Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

TEM Related Abstracts

29 Morphology Feature of Nanostructure Bainitic Steel after Tempering Treatment

Authors: Chih Yuan Chen, Chien Chon Chen, Jin-Shyong Lin


The microstructure characterization of tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steel is investigated in the present study. It is found that two types of plastic relaxation, dislocation debris and nanotwin, occurs in the displacive transformation due to relatively low transformation temperature and high carbon content. Because most carbon atoms trap in the dislocation, high dislocation density can be sustained during the tempering process. More carbides only can be found in the high tempered temperature due to intense recovery progression.

Keywords: Accommodation, nanostructure bainitic steel, tempered, TEM, nano-twin, dislocation debris

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28 Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange

Authors: Brajesh Kumar, Luis Cumbal


An eco-friendly Citrus paradisi peel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nano catalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5 hours.

Keywords: TEM, eco-friendly, TiO2 nanoparticles, citrus paradisi

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27 Nanocrystalline Na0.1V2O5.nH2Oxerogel Thin Film for Gas Sensing

Authors: M. S. Al-Assiri, M. M. El-Desoky, A. A. Bahgat


Nanocrystalline thin film of Na0.1V2O5.nH2O xerogel obtained by sol-gel synthesis was used as a gas sensor. Gas sensing properties of different gases such as hydrogen, petroleum and humidity were investigated. Applying XRD and TEM the size of the nanocrystals is found to be 7.5 nm. SEM shows a highly porous structure with submicron meter-sized voids present throughout the sample. FTIR measurement shows different chemical groups identifying the obtained series of gels. The sample was n-type semiconductor according to the thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity. It can be seen that the sensor response curves from 130°C to 150°C show a rapid increase in sensitivity for all types of gas injection, low response values for heating period and the rapid high response values for cooling period. This result may suggest that this material is able to act as gas sensor during the heating and cooling process.

Keywords: XRD, TEM, sol-gel, thermoelectric power, gas sensing

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26 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani


The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, antibacterial activity, SEM, FTIR, TEM

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25 Comparison of Methods for the Synthesis of Eu+++, Tb+++, and Tm+++ Doped Y2O3 Nanophosphors by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods for Bioconjugation

Authors: Ravindra P. Singh, Drupad Ram, Dinesh K. Gupta


Rare earth ions doped metal oxides are a class of luminescent materials which have been proved to be excellent for applications in field emission displays and cathode ray tubes, plasma display panels. Under UV irradiation Eu+++ doped Y2O3 is a red phosphor and Tb+++ doped Y 2O3 is a green phosphor. It is possible that, due to their high quantum efficiency, they might serve as improved luminescent markers for identification of biomolecules, as already reported for CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. However, for any biological applications these particle powders must be suspended in water while retaining their phosphorescence. We hereby report synthesis and characterization of Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using yttrium oxo isopropoxide [Y5O(OPri)13] (crystallized twice) and it’s acetyl acetone modified product [Y(O)(acac)] as precursors. Generally the sol-gel derived metal oxides are required to be annealed to the temperature ranging from 400°C-800°C in order to develop crystalline phases. However, this annealing also results in the development of aggregates which are undesirable for bio-conjugation experiments. In the hydrothermal process, we have achieved crystallinity of the nanoparticles at 300°C and the development of crystalline phases has been found to be proportional to the time of heating of the reactor. The average particle sizes as calculated from XRD were found to be 28 nm, 32 nm, and 34 nm by hydrothermal process. The particles were successfully suspended in chloroform in the presence of trioctyl phosphene oxide and TEM investigations showed the presence of single particles along with agglomerates.

Keywords: XRD, TEM, sol-gel, nanophosphors, Y2O3:Eu+3, Y2O3:Tb+3, hydrothermal method

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24 Microstructural and Transport Properties of La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 Thin Films Obtained by Metal-Organic Deposition

Authors: K. Daoudi, Z. Othmen, S. El Helali, M.Oueslati, M. Oumezzine


La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 thin films have been epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (001) single-crystal substrates by metal organic deposition process. The structural and micro structural properties of the obtained films have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission microscopy observations on cross-sections techniques. We noted a close dependence of the crystallinity on the used substrate and the film thickness. By increasing the annealing temperature to 1000ºC and the film thickness to 100 nm, the electrical resistivity was decreased by several orders of magnitude. The film resistivity reaches approximately 3~4 x10-4 Ω.cm in a wide interval of temperature 77-320 K, making this material a promising candidate for a variety of applications.

