Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

tensile Related Abstracts

9 Effect of Temperature and Deformation Mode on Texture Evolution of AA6061

Authors: M. Ghosh, A. Miroux, L. A. I. Kestens

Abstract:

At molecular or micrometre scale, practically all materials are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. The concept of texture is used to identify the structural features that cause the properties of a material to be anisotropic. For metallic materials, the anisotropy of the mechanical behaviour originates from the crystallographic nature of plastic deformation, and is therefore controlled by the crystallographic texture. Anisotropy in mechanical properties often constitutes a disadvantage in the application of materials, as it is often illustrated by the earing phenomena during drawing. However, advantages may also be attained when considering other properties (e.g. optimization of magnetic behaviour to a specific direction) by controlling texture through thermo-mechanical processing). Nevertheless, in order to have better control over the final properties it is essential to relate texture with materials processing route and subsequently optimise their performance. However, up to date, few studies have been reported about the evolution of texture in 6061 aluminium alloy during warm processing (from room temperature to 250ºC). In present investigation, recrystallized 6061 aluminium alloy samples were subjected to tensile and plane strain compression (PSC) at room and warm temperatures. The gradual change of texture following both deformation modes were measured and discussed. Tensile tests demonstrate the mechanism at low strain while PSC does the same at high strain and eventually simulate the condition of rolling. Cube dominated texture of the initial rolled and recrystallized AA6061 sheets were replaced by domination of S and R components after PSC at room temperature, warm temperature (250ºC) though did not reflect any noticeable deviation from room temperature observation. It was also noticed that temperature has no significant effect on the evolution of grain morphology during PSC. The band contrast map revealed that after 30% deformation the substructure inside the grain is mainly made of series of parallel bands. A tendency for decrease of Cube and increase of Goss was noticed after tensile deformation compared to as-received material. Like PSC, texture does not change after deformation at warm temperature though. n-fibre was noticed for all the three textures from Goss to Cube.

Keywords: deformation, temperature, Texture, AA 6061, tensile, PSC

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8 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Reinforced Composite with Different Fiber Orientation

Authors: Y. C. Ching, K. H. Chong

Abstract:

The increasing of environmental awareness has led to grow interest in the expansion of materials with eco-friendly attributes. In this study, a 3 ply sandwich layer of kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester with various fiber orientations was developed. The effect of the fiber orientation on mechanical and thermal stability properties of polyester was studied. Unsaturated polyester as a face sheets and kenaf fibers as a core was fabricated with combination of hand lay-up process and cold compression method. Tested result parameters like tensile, flexural, impact strength, melting point, and crystallization point were compared and recorded based on different fiber orientation. The failure mechanism and property changes associated with directional change of fiber to polyester composite were discussed.

Keywords: Thermal Stability, tensile, kenaf fiber, polyester

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7 Improvement of Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Concrete Using Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Omar Asad Ahmad, Mohammed Awwad

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the essential elements that used in different types of construction these days, but it has many problems when interacts with environmental elements such as water, air, temperature, dust, and humidity. Also concrete made with Portland cement has certain characteristics: it is relatively strong in compression but weak in tension and tends to be brittle. These disadvantages make concrete limited to use in certain conditions. The most common problems appears on concrete are manifested by tearing, cracking, corrosion and spalling, which will lead to do some defect in concrete then in the whole construction, The fundamental objective of this research was to provide information about the hardened properties of concrete achieved by using easily available local raw materials in Jordan to support the practical work with partners in assessing the practicability of the mixes with polypropylene, and to facilitate the introduction of polypropylene fiber concrete (PFC) technology into general construction practice. Investigate the effect of the polypropylene fibers in PCC mixtures and on materials properties such as compressive strength, and tensile strength. Also to investigate the use of polypropylene fibers in plain cubes and cylindrical concrete to improve its compressive and tensile strengths to reduce early cracking and inhibit later crack growth. Increasing the hardness of concrete in this research is the main purpose to measure the deference of compressive strength and tensile strength between plain concrete and concrete mixture with polypropylene fibers different additions and to investigate its effect on reducing the early and later cracking problem. To achieve the goals of research 225 concrete test sample were prepared to measure it’s compressive strength and tensile strength, the concrete test sample were three classes (A,B,C), sub-classified to standard , and polypropylene fibers added by the volume of concrete (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The investigation of polypropylene fibers mixture with concrete shows that the strengths of the cement are increased and the cracking decreased. The results show that for class A the recommended addition were 5% of polypropylene fibers additions for compressive strength and 10 % for tensile strength revels the best compressive strength that reach 26.67 Mpa and tensile strength that reach 2.548 Mpa records. Achieved results show that for classes B and C the recommend additions were 10 % polypropylene fibers revels the best compressive strength records where they reach 21.11 and 33.78 Mpa, records reach for tensile strength 2.707 and 2.65 Mpa respectively.

