Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Teaching and Learning Related Abstracts

23 Development of Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) for Mobile Learning Implementation in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

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Mobile learning (m-learning) is a new method in teaching and learning process which combines technology of mobile device with learning materials. It can enhance student's engagement in learning activities and facilitate them to access the learning materials at anytime and anywhere. In Kolej Poly-Tech Mara (KPTM), this method is seen as an important effort in teaching practice and to improve student learning performance. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of m-learning application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) to be implemented for Electric and Electronic Fundamentals course using Flash, XML (Extensible Markup Language) and J2ME (Java 2 micro edition). System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) was used as an application development approach. It has three modules in this application such as notes or course material, exercises and video. MEELFS development is seen as a tool or a pilot test for m-learning in KPTM.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Mobile Device, Teaching and Learning, Flash, xml, SDLC

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22 The Need for the Utilization of Instructional Materials on the Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science Education in Developing Countries

Authors: Ogoh Andrew Enokela

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This paper dwelt on the need for the utilization of instructional materials with highlights on the type of instructional materials, selection, uses and their importance on the learning and teaching of Agricultural Science Education in developing countries. It further discussed the concept of improvisation with some recommendation in terms of availability, utilization on the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science Education.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning, Improvisation, instructional materials, agricultural science education

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21 Enhancement of Learning Style in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) via Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

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Mobile communication provides access to the outside world without borders everywhere and at any time. The learning method that related to mobile communication technology is known as mobile learning (M-learning). It is a method that communicates learning materials with mobile device technology. The purpose of this method is to increase the interest in learning among students and assist them in obtaining learning materials at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) in order to improve the student’s performance in their study and to encourage educators to diversify the teaching practices. This paper discusses the student’s awareness for enhancement of learning style using mobile technologies and their readiness to apply the elements of mobile learning in learning to improve performance and interest in learning among students. An application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) has been developed as a tool to be used as a pilot test in KPTM.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Teaching and Learning, awareness, readiness, MEEFLS

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20 Engaging Girls in 'Learn Science by Doing' as Strategy for Enhanced Learning Outcome at the Junior High School Level in Nigeria

Authors: Stella Y. Erinosho

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In an attempt to impact on girls’ interest in science, an instructional package on ‘Learn Science by Doing (LSD)’ was developed to support science teachers in teaching integrated science at the junior secondary level in Nigeria. LSD provides an instructional framework aimed at actively engaging girls in beginners’ science through activities that are discovery-oriented and allow for experiential learning. The goal of this study was to show the impact of application of LSD on girls’ performance and interest in science. The major hypothesis that was tested in the study was that students would exhibit higher learning outcomes (achievement and attitude) in science as effect of exposure to LSD instructional package. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, incorporating four all-girls schools. Three of the schools (comprising six classes) were randomly designated as experimental and one as the control. The sample comprised 357 girls (275 experimental and 82 control) and nine science teachers drawn from the experimental schools. The questionnaire was designed to gather data on students’ background characteristics and their attitude toward science while the cognitive outcomes were measured using tests, both within a group and between groups, the girls who had exposure to LSD exhibited improved cognitive outcomes and more positive attitude towards science compared with those who had conventional teaching. The data are consistent with previous studies indicating that interactive learning activities increase student performance and interest.

Keywords: Active Learning, Teaching and Learning, Nigeria, school science

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19 Educators’ Adherence to Learning Theories and Their Perceptions on the Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning

Authors: Samson T. Obafemi, Seraphin D. Eyono-Obono

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are pervasive nowadays, including in education where they are expected to improve the performance of learners. However, the hope placed in ICTs to find viable solutions to the problem of poor academic performance in schools in the developing world has not yet yielded the expected benefits. This problem serves as a motivation to this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of educators on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning. This aim will be subdivided into two types of research objectives. Objectives on the identification and design of theories and models will be achieved using content analysis and literature review. However, the objective on the empirical testing of such theories and models will be achieved through the survey of educators from different schools in the Pinetown District of the South African Kwazulu-Natal province. SPSS is used to quantitatively analyse the data collected by the questionnaire of this survey using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after assessing the validity and the reliability of the data. The main hypothesis driving this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics of educators’ and their adherence to learning theories on one side, and their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning on the other side, as argued by existing research; but this research views these learning theories under three perspectives: educators’ adherence to self-regulated learning, to constructivism, and to progressivism. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the empirical study except for the demographic factor where teachers’ level of education was found to be the only demographic factor affecting the perceptions of educators on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.