Keywords: Thin Films, Epitaxial Growth, TEM, cobaltite, MOD

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23 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anticancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein


Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, syn-thesis of nano-composites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nano tubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work Sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures.Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diag-nosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, TEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs)

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22 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Antibiotic, Staphylococcus aureus, TEM, Escherichia coli

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21 Synthesis of AgInS2–ZnS at Low Temperature with Tunable Photoluminescence for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Nitu Chhikaraa, S. B. Tyagia, Kiran Jainb, Mamta Kharkwala


The I–III–VI2 semiconductor Nanocrystals such as AgInS2 have great interest for various applications such as optical devices (solar cell and LED), cellular Imaging and bio tagging etc. we synthesized the phase and shape controlled chalcopyrite AgInS2 (AIS) colloidal nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of metal xanthate at low temperature in an organic solvent’s containing surfactant molecules. Here we are focusing on enhancements of photoluminescence of AgInS2 Nps by coating of ZnS at low temperature for application of optical devices. The size of core shell Nps was less than increasing the time and temperature the emission of the wavelength of the Zn coated AgInS2 Nps could be adjusted from visible region to IR the QY of the AgInS2 Nps could be increased by coating of ZnS from 20 to 80% which was reasonably good as compared to those of the previously reported. The synthesized NPs were characterized by PL, UV, XRD and TEM.

Keywords: XRD, TEM

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20 Microstructural Study of Mechanically Alloyed Powders and the Thin Films of Cufe Alloys

Authors: Mechri hanane, Azzaz Mohammed


Polycrystalline CuFe thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation process (Physical vapor deposition), using the nanocrystalline CuFe powder obtained by mechanical alloying After 24 h of milling elemental powders. The microscopic study of nanocrystalline powder and the thin film of Cu70Fe30 binary alloy were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cross-sectional TEM images showed that the obtained CuFe layer was polycrystalline film of about 20 nm thick and composed of grains of different size ranging from 4 nm to 18 nm.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Thin Films, SEM, TEM

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19 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

Authors: Ali Moafi, Kourosh Kalantarzadeh, Richard Kaner, Parviz Parvin, Ebrahim Asl Soleimani, Dougal McCulloch


In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.

Keywords: Graphene, Graphene Oxide, TEM, in situ Raman Spectroscopy, EELS, atomic hydrogen

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18 Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxic Effect of Eu2O3-doped ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Otilia R. Vasile, Florina C. Ilie, Irina F. Nicoara, Cristina D. Ghitulica, Roxana Trusca, Ovidiu Oprea, Vasile A. Surdu, Bogdan S. Vasile, Ecaterina Adronescu


In this work ZnO nanostructures (nanopowders and nanostars) have been synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. The used methods for synthesizing the nanostructures involve two steps as follows: (1) precipitation of zinc acetate precursor for the synthesis of ZnO nanopowders and zinc chloride precursor for the synthesis of ZnO nanostars and (2) addition of Eu2O3 in different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) using europium acetate as precursor. Detailed crystalline parameters for each of the synthetized species were analysed using X-ray diffraction. Structural transitions were also discussed. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared ZnO nanopowders and nanostars were investigated by electron microscopy. TEM investigations have shown an average particle size range from 23 to 29 nm and polyhedral and spherical morphology with tendency to form aggregates for nanopowders. For nanostars structures, a star-like morphology could be observed. Cytotoxicity tests on MG-63 cell lines were also performed. Photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanopowders have reached higher values compared to ZnO nanostars.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Photocatalytic Activity, ZnO, TEM

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17 Study on the Controlled Growth of Lanthanum Hydroxide and Manganese Oxide Nano Composite under the Presence of Cationic Surfactant

