Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 134

temperature Related Abstracts

134 Effect of Different Salt Concentrations and Temperatures on Seed Germination and Seedling Characters in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes

Authors: Rahim Ada, Zamari Temory, Hasan Dalgiç

Abstract:

Germination and seedling responses of seven safflower seed genotypes (Dinçer, Remzibey, Black Sun2 cultivars and A19, F4, I1, J19 lines) to different salinity concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 20 g l-1) and temperatures (10 and 20 oC) evaluated in Completely Randomized Factorial Designs in Department of Field Crops of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Seeds in the control (distilled water) had at 10 and 20 oC the highest germination percentage (93.88 and 94.32 %), shoot length (4.60 and 8.72 cm), root length (4.27 and 6.54 cm), shoot dry weight (22.37 mg and 25.99 mg), and root dry weight (2.22 and 2.47 mg). As the salt concentration increased, values of all characters were decreased. In this experiment, in 20 g l-1 salt concentration found germination percentage (21.28 and 26.66 %), shoot (1.32 and 1.35 cm) and root length (1.04 and 1.10 cm), shoot (8.05 mg and 7.49 mg) and root dry weight (0.83 and 0.98 mg) at 10, and 20 oC.

Keywords: temperature, safflower, NaCl, shoot and root length, salt concentration

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133 Thermo-Aeraulic Studies of a Multizone Building Influence of the Compactness Index

Authors: T. Benouaz, S. M. A. Bekkouche, M. K. Cherier, M. Hamdani, M. R. Yaiche, N. Benamrane

Abstract:

Most codes of building energy simulation neglect the humidity or well represent it with a very simplified method. It is for this reason that we have developed a new approach to the description and modeling of multizone buildings in Saharan climate. The thermal nodal method was used to apprehend thermoaeraulic behavior of air subjected to varied solicitations. In this contribution, analyzing the building geometry introduced the concept of index compactness as "quotient of external walls area and volume of the building". Physical phenomena that we have described in this paper, allow to build the model of the coupled thermoaeraulic behavior. The comparison shows that the found results are to some extent satisfactory. The result proves that temperature and specific humidity depending on compactness and geometric shape. Proper use of compactness index and building geometry parameters will noticeably minimize building energy.

Keywords: temperature, multizone model, nodal method, compactness index, specific humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
132 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Fateh Chand Oad, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: Morphology, Growth, stress, Heat, temperature, Rice, Yield

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131 Comparative Study of Two New Configurations of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, E. H. Khettaf, A. Embarek

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Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar system comprises a solar collector which is disposed on photovoltaic solar cells. The disadvantage of a conventional photovoltaic cell is that its performance decreases as the temperature increases. Indeed, part of the solar radiation is converted into electricity and is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the photovoltaic cell with respect to the ambient temperature. The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a hybrid prototype to evaluate electrical and thermal performance. In this paper, an experimental study of two new configurations of hybrid collectors is exposed. The results are given and interpreted. The two configurations of absorber studied are a new combination with tubes and galvanized tank, the other is a tubes and sheet.

Keywords: Experimental, Solar, temperature, Photovoltaic

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130 Experimental Study on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of the 200W Class Woofer Speaker

Authors: Hyung-Jin Kim, Dae-Wan Kim, Moo-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the heat transfer characteristics of 200 W class woofer speaker units with the input voice signals. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics of the 200 W class woofer speaker unit were experimentally tested with the several input voice signals such as 1500 Hz, 2500 Hz, and 5000 Hz respectively. From the experiments, it can be observed that the temperature of the woofer speaker unit including the voice-coil part increases with a decrease in input voice signals. Also, the temperature difference in measured points of the voice coil is increased with decrease of the input voice signals. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics of the woofer speaker in case of the input voice signal of 1500 Hz is 40% higher than that of the woofer speaker in case of the input voice signal of 5000 Hz at the measuring time of 200 seconds. It can be concluded from the experiments that initially the temperature of the voice signal increases rapidly with time, after a certain period of time it increases exponentially. Also during this time dependent temperature change, it can be observed that high voice signal is stable than low voice signal.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, temperature, voice coil, woofer speaker

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
129 Effect of Temperature and Deformation Mode on Texture Evolution of AA6061