Keywords: e-Learning, Learning theories, Teaching and Learning, Academic Performance

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18 Teacher Trainers’ Motivation in Transformation of Teaching and Learning: The Fun Way Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananthan M. Nadarajah, Noraini Abd Rahim, Amy Wong On Mei

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The purpose of the study is to investigate the level of intrinsic motivation of trainers after attending a Continuous Professional Development Course (CPD) organized by Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia titled, ‘Transformation of Teaching and Learning the Fun Way’. This study employed a survey whereby 96 teacher trainers were given Situational Intrinsic Motivational Scale (SIMS) Instruments. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to get validity of this instrument in local setting. Data were analyzed with SPSS for descriptive statistic. Semi structured interviews were also administrated to collect qualitative data on participants experiences after participating in the two-day fun-filled program. The findings showed that the participants’ level of intrinsic motivation showed higher mean than the amotivation. The results revealed that the intrinsic motivation mean is 19.0 followed by Identified regulation with a mean of 17.4, external regulation 9.7 and amotivation 6.9. The interview data also revealed that the participants were motivated after attending this training program. It can be concluded that this program, which was organized by Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance participants’ level of motivation. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a multidimensional approach to motivation was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more success using the ‘The fun way approach’ in conducting training program in future.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning, Motivation, teacher trainer, SDT

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17 Curriculum Development in South African Higher Education Institutions: Key Considerations

Authors: Cosmas Maphosa, Ndileleni P. Mudzielwana, Lufuno Netshifhefhe

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Core business in a university centers on a curriculum. Teaching, learning, assessment and university products all have a bearing on the curriculum. In this discussion paper, the researchers engage in theoretical underpinnings of curriculum development in universities in South Africa. The paper is hinged on the realization that meaningful curriculum development is only possible if academic staff member has a thorough understanding of curriculum, curriculum design principles, and processes. Such understanding should be informed by theory. In this paper, the researchers consider curriculum, curriculum orientations, and the role of learning outcomes in curriculum development. Important and key considerations in module/course design are discussed and relevant examples given. The issue of alignment, as an important aspect of module/course design, is also explained and exemplified. Conclusions and recommendations are made.

Keywords: Knowledge, Curriculum Development, Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, Competencies, graduate attributes

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16 Comparative Outlook of Teacher Education in Nigeria and India

Authors: Muhammad Badamasi Abdullahi

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Teacher education, both pre- and in-service programs, is offered in many countries of the world by different teacher education institutions as declared in the Policies on Education of the countries. However, differences exist from one country to another as a result of some factors peculiar to them. Notwithstanding, there also exist similarities among them in regard to teacher education. This paper is expected to dig into teacher education programs in Nigeria and India so that areas of similarities and differences would be highlighted as well as provide a venue for possible recommendation of both countries to learn from one another. All this is directed towards providing a no -border approach in enhancing effective teaching and learning.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Teaching and Learning, pre-service, in-service

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15 Evaluation of Sustained Improvement in Trauma Education Approaches for the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Trauma Nursing Program