Keywords: Construction, Concrete, strengths, Polypropylene, tensile, compressive, effects

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6 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Efficiency of TIG-MIG Hybrid Welding of Type-304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Esther Akinlabi, Emmanuel Ogundimu, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

Welding is described as the process of joining metals so that bonding can be created as a result of inter-atomic penetration. This study investigated the influence of heat input on the efficiency of the welded joints of 304 stainless steel. Three welds joint were made from two similar 304 stainless steel plates of thickness 6 mm. The tensile results obtained showed that the maximum average tensile strength of 672 MPa is possessed by the sample A1 with low heat input. It was discovered that the tensile strength, % elongation and weld joint efficiency decreased with the increase in heat input into the weld. The average % elongation for the entire samples ranged from 28.4% to 36.5%. Sample A1 had the highest joint efficiency of 94.5%. However, the optimum welding current of 190 for TIG- MIG hybrid welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for advanced technological applications such as aircraft manufacturing, nuclear industry, automobile industry, and processing industry.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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5 Operational Advantages of Tungsten Inert Gas over Metal Inert Gas Welding Process

Authors: Esther Akinlabi, Emmanuel Ogundimu, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

In this research, studies were done on the material characterization of type 304 austenitic stainless steel weld produced by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding processes. This research is aimed to establish optimized process parameters that will result in a defect-free weld joint, homogenous distribution of the iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) was observed at the welded joint of all the six samples. The welded sample produced at the current of 170 A by TIG welding process had the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value of 621 MPa at the welds zone, and the welded sample produced by MIG process at the welding current of 150 A had the lowest UTS value of 568 MPa. However, it was established that TIG welding process is more appropriate for the welding of type 304 austenitic stainless steel compared to the MIG welding process.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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4 Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Type-304 Austenite Stainless Steel

Authors: Esther Akinlabi, Emmanuel Ogundimu, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of welding current on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. Material characterizations were conducted on a 6 mm thick plates of type-304 austenite stainless steel, welded by TIG welding process at two different welding currents of 150 A (Sample F3) and 170 A (Sample F4). The tensile strength and the elongation obtained from sample F4 weld were approximately 584 MPa and 19.3 %; which were higher than sample F3 weld. The average microhardness value of sample F4 weld was found to be 235.7 HV, while that of sample F3 weld was 233.4 HV respectively. Homogenous distribution of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were observed at the welded joint of the two samples. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that Fe, Cr, and Ni made up the composition formed in the weld zone. The optimum welding current of 170 A for TIG welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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3 Analyzing Sun Valley Music Pavilion Idaho, USA, 2008 in Relation Flexibility and Adaptability

Authors: Ola Haj Saleh

Abstract:

This study of a contemporary building attempts to identify how a building can reflect its presence within its community. The example of the pavilion is discussed here with references to adaptability and flexibility theories. The analytical methodology of the Sun Valley Pavilion discovers to what extent a public space can be flexible and adaptable to several conditions. Furthermore, redefine an existing public building in an urban landscape context, becomes more than an important place for its community as a music pavilion for the arts, it is even for the interactivity wedding parties. Thus, the Sun Valley Pavilion can have an obvious role in a community gathering place in a result that flexibility and adaptability are more economical in the long term.

Keywords: Flexibility, Adaptability, tensile, pavilion

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2 Test Method Development for Evaluation of Process and Design Effect on Reinforced Tube

Authors: Cathal Merz, Gareth O’Donnell

Abstract:

Coil reinforced thin-walled (CRTW) tubes are used in medicine to treat problems affecting blood vessels within the body through minimally invasive procedures. The CRTW tube considered in this research makes up part of such a device and is inserted into the patient via their femoral or brachial arteries and manually navigated to the site in need of treatment. This procedure replaces the requirement to perform open surgery but is limited by reduction of blood vessel lumen diameter and increase in tortuosity of blood vessels deep in the brain. In order to maximize the capability of these procedures, CRTW tube devices are being manufactured with decreasing wall thicknesses in order to deliver treatment deeper into the body and to allow passage of other devices through its inner diameter. This introduces significant stresses to the device materials which have resulted in an observed increase in the breaking of the proximal segment of the device into two separate pieces after it has failed by buckling. As there is currently no international standard for measuring the mechanical properties of these CRTW tube devices, it is difficult to accurately analyze this problem. The aim of the current work is to address this discrepancy in the biomedical device industry by developing a measurement system that can be used to quantify the effect of process and design changes on CRTW tube performance, aiding in the development of better performing, next generation devices. Using materials testing frames, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, experiment planning, analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests and regression analysis, test methods have been developed for assessing the impact of process and design changes on the device. The major findings of this study have been an insight into the suitability of buckle and three-point bend tests for the measurement of the effect of varying processing factors on the device’s performance, and guidelines for interpreting the output data from the test methods. The findings of this study are of significant interest with respect to verifying and validating key process and design changes associated with the device structure and material condition. Test method integrity evaluation is explored throughout.

Keywords: buckling, tensile, neurovascular catheter, coil reinforced tube, three-point bend

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1 Fused Deposition Modeling Printing of Bioinspired Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride Materials for Scaffold Development in Biomedical Application

Authors: Farusil Najeeb Mullaveettil, Rolanas Dauksevicius

Abstract:

Cellular structures produced by additive manufacturing have earned wide research attention due to their unique specific strength and energy absorption potentiality. The literature review concludes that pattern type and density are vital parameters that affect the mechanical properties of parts formed by additive manufacturing techniques and have an influence on printing time and material consumption. Fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) is used here to produce Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) parts. In this work, patterns are based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) produced by PVDF-based filaments using the FDM technique. PVDF homopolymer filament Fluorinar-H™ and PVDF copolymer filament Fluorinar-C™ are printed with three types of TPMS patterns. The patterns printed are Gyroid, Schwartz diamond, and Schwartz primitive. Tensile, flexural, and compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions are performed in compliance with ISO standards. The investigation elucidates the deformation mechanisms and a study that establishes a relationship between the printed and nominal specimens' dimensional accuracy. In comparison to the examined TPMS pattern, Schwartz diamond showed a higher relative elastic modulus and strength than the other patterns in tensile loading, and the Gyroid pattern showed the highest mechanical characteristics in flexural loading. The concluded results could be utilized to produce informed cellular designs for biomedical and mechanical applications.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, tensile, PVDF, flexural, FDM, gyroid, schwartz primitive, schwartz diamond, TPMS

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