Authors: M. Ghosh, A. Miroux, L. A. I. Kestens

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At molecular or micrometre scale, practically all materials are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. The concept of texture is used to identify the structural features that cause the properties of a material to be anisotropic. For metallic materials, the anisotropy of the mechanical behaviour originates from the crystallographic nature of plastic deformation, and is therefore controlled by the crystallographic texture. Anisotropy in mechanical properties often constitutes a disadvantage in the application of materials, as it is often illustrated by the earing phenomena during drawing. However, advantages may also be attained when considering other properties (e.g. optimization of magnetic behaviour to a specific direction) by controlling texture through thermo-mechanical processing). Nevertheless, in order to have better control over the final properties it is essential to relate texture with materials processing route and subsequently optimise their performance. However, up to date, few studies have been reported about the evolution of texture in 6061 aluminium alloy during warm processing (from room temperature to 250ºC). In present investigation, recrystallized 6061 aluminium alloy samples were subjected to tensile and plane strain compression (PSC) at room and warm temperatures. The gradual change of texture following both deformation modes were measured and discussed. Tensile tests demonstrate the mechanism at low strain while PSC does the same at high strain and eventually simulate the condition of rolling. Cube dominated texture of the initial rolled and recrystallized AA6061 sheets were replaced by domination of S and R components after PSC at room temperature, warm temperature (250ºC) though did not reflect any noticeable deviation from room temperature observation. It was also noticed that temperature has no significant effect on the evolution of grain morphology during PSC. The band contrast map revealed that after 30% deformation the substructure inside the grain is mainly made of series of parallel bands. A tendency for decrease of Cube and increase of Goss was noticed after tensile deformation compared to as-received material. Like PSC, texture does not change after deformation at warm temperature though. n-fibre was noticed for all the three textures from Goss to Cube.

Keywords: deformation, temperature, Texture, AA 6061, tensile, PSC

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128 The Dynamics of Microorganisms in Dried Yogurt Storages at Different Temperatures

Authors: Jaruwan Chutrtong

Abstract:

Yoghurt is a fermented milk product. The process of making yogurt involves fermenting milk with live and active bacterial cultures by adding bacteria directly to the dairy product. It is usually made with a culture of Lactobacillus sp. (L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus. Many people like to eat it plain or flavored and it's also use as ingredient in many dishes. Yogurt is rich in nutrients including the microorganism which have important role in balancing the digestion and absorption of the boy.Consumers will benefit from lactic acid bacteria more or less depending on the amount of bacteria that lives in yogurt while eating. When purchasing yogurt, consumers should always check the label for live cultures. Yoghurt must keep in refrigerator at 4°C for up to ten days. After this amount of time, the cultures often become weak. This research studied freezing dry yogurt storage by monitoring on the survival of microorganisms when stored at different temperatures. At 300°C, representative room temperature of country in equator zone, number of lactic acid bacteria reduced 4 log cycles in 10 week. At 400°C, representative temperature in summer of country in equator zone, number of lactic acid bacteria also dropped 4 log cycle in 10 week, similar as storage at 300°C. But drying yogurt storage at 400°C couldn’t reformed to be good character yogurt as good as storage at 400°C only 4 week storage too. After 1 month, it couldn’t bring back the yogurt form. So if it is inevitable to keep yogurt powder at a temperature of 40°C, yoghurt is maintained only up to 4 weeks.

Keywords: Dynamic, Storage, temperature, dry yoghurt

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
127 Thermal Performance of Hybrid PVT Collector with Natural Circulation

Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, I. Tabet, H. Haloui, H. Bencheikh El Houcine, M. Adouane

Abstract:

Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors allow simultaneous production of electrical energy thus heat energy. There are several configurations of hybrid collectors (to produce water or air). For hybrids water collectors, there are several configurations that differ by the nature of the absorber (serpentine, tubes...). In this paper, an absorber tank is studied. The circulation of the coolant is natural (we do not use the pump). We present the obtained results in our experimental study and we analyzed the data, and then we compare the results with the theory practices. The electrical performances of the hybrid collector are compared with those of conventional photovoltaic module mounted on the same structure and measured under the same conditions. We conducted experiments with natural circulation of the coolant (Thermosyphon), for a flow rate of 0.025kg/m².