Authors: Pauline Calleja, Brooke Alexander

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In 2010 the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia (CENA) undertook sole administration of the Trauma Nursing Program (TNP) across Australia. The original TNP was developed from recommendations by the Review of Trauma and Emergency Services-Victoria. While participant and faculty feedback about the program was positive, issues were identified that were common for industry training programs in Australia. These issues included didactic approaches, with many lectures and little interaction/activity for participants. Participants were not necessarily encouraged to undertake deep learning due to the teaching and learning principles underpinning the course, and thus participants described having to learn by rote, and only gain a surface understanding of principles that were not always applied to their working context. In Australia, a trauma or emergency nurse may work in variable contexts that impact on practice, especially where resources influence scope and capacity of hospitals to provide trauma care. In 2011, a program review was undertaken resulting in major changes to the curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment approaches. The aim was to improve learning including a greater emphasis on pre-program preparation for participants, the learning environment and clinically applicable contextualized outcomes participants experienced. Previously if participants wished to undertake assessment, they were given a take home examination. The assessment had poor uptake and return, and provided no rigor since assessment was not invigilated. A new assessment structure was enacted with an invigilated examination during course hours. These changes were implemented in early 2012 with great improvement in both faculty and participant satisfaction. This presentation reports on a comparison of participant evaluations collected from courses post implementation in 2012 and in 2015 to evaluate if positive changes were sustained. Methods: Descriptive statistics were applied in analyzing evaluations. Since all questions had more than 20% of cells with a count of <5, Fisher’s Exact Test was used to identify significance (p = <0.05) between groups. Results: A total of fourteen group evaluations were included in this analysis, seven CENA TNP groups from 2012 and seven from 2015 (randomly chosen). A total of 173 participant evaluations were collated (n = 81 from 2012 and 92 from 2015). All course evaluations were anonymous, and nine of the original 14 questions were applicable for this evaluation. All questions were rated by participants on a five-point Likert scale. While all items showed improvement from 2012 to 2015, significant improvement was noted in two items. These were in regard to the content being delivered in a way that met participant learning needs and satisfaction with the length and pace of the program. Evaluation of written comments supports these results. Discussion: The aim of redeveloping the CENA TNP was to improve learning and satisfaction for participants. These results demonstrate that initial improvements in 2012 were able to be maintained and in two essential areas significantly improved. Changes that increased participant engagement, support and contextualization of course materials were essential for CENA TNP evolution.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning, trauma education, emergency nursing education, industry training programs

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14 Experiences of Students in a Cultural Competence Learning Project in Hong Kong- Themes from Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Diana Kwok

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Introduction: There is a rising concern on the educational needs of school guidance teachers, counselors, and sex educators to work effectively with students from multicultural groups, such as racial minorities, gender minorities, sexual minorities, and disability groups etc., and to respect cultural diversities. A specialized training model, the multicultural framework based on contact theory is recognized as necessary training model for professional training programs. Methodology: While the major focus of this project is on improving teaching and learning in teacher training courses within the department of Special Education and Counselling, it specifically aims to enhance the cultural competence of 102 participants enrolled in counseling and sexuality education courses by integrating the following teaching and learning strategies: 1) Panel presentation; 2) Case studies; 3) Experiential learning. Data sources from the participants consisted of the following: (a) questionnaires (MCKAS and ATLG) administered in classes; (b) weekly reflective journals, and c) focus group interviews with panel members. The focus group interviews with panel members were documented. Qualitatively, the weekly reflections were content analyzed. The presentation in this specific conference put focus on themes we found from qualitative content analysis of weekly reflective journals from 102 participants. Findings: Content analysis had found the following preliminary emergent themes: Theme I) Cultural knowledge and challenges to personal limitation. Students had gained a new perspective that specific cultural knowledge involved unique values and worldview. Awareness of limitation of counsellors is very important after actively acquiring the cultural knowledge. Theme 2 - Observation, engagement and active learning. Through the sharing and case studies, as well as visits to the communities, students recognized that observation and listening to the needs of cultural group members were the essential steps before taking any intervention steps. Theme 3 - Curiosity and desire for further inter-group dialogue. All students expressed their desire, curiosity, and motivation to have further inter-group dialogue in their future work settings. Theme 4: Experience with teaching and learning strategies. Students shared their perspectives on how teaching and learning strategies had facilitated their acquisition of cultural competence. Results of this analysis suggests that diverse teaching and learning strategies based on contact perspective had stimulated their curiosity to re-examine their values and motivated them to acquire cultural knowledge relevant to the cultural groups. Acknowledgment: The teaching and learning project was funded by the Teaching and Development Grant, Hong Kong Institute of Education (Project Number T0142).

