Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Teacher Education Related Abstracts

38 Pre-Service Teachers’ Opinions on Disabled People

Authors: Sinem Toraman, Aysun Öztuna Kaplan, Hatice Mertoğlu, Esra Macaroğlu Akgül

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This study aims to examine pre-service teachers’ opinions on disabled people taking into consideration various variables. The participants of the study are composed of 170 pre-service teachers being 1st year students of different branches at Education Department of Yıldız Technical, Yeditepe, Marmara and Sakarya Universities. Data of the research was collected in 2013-2014 fall term. This study was designed as a phenomenological study appropriately qualitative research paradigm. Pre-service teachers’ opinions about disabled people were examined in this study, open ended question form which was prepared by researcher and focus group interview techniques were used as data collection tool. The study presents pre-service teachers’ opinions about disabled people which were mentioned, and suggestions about teacher education.

Keywords: Teacher Education, pre-service teachers, disabled people, teachers' opinions

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37 Towards Appreciating Knowing Body in the Future Schools: Developing Methods for School Teachers to Understand the Role of the Body in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Johanna Aromaa

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This paper presents a development project aimed at enhancing student-teachers' awareness of the role of the body in teaching and learning. In this project, theory and practice are brought into dialogue through workshops of body work that utilize art-based and somatic methods. They are carried out in a special course for educating teachers in a Finnish University. Expected results from the project include: 1) the participants become aware of the multiple roles that the body has in educational encounters, and with it, develop a more holistic approach to teaching and learning, 2) the participants gain access to and learn to form bodily knowledge, 3) a working model on enhancing student-teachers' awareness of the role of bodily knowledge in teacher’s work is developed. Innovative methods as well as a radical rethinking of the nature of teaching and learning are needed if we are to appreciate knowing body in the future schools.

Keywords: Teacher Education, the Body, bodily knowledge, somatic methods

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36 Mentor and Peer Feed-Back on Micro-Teaching: As a Tool for Enhancing of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Practices

Authors: Ümit Duruk, Ayhan Cinici, Mustafa Ozden, Gulden Akdag

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The purpose of this study was to investigate how feedbacks left from two different sources (mentors and peers) during microteaching sessions effecting preservice teachers’ teaching skills and views on science teaching. Sampling process is twofold in the study. As part of qualitative research, among other counterparts, case study method was chosen and respectively, constructed six working groups in which there were six preservice teachers, totally from thirty six preservice teachers enrolled in the third grade of Elementary Education Department by random assignment. Subsequently, one preservice teacher from all groups was appointed as the moderator of those groups (totally six moderators). Rest of them taking part remained as audience in all groups. At the beginning of the instructional process, all participants were asked to watch some videos by which someone already recorded. After watching these videos, they were also given a chance to discuss their ideas and impressions regarding microteaching in the classroom atmosphere. Both academic staff as mentors and participants as preservice teachers took role in the process of determining which teaching skills would be taken into consideration as part of microteaching sessions. Each group were gathered at regular intervals throughout twelve weeks together with their mentor who guided them and performed their microteaching. Data was collected using reflective diaries by which researchers constructed for both preservice teachers playing role as teacher of the group and preservice teachers playing role as audience during these microteaching sessions. Semi structured interviews were also carried out with only preservice teachers playing role as teachers of the groups. Findings from these reflective diaries and semi structured interviews were analysed by descriptive statistics and content analysis method. With regard to these findings, explanatory themes and subthemes were categorized and supported by direct citations. The results reveal that preservice teachers playing role as the teachers of the each group consider “content knowledge” as the most important aspect among other teaching skills. Furthermore, preservice teachers also point out that the more they get feedback on any teaching skill, the more they get motivated to develop it.