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Verma


Lanthanum hydroxide and manganese oxide nanocomposite are synthesized by chemical routes. Physical characterization is done by TEM to look at the size and dispersion of the nanoparticles in the composite. Chemical characterization is done by X-ray diffraction technique and FTIR to ascertain the attachment of the functionalities and bond stretching. Further thermal analysis is done by thermogravimetric analysis to find the tendency of the thermal decomposition in the elevated temperature range of 0-1000°C. Proper analysis and correlation of the various results obtained suggested the controlled growth of crystalline without agglomeration and good stability in the various temperature ranges of the composite.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, lanthanum hydroxide, manganese oxide

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16 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anti Cancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein


Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, synthesis of nanocomposites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nanotubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro-emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work, sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures. Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, TEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), anti cancer activity

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15 Characterization of the Groundwater Aquifers at El Sadat City by Joint Inversion of VES and TEM Data

Authors: Usama Massoud, Abeer A. Kenawy, El-Said A. Ragab, Abbas M. Abbas, Heba M. El-Kosery


Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient Electro Magnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo–Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal, and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along three profiles trending NE–SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line–line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geo-electrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

Keywords: TEM, El Sadat city, joint inversion, VES

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14 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle: An Analytical Method Based Approach for the Quantitative Assessment of Drug

Authors: Zeid A. Alothman


Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag(+) ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adapted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values.

Keywords: Analysis, XRD, TEM, silver nanoparticle, adrenaline

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13 Biosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Property

Authors: Prachi Singh


This paper presents a low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible microbe mediated biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, from titanium as a precursor, were confirmed by TEM analysis. The morphological characteristics state spherical shape, with the size of individual or aggregate nanoparticles, around 30-40 nm. Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Here, the antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Escherichia coli was investigated, which was confirmed by CFU (Colony-forming unit). Further, growth curve study of E. coli Hb101 in the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles was done. Optical density decrease was observed with the increase in the concentration of TiO2. It could be attributed to the inactivation of cellular enzymes and DNA by binding to electron-donating groups such as carboxylates, amides, indoles, hydroxyls, thiols, etc. which cause little pores in bacterial cell walls, leading to increased permeability and cell death. This justifies that TiO2 nanoparticles have efficient antibacterial effect and have potential to be used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.

Keywords: Toxicity, TEM, UV-vis, antibacterial effect, CFU, Escherichia coli Hb101, growth curve, TiO2 nanoparticle

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12 Rumen Epithelium Development of Bovine Fetuses and Newborn Calves

Authors: Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão, Letícia Palmeira Pinto, Francisco Palma Rennó, Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez


The ruminant stomach is a complex and multi-chambered organ. Although the true stomach (abomasum) is fully differentiated and functional at birth, the same does not occur with the rumen chamber. At this moment, rumen papillae are small or nonexistent. The papillae only fully develop after weaning and during calf growth. Papillae development and ruminal epithelium specialization during the fetus growth and at birth must be two interdependent processes that will prepare the rumen to adapt to ruminant adult feeding. The microscopic study of rumen epithelium at these early phases of life is important to understand how this structure prepares the rumen to deal with the following weaning processes and its functional activation. Samples of ruminal mucosa of bovine fetuses (110- and 150 day-old) and newborn calves were collected (dorsal and ventral portions) and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The basal cell layer of the stratified pavimentous epithelium present in different ruminal portions of the fetuses was thicker than the same portions of newborn calves. The superficial and intermediate epithelial layers of 150 day-old fetuses were thicker than those found in the other 2 studied ages. At this age (150 days), dermal papillae begin to invade the intermediate epithelial layer which gradually disappears in newborn calves. At birth, the ruminal papillae project from the epithelial surface, probably by regression of the epithelial cells (transitory cells) surrounding the dermal papillae. The PCNA cell proliferation index (%) was calculated for all epithelial samples. Fetuses 150 day-old showed increased cell proliferation in basal cell layer (Dorsal Portion: 84.2%; Ventral Portion: 89.8%) compared to other ages studied. Newborn calves showed an intermediate index (Dorsal Portion: 65.1%; Ventral Portion: 48.9%), whereas 110 day-old fetuses had the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.2%; Ventral Portion: 20.6%). Regarding the transitory epithelium, 110 day-old fetuses showed the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 44.6%; Ventral Portion: 20.1%), 150 day-old fetuses showed an intermediate proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.5%; Ventral Portion: 71.1%) and newborn calves presented a higher proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 75.1%; Ventral Portion: 19.6%). Under TEM, the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses presented thicker and poorly organized basal cell layer, with large nuclei and dense cytoplasm. In newborn calves, the basal cell layer was more organized and with fewer layers, but typically similar in both regions of the rumen. For the transitory epithelium, fetuses displayed larger cells than those found in newborn calves with less electrondense cytoplasm than that found in the basal cells. The ruminal dorsal portion has an overall higher cell proliferation rate than the ventral portion. Thus we can infer that the dorsal portion may have a higher cell activity than the ventral portion during ruminal development. Moreover, the basal cell layer is thicker in the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses than in the newborn calves. The transitory epithelium, which is much reduced, at birth may have a structural support function of the developing dermal papillae. When it regresses or is sheared off, the papillae are “carved out” from the surrounding epithelial layer.