Keywords: Cultural Competence, Teaching and Learning, Chinese teacher students, contacts

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13 The Integration of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of French Language in Some Selected Schools in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Oluyomi A. Abioye

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The 21st century has been witnessing a lot of technological advancements and innovations, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) happens to be one of them. Education is the cornerstone of any nation and the language in which it is delivered is the bedrock of any development. The French language is our choice in this study. French is a language of reference on the national and international scenes; however its teaching is clouded with myriads of problems. The output of students’ academic performance depends on to a large extent on the teaching and learning the process. The methodology employed goes a long way in contributing to the effectiveness of the teaching and learning the process. Therefore, with the integration of ICT, French teaching has to align with and adapt to this new digital era. An attempt is made to define the concept of ICT. Some of the challenges encountered in the teaching of French language are highlighted. Then it discusses the existing methods of French teaching and the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of the same language. Then some prospects and challenges of ICT in the teaching and learning of French are discussed. Data collected from questionnaires administered among some students of some selected schools are analysed. Our findings revealed that only very few schools in Nigeria have the electronic and computer-mediated facilities to teach the French language. The paper concludes by encouraging 'savoir-faire' of ICT by the French teachers, an openness of students to this digital technology and adequate provision of electronic and computer-mediated gadgets by the Nigerian government to its educational institutions.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning, French language in Nigeria, integration of ICT, prospects and challenges

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12 Metaphors Underlying Idiomatic Expressions in Trilingual Perspective: Contributions to the Teaching of Lexicon and to Materials Development

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino

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Idiomatic expressions are linguistic phraseologisms present in natural languages. Known to be metaphorical linguistic combinations, a good majority of them provide elements that reveal important cultural aspects of their linguistic community through their metaphors. With the advent of Cognitive Linguistics (more specifically of Cognitive Semantics), the metaphor ceased to be related to poetic language and rhetorical embellishment and came to be seen as part of simple everyday language, reflecting the way human beings think, act and conceive reality, i. e., a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. In this sense, it came to be conceived as an inevitable mechanism for representing the nature of thought and language. The speakers, in conceptualizing reality, often use metaphorically parts of the body in expressions known as somatic. Several conceptual metaphors appear to be potentially universal or near-universal, because people across the world share certain bodily experiences. In these terms, many linguistic metaphors may be identical or very similar in several languages. These similarities, according to the Theory of Conceptual Metaphor, derive from universal aspects of the human body. Thus, this research aims to investigate the nature of some metaphors underlying somatic idiomatic expressions of Portuguese, Italian and English languages, establishing a pattern of similarities and differences among them from a trilingual perspective. The analysis shows that much of the studied expressions are really structurally, semantically and metaphorically identical or similar in the three languages. These findings incite relevant discussions concerning mother and foreign language learning and aim to contribute to the teaching of phraseological Lexicon as well as to materials development in mono and multilingual perspectives.

Keywords: Materials Development, Teaching and Learning, Metaphors, idiomatic expressions, phraseological lexicon

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11 Strategies for Incorporating Intercultural Intelligence into Higher Education