Keywords: Experimental, Solar, temperature, Photovoltaic, tank

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126 Exergy and Energy Analysis of Pre-Heating Unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company

Authors: M. Nuhu, S. Bilal, A. A. Hamisu, J. A. Abbas, Y. Z. Aminu, P. O. Helen

Abstract:

Exergy and energy analysis of preheating unit of FCCU of KRPC has been calculated and presented in this study. From the design, the efficiency of each heat exchanger was 86%. However, on completion of this work the efficiencies was calculated to be 39.90%, 55.66%, 56.22%, and 57.14% for 16E02, 16E03, 16E04, and 16E05 respectively. 16E04 has the minimum energy loss of 0.86%. The calculated second law and exergy efficiencies of the system were 43.01 and 56.99% respectively.

Keywords: Efficiency, Exergy analysis, temperature, Exergy Destruction, ideal work

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125 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani

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Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: temperature, concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide gas, sewer pipe

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124 Research and Development of Lightweight Repair Mortars with Focus on Their Resistance to High Temperatures

Authors: Tomáš Melichar, Jiri Bydzovsky, Vít Černý

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In this article our research focused on study of basic physical and mechanical parameters of polymer-cement repair materials is presented. Namely the influence of applied aggregates in combination with active admixture is specially considered. New formulas which were exposed in ambient with temperature even to 1000°C were suggested. Subsequently densities and strength characteristics including their changes were evaluated. Selected samples were analyzed using electron microscope. The positive influence of porous aggregates based on sintered ash was definitely demonstrated. Further it was found than in terms of thermal resistance the effective micro silica amount represents 5% to 7.5% of cement weight.

Keywords: repair, temperature, mortar, aggregate, ash, high, lightweight, microsilica, polymer-cement

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123 Optimizing Oxidation Process Parameters of Al-Li Base Alloys Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Muna K. Abbass, Laith A. Mohammed, Muntaha K. Abbas

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The oxidation of Al-Li base alloy containing small amounts of rare earth (RE) oxides such as 0.2 wt% Y2O3 and 0.2wt% Nd2O3 particles have been studied at temperatures: 400ºC, 500ºC and 550°C for 60hr in a dry air. Alloys used in this study were prepared by melting and casting in a permanent steel mould under controlled atmosphere. Identification of oxidation kinetics was carried out by using weight gain/surface area (∆W/A) measurements while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis were used for micro structural morphologies and phase identification of the oxide scales. It was observed that the oxidation kinetic for all studied alloys follows the parabolic law in most experimental tests under the different oxidation temperatures. It was also found that the alloy containing 0.2 wt %Y 2O3 particles possess the lowest oxidation rate and shows great improvements in oxidation resistance compared to the alloy containing 0.2 wt % Nd2O3 particles and Al-Li base alloy. In this work, Taguchi method is performed to estimate the optimum weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter in oxidation process of Al-Li base alloys to obtain a minimum thickness of oxidation layer. Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyses the effect of each parameter (time, temperature and alloy type) on the oxidation generation and to predict the optimal choice for each parameter and analyzed the effect of these parameters on the weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter. The analysis shows that, the temperature significantly affects on the (∆W/A) parameter.

Keywords: Oxidation, temperature, Taguchi method, Al-Li base alloy

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122 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

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In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: Light, Microalgae, temperature, biochemical composition, nitrogen limitation

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121 Solutions for Quality Pre-Control of Crimp Contacts

Authors: C. F. Ocoleanu, G. Cividjian, Gh. Manolea

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In this paper, we present two solutions for connections quality pre-control of Crimp Contacts and to identify in the first moments the connections improperly executed, before final assembly of a electrical machines. The first solution supposed experimental determination of specific losses by calculated the initial rate of temperature rise. This can be made drawing the tangent at the origin at heating curve. The method can be used to identify bad connections by passing a current through the winding at ambient temperature and simultaneously record connections temperatures in the first few minutes since the current is setting. The second proposed solution is to apply to each element crimping a thermal indicator one level, and making a test heating with a heating current corresponding to critical temperature indicator.