Keywords: Teacher Education, microteaching, mentor, peer feedback

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35 Teacher Education: Exploring the Challenges of the Teaching Profession in Nigeria for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Ugabi John Ibak, Odey Boniface Ugbem

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Education is considered the bedrock of any meaningful developments and teacher education plays a critical role in this direction. Teacher education is the master keys that can alleviate poverty, promote peace, conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help achieve all round sustain enable development in Nigeria and the world over. This paper X-rays the nature and character of the teaching profession, historical background to teacher education in Nigeria, national policy on education, problems of teacher education in Nigeria and prospects of teacher education for sustainable national development. The study shows that the misfortunes of the teacher education owes much to it historical antecedent. Also majorly, is the failure of government to adequately fund education at the various levels in the country. It was discovered that in the history of the nation no government has budgeted 13% of its annual budget (half of 26% UNESCO minimum) to education. This has resulted to poor infrastructure, inadequate equipment and poorly motivated personnel in all the nations public schools at all levels. Hence, the paper concludes that in spite of these overwhelming challenges, teachers have a lot of prospects both in the teaching profession and outside teaching.

Keywords: Education, Development, Teacher Education, teaching profession, sustainable national development

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34 21st Century Teacher Image to Stakeholders of Teacher Education Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Marilyn U. Balagtas, Maria Ruth M. Regalado, Carmelina E. Barrera, Ramer V. Oxiño, Rosarito T. Suatengco, Josephine E. Tondo

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This study presents the perceptions of the students and teachers from kindergarten to tertiary level of the image of the 21st century teacher to provide basis in designing teacher development programs in Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The highlights of the report are the personal, psychosocial, and professional images of the 21st century teacher in basic education and the teacher educators based on a survey done to 612 internal stakeholders of nine member institutions of the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). Data were obtained through the use of a validated researcher-made instrument which allowed generation of both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the teacher image. Through the use of descriptive statistics, the common images of the teacher were drawn, which were validated and enriched by the information drawn from the qualitative data. The study recommends a repertoire of teacher development programs to create the good image of the 21st century teachers for a better Philippines.

Keywords: Teacher Education, teacher image, development program

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33 Professional Development of Pre-Service Teachers: The Case of Practicum Experience

Authors: G. Lingam, N. Lingam, K. Raghuwaiya

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The reported study focuses on pre-service teachers’ professional development during the teaching practice. The cohort studied comprised participants in their final year in the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science with Graduate Certificate in Education programmes of a university in Fiji. Analysis of the data obtained using a survey questionnaire indicates that overall, the pre-service teachers were satisfied with the practicum experience. This is assumed to demonstrate that the practicum experience contributed well towards their professional preparation for work expected of them in Fiji secondary schools. Participants also identified some concerns as needing attention. To conclude, the paper provides suggestions for improving the preparation of teachers by strengthening the identified areas of the practicum offered by the university. The study has implications for other teacher education providers in small developing island states and even beyond for the purpose of enhancing learning in student teachers’ for future work.

Keywords: Teacher Education, pre-service, practicum, teachers’ world of work, student teachers

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32 Teacher Education and Curriculum Innovation in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives

Authors: Kenneth Uzochukwu Ezugwu

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The quest for adequate teacher education is a serious task for the educational system in Nigeria because teachers are the major translators of education programmes in the classroom. The production of well trained teachers will enhance quality of the products of the school system. It is in this respect that the national policy on education posited that no educational system can rise above the quality of teachers. It is in the light of the above that this paper discusses and brought to the fore certain issues as the re-introduction of teacher training colleges, competitive entry requirement into teacher education and continuous on-the-job training as areas of needed innovation.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Issues, Perspectives, Curriculum Innovation

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31 Using a Simulated Learning Environment to Teach Pre-Service Special Educators Behavior Management

Authors: Roberta Gentry

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A mixed methods study that examined candidate’s perceptions of the use of computerized simulation as an effective tool to learn classroom management will be presented. The development, implementation, and assessment of the simulation and candidate data on the feasibility of the approach in comparison to other methods will be presented.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Simulations, Behavior Management, teacher preparation

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30 Using Computer Simulations to Prepare Teachers

Authors: Roberta Gentry

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The presentation will begin with a brief literature review of the use of computer simulation in teacher education programs. This information will be summarized. Additionally, based on the literature review, advantages and disadvantages of using computer simulation in higher education will be shared. Finally, a study in which computer simulations software was used with 50 initial licensure teacher candidates in both an introductory course and a behavior management course will be shared. Candidates reflected on their experiences with using computer simulation. The instructor of the course will also share lessons learned.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Educational Research, Simulations, teacher preparation