Keywords: Bovine, Calf, TEM, fetus, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin, epithelium, Rumen

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11 Synthesis and Characterization of Akermanite Nanoparticles (AMN) as a Bio-Ceramic Nano Powder by Sol-Gel Method for Use in Biomedical

Authors: Seyedmahdi Mousavihashemi


Natural Akermanite (NAM) has been successfully prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Optimization in calcination temperature and mechanical ball milling resulted in a pure and nano-sized powder which characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT–IR). We hypothesized that nano-sized Akermanite (AM) would mimic more efficiently the nanocrystal structure and function of natural bone apatite, owing to the higher surface area, compare to conventional micron-size Akermanite (AM). Accordingly, we used the unique advantage of nanotechnology to improve novel nano akermanite particles as a potential candidate for bone tissue regeneration whether as a per implant filling powder or in combination with other biomaterials as a composite scaffold. Pure Akermanite (PAM) powders were successfully obtained via a simple sol-gel method followed by calcination at 1250 °C. Mechanical grinding in a ceramic ball mill for 7 hours resulted in akermanite (AM) nanoparticles in the range of about 30- 45 nm.

Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, SEM, TEM, nano composite

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10 Characterization of Bacteria by a Nondestructive Sample Preparation Method in a TEM System

Authors: J. Shiue, I. H. Chen, S. W. Y. Chiu, Y. L. Wang


In this work, we present a nondestructive method to characterize bacteria in a TEM system. Unlike the conventional TEM specimen preparation method, which needs to thin the specimen in a destructive way, or spread the samples on a tiny millimeter sized carbon grid, our method is easy to operate without the need of sample pretreatment. With a specially designed transparent chip that allows the electron beam to pass through, and a custom made chip holder to fit into a standard TEM sample holder, the bacteria specimen can be easily prepared on the chip without any pretreatment, and then be observed under TEM. The centimeter-sized chip is covered with Au nanoparticles in the surface as the markers which allow the bacteria to be observed easily on the chip. We demonstrate the success of our method by using E. coli as an example, and show that high-resolution TEM images of E. coli can be obtained with the method presented. Some E. coli morphology characteristics imaged using this method are also presented.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Bacteria, TEM, chip

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9 Morphology Analysis of Apple-Carrot Juice Treated by Manothermosonication (MTS) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Processes

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Manothermosonication (MTS), which consists of the simultaneous application of heat and ultrasound under moderate pressure (100-700 kPa), is one of the technologies which destroy microorganisms and inactivates enzymes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through it. The environmental scanning electron microscope or ESEM is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that allows for the option of collecting electron micrographs of specimens that are "wet," uncoated. These microscopy techniques allow us to observe the processing effects on the samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MTS and HTST treatments on the morphology of apple-carrot juices by using TEM and ESEM microscopy. Apple-carrot juices treated with HTST (72 0C, 15 s), MTS 50 °C (60 s, 200 kPa), and MTS 60 °C (30 s, 200 kPa) were observed in both ESEM and TEM microscopy. For TEM analysis, a drop of the solution dispersed in fixative solution was put onto a Parafilm ® sheet. The copper coated side of the TEM sample holder grid was gently laid on top of the droplet and incubated for 15 min. A drop of a 7% uranyl acetate solution was added and held for 2 min. The grid was then removed from the droplet and allowed to dry at room temperature and presented into the TEM. For ESEM analysis, a critical point drying of the filters was performed using a critical point dryer (CPD) (Samdri PVT- 3D, Tousimis Research Corp., Rockville, MD, USA). After the CPD, each filter was mounted onto a stub and coated with gold/palladium with a sputter coater (Desk II TSC Denton Vacuum, Moorestown, NJ, USA). E.Coli O157:H7 cells on the filters were observed with an ESEM (Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG, FEI Co., Eindhoven, The Netherland). ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) images showed extensive damage for the samples treated with MTS at 50 and 60 °C such as ruptured cells and breakage on cell membranes. The damage was increasing with increasing exposure time.