Keywords: temperature, crimp contact, thermal indicator, current distribution, specific losses

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120 West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Canada under Expected Climate Conditions

Authors: Jalila Jbilou, Salaheddine El Adlouni, Pierre Gosselin

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Background: West Nile virus is increasingly an important public health issue in North America. In Canada, WVN was officially reported in Toronto and Montréal for the first time in 2001. During the last decade, several WNV events have been reported in several Canadian provinces. The main objective of the present study is to update the frequency of the climate conditions favorable to WNV outbreaks in Canada. Method: Statistical frequency analysis has been used to estimate the return period for climate conditions associated with WNV outbreaks for the 1961–2050 period. The best fit is selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and the parameters are estimated using the maximum likelihood approach. Results: Results show that the climate conditions related to the 2002 event, for Montreal and Toronto, are becoming more frequent. For Saskatoon, the highest DD20 events recorded for the last few decades were observed in 2003 and 2007. The estimated return periods are 30 years and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: The emergence of WNV was related to extremely high DD values in the summer. However, some exceptions may be related to several factors such as virus persistence, vector migration, and also improved diagnosis and reporting levels. It is clear that such climate conditions have become much more common in the last decade and will likely continue to do so over future decades.

Keywords: Modeling, Climate, Public Health, west nile virus, Precipitation, temperature, North America, Risk Estimation, scenario, statistical frequency analysis

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119 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

Abstract:

The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, temperature, Tar, biomass fuels, advanced downdraft gasifier

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118 Modelling and Simulation of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie

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This paper developed a mathematical model of a commercial biogas plant for urban area clean energy requirement. It identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/city refuse as economically viable alternative source of energy. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analyses were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500 m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of bio gas production is essentially a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: temperature, specific growth rate, energy and mass conservation, thermophilic bacteria, rate of bio gas production

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117 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

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This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: temperature, cultivar, Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
116 Temperature Investigations in Two Type of Crimped Connection Using Experimental Determinations

Authors: C. F. Ocoleanu, A. I. Dolan, G. Cividjian, S. Teodorescu

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In this paper we make a temperature investigations in two type of superposed crimped connections using experimental determinations. All the samples use 8 copper wire 7.1 x 3 mm2 crimped by two methods: the first method uses one crimp indents and the second is a proposed method with two crimp indents. The ferrule is a parallel one. We study the influence of number and position of crimp indents. The samples are heated in A.C. current at different current values until steady state heating regime. After obtaining of temperature values, we compare them and present the conclusion.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, temperature, crimped connections, experimental determinations

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115 The Effect of Particle Temperature on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: H.Mohammadi majd, M. Jalali Azizpour

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In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: temperature, velocity, HVOF, WC-12Co, thickness

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114 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating According to Temperature and Curvature

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Yongseok Kim

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To avoid the damage of gas turbine blade from high-temperature, thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied on the blade. However, it is damaged by thermal fatigue during the operation of gas turbine, and this damage lead to delamination of TBC between top coat and bond coat. The blade can be damaged after the failure of TBC, so durability evaluation of TBC should be performed. The durability of thermal barrier coating was decreased according to the increase of temperature, because thermal stress according to increase of temperature. Also, the curvature can be affect to durability of TBC, because the stress is determined by the shape of the TBC. Therefore, the effect of temperature and curvature on the stress should be evaluated. In this study, finite element analysis according to temperature and curvature were performed in the same condition of Kim et al. Finally, the stress was evaluated from the finite element analysis results according to temperature and curvature.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, temperature, thermal fatigue, thermal barrier coating, curvature

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113 Alternating Current Photovoltaic Module Model

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling of a Alternating Current (AC) Photovoltaic (PV) module using Matlab/Simulink. The proposed AC-PV module model is simple, realistic, and application oriented. The model is derived on module level as compared to cell level directly from the information provided by the manufacturer data sheet. DC-PV module, MPPT control, BC, VSI and LC filter, all were treated as a single unit. The model accounts for changes in variations of both irradiance and temperature. The AC-PV module proposed model is simulated and the results are compared with the datasheet projected numbers to validate model’s accuracy and effectiveness. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: temperature, PV Modeling, MPPT, Matlab/Simulink, AC PV Module, datasheet, VI curves irradiance

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112 Long-Term Variabilities and Tendencies in the Zonally Averaged TIMED-SABER Ozone and Temperature in the Middle Atmosphere over 10°N-15°N

Authors: Oindrila Nath, S. Sridharan

Abstract:

Long-term (2002-2012) temperature and ozone measurements by Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite zonally averaged over 10°N-15°N are used to study their long-term changes and their responses to solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation. The region is selected to provide more accurate long-term trends and variabilities, which were not possible earlier with lidar measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), which are limited to cloud-free nights, whereas continuous data sets of SABER temperature and ozone are available. Regression analysis of temperature shows a cooling trend of 0.5K/decade in the stratosphere and that of 3K/decade in the mesosphere. Ozone shows a statistically significant decreasing trend of 1.3 ppmv per decade in the mesosphere although there is a small positive trend in stratosphere at 25 km. Other than this no significant ozone trend is observed in stratosphere. Negative ozone-QBO response (0.02ppmv/QBO), positive ozone-solar cycle (0.91ppmv/100SFU) and negative response to ENSO (0.51ppmv/SOI) have been found more in mesosphere whereas positive ozone response to ENSO (0.23ppmv/SOI) is pronounced in stratosphere (20-30 km). The temperature response to solar cycle is more positive (3.74K/100SFU) in the upper mesosphere and its response to ENSO is negative around 80 km and positive around 90-100 km and its response to QBO is insignificant at most of the heights. Composite monthly mean of ozone volume mixing ratio shows maximum values during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in middle stratosphere (25-30 km) and in upper mesosphere (85-95 km) around 10 ppmv. Composite monthly mean of temperature shows semi-annual variation with large values (~250-260 K) in equinox months and less values in solstice months in upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (40-55 km) whereas the SAO becomes weaker above 55 km. The semi-annual variation again appears at 80-90 km, with large values in spring equinox and winter months. In the upper mesosphere (90-100 km), less temperature (~170-190 K) prevails in all the months except during September, when the temperature is slightly more. The height profiles of amplitudes of semi-annual and annual oscillations in ozone show maximum values of 6 ppmv and 2.5 ppmv respectively in upper mesosphere (80-100 km), whereas SAO and AO in temperature show maximum values of 5.8 K and 4.6 K in lower and middle mesosphere around 60-85 km. The phase profiles of both SAO and AO show downward progressions. These results are being compared with long-term lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and the results obtained will be presented during the meeting.

Keywords: Trends, temperature, ozone, QBO, solar cycle, ENSO

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111 Design and Implementation Wireless System by Using Microcontrollers.Application for Drive Acquisition System with Multiple Sensors

Authors: H. Fekhar

Abstract:

Design and implementation acquisition system using radio frequency (RF) ASK module and micro controllers PIC is proposed in this work. The paper includes hardware and software design. The design tools are divided into two units , namely the sender MCU and receiver.The system was designed to measure temperatures of two furnaces and pressure pneumatic process. The wireless transmitter unit use the 433.95 MHz band directly interfaced to micro controller PIC18F4620. The sender unit consists of temperatures-pressure sensors , conditioning circuits , keypad GLCD display and RF module.Signal conditioner converts the output of the sensors into an electric quantity suitable for operation of the display and recording system.The measurements circuits are connected directly to 10 bits multiplexed A/D converter.The graphic liquid crystal display (GLCD) is used . The receiver (RF) module connected to a second microcontroller ,receive the signal via RF receiver , decode the Address/data and reproduces the original data . The strategy adopted for establishing communication between the sender MCU and receiver uses the specific protocol “Header, Address and data”.The communication protocol dealing with transmission and reception have been successfully implemented . Some experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed wireless system. This embedded system track temperatures – pressure signal reasonably well with a small error.

Keywords: Sensors, temperature, Pressure, Microcontrollers, protocol, graphic liquid cristal display

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
110 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev

Abstract:

Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: wave, temperature, negative pressure, liquid systems, metastable state

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109 Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Performances

Authors: Mekhannene Amine

Abstract:

In this paper, we began in the first step by two-dimensional simulation of a CIGS solar cell, in order to increase the current record efficiency of 20.48% for a single CIGS cell. Was created by utilizing a set of physical and technological parameters a solar cell of reference (such as layer thicknesses, gallium ratio, doping levels and materials properties) documented in bibliography and very known in the experimental field. This was accomplished through modeling and simulation using Atlas SILVACO-TCAD, an tool two and three dimensions very powerful and very adapted. This study has led us to determine the influence of different environmental parameters such as illumination (G) and temperature (T). In the second step, we continued our study by determining the influence of physical parameters (the acceptor of concentration NA) and geometric (thickness t) of the CIGS absorber layer, were varied to produce an optimum efficiency of 24.36%. This approach is promising to produce a CIGS classic solar cell to conduct a maximum performance.