Authors: Hyoshin Kim

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Most post-secondary educational institutions have offered a wide variety of professional development programs and resources in order to advance the quality of education. Such programs are designed to support faculty members by focusing on topics such as course design, behavioral learning objectives, class discussion, and evaluation methods. These are based on good intentions and might help both new and experienced educators. However, the fundamental flaw is that these ‘effective methods’ are assumed to work regardless of what we teach and whom we teach. This paper is focused on intercultural intelligence and its application to education. It presents a comprehensive literature review on context and cultural diversity in terms of beliefs, values and worldviews. What has worked well with a group of homogeneous local students may not work well with more diverse and international students. It is because students hold different notions of what is means to learn or know something. It is necessary for educators to move away from certain sets of generic teaching skills, which are based on a limited, particular view of teaching and learning. The main objective of the research is to expand our teaching strategies by incorporating what students bring to the course. There have been a growing number of resources and texts on teaching international students. Unfortunately, they tend to be based on the deficiency model, which treats diversity not as strengths, but as problems to be solved. This view is evidenced by the heavy emphasis on assimilationist approaches. For example, cultural difference is negatively evaluated, either implicitly or explicitly. Therefore the pressure is on culturally diverse students. The following questions reflect the underlying assumption of deficiencies: - How can we make them learn better? - How can we bring them into the mainstream academic culture?; and - How can they adapt to Western educational systems? Even though these questions may be well-intended, there seems to be something fundamentally wrong as the assumption of cultural superiority is embedded in this kind of thinking. This paper examines how educators can incorporate intercultural intelligence into the course design by utilizing a variety of tools such as pre-course activities, peer learning and reflective learning journals. The main goal is to explore ways to engage diverse learners in all aspects of learning. This can be achieved by activities designed to understand their prior knowledge, life experiences, and relevant cultural identities. It is crucial to link course material to students’ diverse interests thereby enhancing the relevance of course content and making learning more inclusive. Internationalization of higher education can be successful only when cultural differences are respected and celebrated as essential and positive aspects of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning, Post-Secondary Education, intercultural competence, intercultural intelligence

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10 Implementation of Student-Centered Learning Approach in Building Surveying Course

Authors: Amal A. Abdel-Sattar

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The curriculum of architecture department in Prince Sultan University includes ‘Building Surveying’ course which is usually a part of civil engineering courses. As a fundamental requirement of the course, it requires a strong background in mathematics and physics, which are not usually preferred subjects to the architecture students and many of them are not giving the required and necessary attention to these courses during their preparation year before commencing their architectural study. This paper introduces the concept and the methodology of the student-centered learning approach in the course of building surveying for architects. One of the major outcomes is the improvement in the students’ involvement in the course and how this will cover and strength their analytical weak points and improve their mathematical skills. The study is conducted through three semesters with a total number of 99 students. The effectiveness of the student-centered learning approach is studied using the student survey at the end of each semester and teacher observations. This survey showed great acceptance of the students for these methods. Also, the teachers observed a great improvement in the students’ mathematical abilities and how keener they became in attending the classes which were clearly reflected on the low absence record.

Keywords: Architecture, Teaching and Learning, Building Surveying, Student-Centered Learning

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9 Examining the Teaching and Learning Needs of Science and Mathematics Educators in South Africa

Authors: M. Shaheed Hartley

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There has been increasing pressure on education researchers and practitioners at higher education institutions to focus on the development of South Africa’s rural and peri-urban communities and improving their quality of life. Many tertiary institutions are obliged to review their outreach interventions in schools. To ensure that the support provided to schools is still relevant, a systemic evaluation of science educator needs is central to this process. These prioritised needs will serve as guide not only for the outreach projects of tertiary institutions, but also to service providers in general so that the process of addressing educators needs become coordinated, organised and delivered in a systemic manner. This paper describes one area of a broader needs assessment exercise to collect data regarding the needs of educators in a district of 45 secondary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This research focuses on the needs and challenges faced by science educators at these schools as articulated by the relevant stakeholders. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to create a data base that will capture the needs and challenges identified by science educators of the selected secondary schools; and (2) to develop a needs profile for each of the participating secondary schools that will serve as a strategic asset to be shared with the various service providers as part of a community of practice whose core business is to support science educators and science education at large. The data was collected by a means of a needs assessment questionnaire (NAQ) which was developed in both actual and preferred versions. An open-ended questionnaire was also administered which allowed teachers to express their views. The categories of the questionnaire were predetermined by participating researchers, educators and education department officials. Group interviews were also held with the science teachers at each of the schools. An analysis of the data revealed important trends in terms of science educator needs and identified schools that can be clustered around priority needs, logistic reasoning and educator profiles. The needs database also provides opportunity for the community of practice to strategise and coordinate their interventions.