Keywords: TEM, MTS, HTST, ESEM, E.COLI O157:H7

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8 Microscopic Examination of the Pre-Hatching Development of the Chicken Ovary

Authors: Mohamed Alsafy, Samir El-Gendy, Ashraf Karkoura, Doha Shokry


The purpose of the current study was to investigate the development of the chicken ovary. One hundred fertilized egg of Alexandria breed of chicken used. The whole embryo has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH20 (E.3), HH21 (E.3.5), HH23 (E.4), HH29 (E.6) and HH34 (E.8). The ovary has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16), SEM at HH26 (E.5), HH29 (E.6), HH36 (E.10), HH38 (E.12), HH39 (E.13) and HH42 (E.16), TEM at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16). The genital ridge appeared by a thickening of the coelomic epithelium medioventral surface of the developing mesonephroi at HH20 (E.3). The boundaries of the undifferentiating gonads defined clearly separated from the mesonephroi. The undifferentiated gonads bulged as a distinct organ in the coelomic cavity at HH23 (E.4). At the initial stages of the gonadogenesis, the germinal epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium. The PGCs appeared at the genital ridge at HH21 (E.3.5). The PGCs observed at the dorsal mesentery with few microvilli and showed positive PAS reaction due to the glycogen content in their cytoplasm. The left-right gonadal asymmetry firstly detected by the number of PGCs migrating toward the left gonadal ridge more than the right at HH20 (E.3) and the macroscopic examination of gonadal asymmetry began at HH34 (E.8). The left ovary appeared a smooth rod-shape, its stroma showed lipid droplets, and its parenchyma showed an extensive arrangement of interstitial cords at HH42 (E.16).

Keywords: Light Microscopy, Ovary, SEM, TEM, Alexandria chicken

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7 Study of Dispersion of Silica and Chitosan Nanoparticles into Gelatin Film

Authors: Mohit Batra, Noel Sarkar, Jayeeta Mitra


In this study silica nanoparticles were synthesized using different methods and different silica sources namely Tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS), Sodium Silicate, Rice husk while chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with ionic gelation method using Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Size and texture of silica nanoparticles were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with the effect of change in concentration of various reagents in different synthesis processes. Size and dispersion of Silica nanoparticles prepared from TEOS using stobber’s method were found better than other methods while nanoparticles prepared using rice husk were cheaper than other ones. Catalyst found to play a very significant role in controlling the size of nanoparticles in all methods.

Keywords: Bio-Nanocomposites, Gelatin, SEM, chitosan, TEM, silica nanoparticles

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6 Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor

Authors: S. Manjunatha, M. S. Dharmaprakash


Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Photoluminescence, XRD, TEM

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5 Microdiamond and Moissanite Inclusions in Garnets from Pohorje Mountains, Eastern Alps, Slovenia

Authors: Mirijam Vrabec, Marian Janak, Bojan Ambrozic, Angelja K. Surca, Nastja Rogan Smuc, Nina Zupancic, Saso Sturm