Keywords: Illumination, temperature, Solar Cell, photovoltaic generator, CIGS, Atlas SILVACO-TCAD

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108 Impact of Climate Variation on Natural Vegetations and Human Lives in Thar Desert, Pakistan

Authors: Sujo Meghwar, Zulfqar Ali laghari, Kanji Harijan, Muhib Ali Lagari, G. M. Mastoi, Ali Mohammad Rind

Abstract:

Thar Desert is the most populous Desert of the world. Climate variation in Thar Desert has induced an increase in the magnitude of drought. The variation in climate variation has caused a decrease in natural vegetations. Some plant species are eliminated forever. We have applied the SPI (standardized precipitation index) climate model to investigate the drought induced by climate change. We have gathered the anthropogenic response through a developed questionnaire. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 18. The met-data of two meteorological station elaborated by the time series has suggested an increase in temperature from 1-2.5 centigrade, the decrease in rain fall rainfall from 5-25% and reduction in humidity from 5-12 mm in the 20th century. The anthropogenic responses indicate high impact of climate change on human life and vegetations. Triangle data, we have collected, gives a new insight into the understanding of an association between climate change, drought and human activities.

Keywords: temperature, Human impact, Rainfall, Thar desert, vegetations, humidity

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107 Thermal Analysis of a Composite of Coco Fiber and Látex

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation, the natural fibers have been seen as a salutary alternative for production of composites in substitution to the synthetic fibers, vitreous and metallic. In this work, the behavior of a composite was analyzed done with fiber of the peel of the coconut as reinforcement and latex as head office, when submitted the source of heat. The temperature profiles were verified in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. It was also analyzed the behavior of this composite when submitted to a cold source. As consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, Composite, temperature, gradient, latex

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106 Solar Energy for Decontamination of Ricinus communis

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

The solar energy was used as a source of heating in Ricinus communis pie with the objective of eliminating or minimizing the percentage of the poison in it, so that it can be used as animal feed. A solar cylinder and plane collector were used as heating system. In the focal area of the solar concentrator a gutter support endowed with stove effect was placed. Parameters that denote the efficiency of the systems for the proposed objective was analyzed.

Keywords: Solar energy, temperature, concentrate, Ricinus communis

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105 Analysis in Mexico on Workers Performing Highly Repetitive Movements with Sensory Thermography in the Surface of the Wrist and Elbows

Authors: Claudia Camargo, Jesús E. Olguín, Juan A. López, Sandra K. Enríquez, German Galindo

Abstract:

Currently companies have increased the number of disorders of cumulative trauma (CTDs), these are increasing significantly due to the Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) performed in workstations, which causes economic losses to businesses, due to temporary and permanent disabilities of workers. This analysis focuses on the prevention of disorders caused by: repeatability, duration and effort; And focuses on reducing cumulative trauma disorders such as occupational diseases using sensory thermography as a noninvasive method, the above is to evaluate the injuries could have workers to perform repetitive motions. Objectives: The aim is to define rest periods or job rotation before they generate a CTD, this sensory thermography by analyzing changes in temperature patterns on wrists and elbows when the worker is performing HRM over a period of time 2 hours and 30 minutes. Information on non-work variables such as wrist and elbow injuries, weight, gender, age, among others, and work variables such as temperature workspace, repetitiveness and duration also met. Methodology: The analysis to 4 industrial designers, 2 men and 2 women to be specific was conducted in a business in normal health for a period of 12 days, using the following time ranges: the first day for every 90 minutes continuous work were asked to rest 5 minutes, the second day for every 90 minutes of continuous work were asked to rest 10 minutes, the same to work 60 and 30 minutes straight. Each worker was tested with 6 different ranges at least twice. This analysis was performed in a controlled room temperature between 20 and 25 ° C, and a time to stabilize the temperature of the wrists and elbows than 20 minutes at the beginning and end of the analysis. Results: The range time of 90 minutes working continuous and a rest of 5 minutes of activity is where the maximum temperature (Tmax) was registered in the wrists and elbows in the office, we found the Tmax was 35.79 ° C with a difference of 2.79 ° C between the initial and final temperature of the left elbow presented at the individual 4 during the 86 minutes, in of range in 90 minutes continuously working and rested for 5 minutes of your activity. Conclusions: It is possible with this alternative technology is sensory thermography predict ranges of rotation or rest for the prevention of CTD to perform HRM work activities, obtaining with this reduce occupational disease, quotas by health agencies and increasing the quality of life of workers, taking this technology a cost-benefit acceptable in the future.

Keywords: temperature, sensory thermography, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), highly repetitive movement (HRM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 312