition of a 5 wt% polymer solution, the flexibility of the BC has significantly improved with the maximum strain significantly larger than that of the base sample. The addition of EG has also increased the modulus of elasticity of the BC by about 25%.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, tensile test, exfoliated graphite, kombucha scoby

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