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29 Contemporary Issues in Teacher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Salisu Abdu Bagga

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This paper attempts to discuss contemporary issues in teacher education and address challenges therein within the context of the Nigeria society. Teacher education is an educational programme aimed at producing the right crop of people (teachers) who will teach at various levels of schooling i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The programme targets to inculcate desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and competencies in teachers with the prime motive of keeping them fully abreast with contemporary challenges such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate instructional materials, ineffective teaching methodology in the teaching industry in Nigeria. Nigeria needs competent, skilful, knowledgeable and innovative classroom teachers for better teaching and learning.

Keywords: Higher Education, Teacher Education, Competencies, contemporary issues

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28 The Need for Educational Psychology in Teacher Education for Sustainable Transformation and Security in Nigeria

Authors: Kaltume Kabir Sharrif

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Teacher education is the bedrock of educational growth and development of any nation. With development in education all human problems can be overcome. Educational Psychology, on the other hand, is in a strategic position for any programme in teacher education to be successful hence other aspects of societal issues. In other words, no teacher education can be of any help in ensuring transformation and security without adequate study in Educational Psychology. Without adequate knowledge and skills in Educational Psychology the teacher may not function effectively in the course of discharging his duty. It is in view of this, that the paper discusses some aspects of Educational Psychology that are of paramount importance in teacher education for sustainable transformation and security of Nigeria. Some recommendations were offered on the role educational psychology play in resolving security challenges facing the country. These include enriching educational psychology with topics from forensic psychology that will provide the teacher the skills of fighting crime in the school, Behavioural Science Unit should be established in each school to monitor the behavior of students, among others.

Keywords: Educational Psychology, Teacher Education, Transformation, security challenges

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27 Discerning Beginning Teachers' Conceptions of Competence through a Phenomenographic Investigation

Authors: Pauline Swee Choo Goh, Kung Teck Wong

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The research reported here investigates variation in beginning teachers’ early experiences of their own teaching competency. A phenomenographic research approach was used to show the qualitatively different ways teacher competence was understood amongst beginning teachers in Malaysia. Phenomenographic interviews were conducted with 18 beginning teachers who had started full time teaching for between 1-3 years. Analysis revealed that beginning teachers ‘saw’, ‘understood’ the conceptions of competency in five different ways: i) the ability to manage classroom and student behavior, ii) a strong knowledge of the subject content, iii) the ability to reach out for assistance and support, iv) understanding the students they teach, and v) possessing values of professionalism. The relationships between these different ways are represented diagrammatically. This investigation gives an insider’s perspective a strong voice of what constitutes teacher competence, as well as illustrates that if teacher competence is to be used for any articulation of teacher standards, the term must be carefully defined through the help of the group most affected by any judgements of their competency to avoid misunderstandings, unhappiness and discontent.

Keywords: Teacher Education, phenomenology, Competency, pre-service teachers

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26 Translating Creativity to an Educational Context: A Method to Augment the Professional Training of Newly Qualified Secondary School Teachers