Keywords: Evaluation, Teaching and Learning, South Africa, needs assessment, science and mathematics education

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8 Stimulating Effects of Media in Improving Quality of Distance Education: A Literature Based Study

Authors: Tahzeeb Mahreen

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Distance education refers to giving instruction in which students are remote from the institution and once in a while go to formal demonstration classes, and teaching sessions. Segments of media, for example, radio, TV, PC and Internet and so on are the assets and method for correspondence being utilized as a part of learning material by many open and distance learning institutions. Media has a great part in maximizing the learning opportunities thus enabling distance education, a mode of increased literacy rate of the country. This study goes for analyzing how media had affected distance education through its different mediums. The objectives of the study were (i) to determine the direct impact of media on distance education? (ii) To know how media effects distance education pedagogy (iii) To find out how media works to increase student’s achievement. Literature-based methodology was used, and books, peer-reviewed articles, press reports and internet-based materials were studied as a result. By using descriptive qualitative research analysis, the researcher has interpreted that distance education programs are progressively utilizing mixes of media to convey training that has a positive impact on learning along with a few challenges. In addition, the perception of the researcher varied depending on the programs of distance learning but generally believed that electronic media were moderately more supportive in enhancing the overall performance of the learners. It was concluded that the intellectual style, identity qualities, and self-expectations are the three primary enhanced areas in a student’s educational life in distance education programs. It was portrayed that a comprehension of how individual learners approach learning may make it workable for the distance educator to see an example of learning styles and arrange or modify course presentations through media. Moreover, it is noticed that teaching in distance education address the developing role of the instructor, the requirement for diminishing resistance as conventional teachers utilize remove conveyance frameworks lastly, staff state of mind toward the utilization of innovation. Furthermore, the results showed that media had assumed its part to make distance learning educators more dynamic, capable and concerned about their individual works. The study also indicated a high positive relationship between the media available at study centers and media used by the distance education. The challenge pointed out by the researcher was the clash of distance and time with communication as the life situations of every learner are varied. Recommendations included the realization of the duty of distance learning instructor to help students understand the effective use of media for their study lessons and also to develop online learning communities to be in instant connection with the students.

Keywords: Education, Media, Distance Education, Teaching and Learning

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7 Design of a Professional Development Framework in Teaching and Learning for Engineering Educators

Authors: Jen Harvey, Orla McConnell, Cormac MacMahon

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Ireland’s national professional development framework for those who teach in higher education, aims to provide guidance and leadership in the planning, developing and engaging in professional development practices. A series of pilot projects have been initiated to help explore the framework’s likely utility and acceptance by educators and their institutions. These projects require engagement with staff in the interpretation and adaption of the framework within their working contexts. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of one such project with engineering educators at three Institutes of Technology seeking designation as a technological university. The initiative aims to gain traction in the acceptance of the framework with the engineering education community by linking core and discipline-specific teaching and learning competencies with professional development activities most valued by engineering educators. Informed by three strands of literature: professional development in higher education; engineering education; and teaching and learning training provisions, the project begins with a survey of all those involved in teaching and learning in engineering across the three institutes. Based on engagement with key stakeholders, subsequent qualitative research informs the contextualization of the national framework for discipline-specific and institutional piloting. The paper concludes by exploring engineering educator perceptions of the national framework’s utility based on their engagement with the pilot process. Feedback from the pilot indicates that there is a significant gap between the professional development needs of engineering educators and the current professional development provision in teaching and learning.

Keywords: Professional Development, Engineering Education, Teaching and Learning, pilot

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6 The Importance of Changing the Traditional Mode of Higher Education in Bangladesh: Creating Huge Job Opportunities for Home and Abroad