Natural microdiamonds and moissanite (SiC) can form during the orogenic events under ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions (UHP), when parts of Earth’s crust are subducted to extreme depths. So far, such processes were identified only in few places on the Earth, and therefore, represent unique opportunity to study the evolution of the Earth’s deep interior. An important discovery of microdiamonds and moissanite was reported from Pohorje, (Slovenia), where they occurred as single or polyphase inclusions in garnets. Metasedimentary rocks from Pohorje are predominantly gneisses representing parts of the Austroalpine metamorphic units of the Eastern Alps. During Cretaceous orogeny, (ca. 95–92 Ma) continental crustal rocks were deeply subducted to the mantle depths (below 100 km) and metamorphosed at pressures exceeding 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 800–850 °C. Microstructural and phase analysis of the inclusions as well as detailed elemental analysis of host garnets were carried out combining several analytical techniques: optical microscope in plane polarized transmitted light, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) and field-emission scanning microscope (FEG-SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micro-Raman analysis revealed sharp, first order diamond bands sometimes accompanied by graphite bands implying that transformation of diamond back to graphite occurred. To study the chemical and crystallographic relationship between microdiamonds and co-inclusions, advanced techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied, which included high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), combined with EDS and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). To prepare electron transparent TEM lamellae selectively a dual-beam Focused Ion Beam/SEM (FIB/SEM) was employed. Detailed study of TEM lamellae, which was cross-sectioned from the highly faceted inclusion body located within the host garnet crystal matrix, revealed rich and rather complex internal structure. Namely, the negative crystal facets of the main inclusion body were typically decorated with up to 1 μm thick amorphous layer, reflecting the general garnet composition with slight variations in Fe/Ca content. Within these layers, ELNES analysis revealed the presence of a 28–30 nm thick layer of amorphous carbon. The very last section of this layer corresponds to composition of SiO2. Within the inclusion, besides diamond and moissanite alumosilicate mineral with pronounced layered structure, iron sulfides and chlorine were identified under TEM and CO2 and CH4 using Raman. Moissanite is found as single crystal or composed from numerous highly textured nano-crystals with the average size of 10 nm. Moissanite inclusions were found embedded inside the amorphous crust implying that moissanite crystalized well before the deposition of the amorphous layer. From the microstructural, crystallographic and chemical observations so far we can deduce, that polyphase inclusions in diamond bearing garnets from Pohorje most probably crystallized from reduced supercritical fluids. Based on layered interface structure of the host mineral multiphase process of crystallization is possible. The presence of microdiamonds and moissanite in rocks from Pohorje demonstrates that these parts of the Eastern Alps were subducted to extreme depths, and were subsequently exhumed back to the Earth's surface without complete breakdown of UHP mineral phases, allowing a rear and exceptional opportunity to study them in-situ.

Keywords: Diamond, TEM, fluid inclusions, moissanite, UHP metamorphism

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4 3D Carbon Structures (Globugraphite) with Hierarchical Pore Morphology for the Application in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hubert Beisch, Janik Marx, Svenja Garlof, Roman Shvets, Ivan Grygorchak, Andriy Kityk, Bodo Fiedler


Three-dimensional carbon materials can be used as electrode materials for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors. Fast charging and discharging times are realizable without reducing the performance due to aging processes. Furthermore high specific surface area (SSA) of three-dimensional carbon structures leads to high specific capacities. One newly developed carbon foam is Globugraphite. This interconnected globular carbon morphology with statistically distributed hierarchical pores is manufactured by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process from ceramic templates resulting from a sintering process. Via scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the morphology is characterized. Moreover, the SSA was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Measurements of Globugraphite in an organic and inorganic electrolyte show high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. A comparison of the specific values is summarized in a Ragone diagram. Energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg and power densities to 833 W/kg could be achieved for an SSA from 376 m²/g to 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte, a specific capacity of 100 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.

Keywords: SEM, TEM, BET, electrochemical cell, carbon foam, CVD process, Ragone diagram

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3 Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Al7075 Reinforced with Graphene-Beryl Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Mohamed Haneef, Shanawaz Patil, Syed Zameer, Mohammed Mohsin Ali


The emerging technologies and trends of present generation requires downsizing the unwieldy structures to light weight structures on one hand and integration of varied properties on other hand to meet the application demands. In the present investigation an attempt is made to familiarize and best possibilities of reinforcing agent in aluminum 7075 matrix with naturally occurring beryl (Be) and graphene (Gr) to develop a new hybrid composite material. A stir casting process was used to fabricate with fixed volume fraction of 6wt% weight beryl and various volume fractions of 0.5wt%, 1wt%, 1.5wt% and 2wt% of graphene. The properties such as tensile strength, hardness and dry sliding wear behavior of hybrid composites were examined. The crystallite size and morphology of the graphene and beryl particles were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. It was observed that ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the hybrid composite increased with increasing reinforcement volume fraction as compared to specimen without reinforcement additions. The dry sliding wear behavior of the hybrid composites decreases as compared to Al7075 alloy without reinforcement.