Authors: M. M. Shahidul Hassan, Omiya Hassan

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Bangladesh has set its goal to reach upper middle-income country status by 2024. To attain this status, the country must satisfy the World Bank requirement of achieving minimum Gross National Income (GNI). Number of youth job seekers in the country is increasing. University graduates are looking for decent jobs. So, the vital issue of this country is to understand how the GNI and jobs can be increased. The objective of this paper is to address these issues and find ways to create more job opportunities for youths at home and abroad which will increase the country’s GNI. The paper studies proportion of different goods Bangladesh exported, and also the percentage of employment in different sectors. The data used here for the purpose of analysis have been collected from the available literature. These data are then plotted and analyzed. Through these studies, it is concluded that growth in sectors like agricultural, ready-made garments (RMG), jute industries and fisheries are declining and the business community is not interested in setting up capital-intensive industries. Under this situation, the country needs to explore other business opportunities for a higher economic growth rate. Knowledge can substitute the physical resource. Since the country consists of the large youth population, higher education will play a key role in economic development. It now needs graduates with higher-order skills with innovative quality. Such dispositions demand changes in a university’s curriculum, teaching and assessment method which will function young generations as active learners and creators. By bringing these changes in higher education, a knowledge-based society can be created. The application of such knowledge and creativity will then become the commodity of Bangladesh which will help to reach its goal as an upper middle-income country.

Keywords: Higher Education, Teaching and Learning, Economic growth, Knowledge-Based Economy, Bangladesh, economic sectors, massifcation of higher education, universities’ role in society

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5 Evaluation of Massive Open Online Course in a Rural Marginalized Area: Case Study of Alice Community, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Dare Ebenezer Fatumo, Olusesan Emmanuel Adelabu

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Online learning has taken another dimension through the introduction of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), it has also become an important resource base for teaching and learning. This research aimed at investigating the use of Massive Open Online Course in a rural marginalized area. The survey research design of descriptive nature was adopted to evaluate the awareness and usage of Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) in Alice community, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This study also employed quantitative approach by using self-structured questionnaire to evoke information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings revealed amongst others the efficacy of Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) in fostering teaching and learning in rural marginalized areas. This study concludes that MOOCs is a veritable medium for busy or less privileged individual to acquire a degree or certification. Therefore, the study recommends MOOCs platform to be fully embraced by people in rural marginalized areas, awareness programs about its usefulness should be propagated across the municipalities nationwide.

Keywords: Online Learning, Distance Learning, Information and Communication Technology, Teaching and Learning, massive open online course

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4 Professional Learning, Professional Development and Academic Identity of Sessional Teachers: Underpinning Theoretical Frameworks

Authors: Aparna Datey

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This paper explores the theoretical frameworks underpinning professional learning, professional development, and academic identity. The focus is on sessional teachers (also called tutors or adjuncts) in architectural design studios, who may be practitioners, masters or doctoral students and academics hired ‘as needed’. Drawing from Schön’s work on reflective practice, learning and developmental theories of Vygotsky (social constructionism and zones of proximal development), informal and workplace learning, this research proposes that sessional teachers not only develop their teaching skills but also shape their identities through their 'everyday' work. Continuing academic staff develop their teaching through a combination of active teaching, self-reflection on teaching, as well as learning to teach from others via formalised programs and informally in the workplace. They are provided professional development and recognised for their teaching efforts through promotion, student citations, and awards for teaching excellence. The teaching experiences of sessional staff, by comparison, may be discontinuous and they generally have fewer opportunities and incentives for teaching development. In the absence of access to formalised programs, sessional teachers develop their teaching informally in workplace settings that may be supportive or unhelpful. Their learning as teachers is embedded in everyday practice applying problem-solving skills in ambiguous and uncertain settings. Depending on their level of expertise, they understand how to teach a subject such that students are stimulated to learn. Adult learning theories posit that adults have different motivations for learning and fall into a matrix of readiness, that an adult’s ability to make sense of their learning is shaped by their values, expectations, beliefs, feelings, attitudes, and judgements, and they are self-directed. The level of expertise of sessional teachers depends on their individual attributes and motivations, as well as on their work environment, the good practices they acquire and enhance through their practice, career training and development, the clarity of their role in the delivery of teaching, and other factors. The architectural design studio is ideal for study due to the historical persistence of the vocational learning or apprenticeship model (learning under the guidance of experts) and a pedagogical format using two key approaches: project-based problem solving and collaborative learning. Hence, investigating the theoretical frameworks underlying academic roles and informal professional learning in the workplace would deepen understanding of their professional development and how they shape their academic identities. This qualitative research is ongoing at a major university in Australia, but the growing trend towards hiring sessional staff to teach core courses in many disciplines is a global one. This research will contribute to including transient sessional teachers in the discourse on institutional quality, effectiveness, and student learning.

Keywords: pedagogy, Teaching and Learning, academic identity, architectural design learning, sessional teachers

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3 The Implications in the Use of English as the Medium of Instruction in Business Management Courses at Vavuniya Campus

Authors: Jeyaseelan Gnanaseelan, Subajana Jeyaseelan

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The paper avails, in a systemic form, some of the results of the investigation into nature, functions, problems, and implications in the use of English as the medium of Instruction (EMI) in the Business Management courses at Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna, located in the conflict-affected northern part of Sri Lanka. It is a case study of the responses of the students and the teachers from Tamil and Sinhala language communities of the Faculty of Business Studies. This paper analyzes the perceptions on the use of the medium, the EMI background, resources available and accessible, language abilities of the teachers and learners, learning style and pedagogy, the EMI methodology, the socio-economic and socio-political contexts typical of a non-native English learning context. The analysis is quantitative and qualitative. It finds out the functional perspective of the EMI in Sri Lanka and suggests practical strategies of contextualization and acculturation in the EMI organization and positions. The paper assesses the learner and teacher capacity in the use of English. The ethnic conflict and linguistic politics in Sri Lanka have contributed multiple factors to the current use of English as the medium. It has conflicted with its domestic realities and the globalization trends of the world at large which determines efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: Business Management, English, Teaching and Learning, medium of instruction

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2 Evaluating Learning Outcomes in the Implementation of Flipped Teaching Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Huie-Wen Lin

Abstract:

This study integrated various teaching factors -based on the idea of a flipped classroom- in a financial management course. The study’s aim was to establish an effective teaching implementation strategy and evaluation mechanism with respect to learning outcomes, which can serve as a reference for the future modification of teaching methods. This study implemented a teaching method in five stages and estimated the learning efficiencies of 22 students (in the teaching scenario and over two semesters). Subsequently, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to compare, for each student, between the learning efficiencies before and after participation in the flipped classroom -in the first and second semesters, respectively- to identify the crucial external factors influencing learning efficiency. According to the results, the average overall student learning efficiency increased from 0.901 in the first semester to 0.967 in the second semester, which demonstrate that the flipped classroom approach can improve teaching effectiveness and learning outcomes. The results also revealed a difference in learning efficiency between male and female students.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Teaching and Learning, Flipped Classroom, learning outcome

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1 Using E-learning in a Tertiary Institution during Community Outbreak of COVID-19 in Hong Kong

Authors: Susan Ka Yee Chow

Abstract:

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reached Hong Kong in 2019 resulting in epidemic in late January 2020. Considering the epidemic development, tertiary institutions made announcements that all on-campus classes were suspended since 01/29/2020. In Tung Wah College, e-learning was adopted in all courses for all programmes. For the undergraduate nursing students, the contact hours and curriculum are bounded by the Nursing Council of Hong Kong to ensure core competence after graduation. Unlike the usual e-learning where students are allowed having flexibility of time and place in their learning, real time learning mode using Blackboard was used to mimic the actual classroom learning environment. Students were required to attend classes according to the timetable using online platform. For lectures, voice over PowerPoint file was the initial step for mass lecturing. Real time lecture was then adopted to improve interactions between teacher and students. Post-lecture quizzes were developed to monitor the effectiveness of lecture delivery. The seminars and tutorials were conducted using real time mode where students were separated into small groups with interactive discussions with teacher within the group. Live time demonstrations were conducted during laboratory sessions. All teaching sessions were audio/video recorded for students’ referral. The assessments including seminar presentation and debate were retained. The learning mode creates an atmosphere for students to display the visual, audio and written works in a non-threatening atmosphere. Other students could comment using text or direct voice as they desired. Real time online learning is the pedagogy to replace classroom contacts in the emergent and unforeseeable circumstances. The learning pace and interaction between students and students with teacher are maintained. The learning mode has the advantage of creating an effective and beneficial learning experience.

Keywords: e-Learning, Teaching and Learning, nursing curriculum, real time mode

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