Keywords: Graphene, Wear, TEM, Beryl, Al7075

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2 The Role of Nickel on the High-Temperature Corrosion of Modell Alloys (Stainless Steels) before and after Breakaway Corrosion at 600°C: A Microstructural Investigation

Authors: Imran Hanif, Amanda Persdotter, Sedigheh Bigdeli, Jesper Liske, Torbjorn Jonsson


Renewable fuels such as biomass/waste for power production is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels in order to achieve a CO₂ -neutral power generation. However, the combustion results in the release of corrosive species. This puts high demands on the corrosion resistance of the alloys used in the boiler. Stainless steels containing nickel and/or nickel containing coatings are regarded as suitable corrosion resistance material especially in the superheater regions. However, the corrosive environment in the boiler caused by the presence of water vapour and reactive alkali very rapidly breaks down the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich oxide scale formed on stainless steels. The lifetime of the components, therefore, relies on the properties of the oxide scale formed after breakaway, i.e., the secondary protection. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of varying nickel content (0–82%) on the high-temperature corrosion of model alloys with 18% Cr (Fe in balance) in the laboratory mimicking industrial conditions at 600°C. The influence of nickel is investigated on both the primary protection and especially the secondary protection, i.e., the scale formed after breakaway, during the oxidation/corrosion process in the dry O₂ (primary protection) and more aggressive environment such as H₂O, K₂CO₃ and KCl (secondary protection). All investigated alloys experience a very rapid loss of the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich (Cr, Fe)₂O₃, and the formation of secondary protection in the aggressive environments. The microstructural investigation showed that secondary protection of all alloys has a very similar microstructure in all more aggressive environments consisting of an outward growing iron oxide and inward growing spinel-oxide (Fe, Cr, Ni)₃O₄. The oxidation kinetics revealed that it is possible to influence the protectiveness of the scale formed after breakaway (secondary protection) through the amount of nickel in the alloy. The difference in oxidation kinetics of the secondary protection is linked to the microstructure and chemical composition of the complex spinel-oxide. The detailed microstructural investigations were carried out using the extensive analytical techniques such as electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDS) via the scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques and results are compared with the thermodynamic calculations using the Thermo-Calc software.

Keywords: High-Temperature Oxidation, SEM, TEM, EBSD, breakaway corrosion

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1 Innovation Potential of Palm Kernel Shells from the Littoral Region in Cameroon

Authors: Marcelle Muriel Domkam Tchunkam, Rolin Feudjio


This work investigates the ultrastructure, physicochemical and thermal properties evaluation of Palm Kernel Shells (PKS). PKS Tenera waste samples were obtained from a palm oil mill in Dizangué Sub-Division, Littoral region of Cameroon, while PKS Dura waste samples were collected from the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) of Mbongo. A sodium hydroxide solution was used to wash the shells. They were then rinsed by demineralised water and dried in an oven at 70 °C during 72 hours. They were then grounded and sieved to obtained powders from 0.04 mm to 0.45 mm in size. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Surface Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterized powder samples. Chemical compounds and elemental constituents, as well as thermal performance were evaluated by Van Soest Method, TEM/EDXA and SEM/EDS techniques. Thermal characterization was also performed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Our results from microstructural analysis revealed that most of the PKS material is made of particles with irregular morphology, mainly amorphous phases of carbon/oxygen with small amounts of Ca, K, and Mg. The DSC data enabled the derivation of the materials’ thermal transition phases and the relevant characteristic temperatures and physical properties. Overall, our data show that PKS have nanopores and show potential in 3D printing and membrane filtration applications.

Keywords: SEM, TEM, DSC, EDXA, palm kernel shells

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