Authors: Julianne Mullen-Williams

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This paper will provide an overview of a three year mixed methods research project that explores if methods from the supervision of dramatherapy can augment the occupational psychology of newly qualified secondary school teachers. It will consider how creativity and the use of metaphor, as applied in the supervision of dramatherapists, can be translated to an educational context in order to explore the explicit / implicit dynamics between the teacher trainee/ newly qualified teacher and the organisation in order to support the super objective in training for teaching; how to ‘be a teacher.’ There is growing evidence that attrition rates among teachers are rising after only five years of service owing to too many national initiatives, an unmanageable curriculum and deteriorating student discipline. The fieldwork conducted entailed facilitating a reflective space for Newly Qualified Teachers from all subject areas, using methods from the supervision of dramatherapy, to explore the social and emotional aspects of teaching and learning with the ultimate aim of improving the occupational psychology of teachers. Clinical supervision is a formal process of professional support and learning which permits individual practitioners in frontline service jobs; counsellors, psychologists, dramatherapists, social workers and nurses to expand their knowledge and proficiency, take responsibility for their own practice, and improve client protection and safety of care in complex clinical situations. It is deemed integral to continued professional practice to safeguard vulnerable people and to reduce practitioner burnout. Dramatherapy supervision incorporates all of the above but utilises creative methods as a tool to gain insight and a deeper understanding of the situation. Creativity and the use of metaphor enable the supervisee to gain an aerial view of the situation they are exploring. The word metaphor in Greek means to ‘carry across’ indicating a transfer of meaning form one frame of reference to another. The supervision support was incorporated into each group’s induction training programme. The first year group attended fortnightly one hour sessions, the second group received two one hour sessions every term. The existing literature on the supervision and mentoring of secondary school teacher trainees calls for changes in pre-service teacher education and in the induction period. There is a particular emphasis on the need to include reflective and experiential learning, within training programmes and within the induction period, in order to help teachers manage the interpersonal dynamics and emotional impact within a high pressurised environment

Keywords: Teacher Education, Professional Development, dramatherapy supervision, newly qualified secondary school teachers

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25 Teacher Education: Teacher Development and Support

Authors: Khadem Hichem

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With the new technology challenges, dynamics and challenges of the contemporary world, most teachers are struggling to maintain effective and successful teaching /learning environment for learners. Teachers as a key to the success of reforms in the educational setting, they must improve their competencies to teach effectively. Many researchers emphasis on the ongoing professional development of the teacher by enhancing their experiences and encouraging their responsibility for learning, and thus promoting self-reliance, collaboration, and reflection. In short, teachers are considered as learners and they need to learn together. The educational system must support, both conceptually and financially, the teachers’ development as lifelong learners Teachers need opportunities to grow in language proficiency and in knowledge. Changing nature of language and culture in the world, all teachers must have opportunities to update their knowledge and practices. Many researchers in the field of foreign or additional languages indicate that teachers keep side by side of effective instructional practices and they need special support with the challenging task of developing and administering proficiency tests to their students. For significant change to occur, each individual teacher’s needs must be addressed. The teacher must be involved experientially in the process of development, since, by itself, knowledge of how to change does not mean change will be initiated. For improvement to occur, new skills have to be guided, practiced, and reflected upon in collaboration with colleagues. Clearly, teachers are at different places developmentally; therefore, allowances for various entry levels and individual differences need to be built into the professional development structure. Objectives must be meaningful to the participant and teacher improvement must be stated terms of student knowledge, student performance, and motivation. The most successful professional development process acknowledges the student-centered nature of good teaching. This paper highlights the importance of teacher professional development process and institutional supports as way to enhance good teaching and learning environment.

Keywords: Teacher Education, institutional support, teacher professional development, teacher competencies

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24 Developing Teachers as Change Agents: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates in Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik

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The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is the professional development of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, the transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Pakistan, Canada, STEP, Aga Khan foundation

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23 Teachers as Agents of Change: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates from Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik

Abstract:

The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is professional development of teachers, head teachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, head teachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides evidences of how the implementation of this multi-stakeholders and multi-partners STEP programme has led to the development of ‘communities of practice’ in schools. The study then makes a number of recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes as well as for partnerships in education.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Pakistan, Canada, MED, STEP, change agents

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22 A Textual Analysis of Prospective Teachers’ Social Justice Identity Development and LGBTQ Advocacy

Authors: Mi Ok Kang

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This study examined the influences of including LGBTQ-related content in a multicultural teacher education course on the development of prospective teachers’ social justice identities. Appling a content analysis to 53 reflection texts written by participating prospective teachers in response to the relevant course content, this study deduced the stages of social justice identity development (naïve, acceptance, resistance, redefinition, and internalization) that participants reached during the course. The analysis demonstrated that the participants reached various stages in the social identity development model and none of the participants remained at the naïve stage during/after class. The majority (53%) of the participants reached the internalization stage during the coursework and became conscious about the heterosexual privileges they have had and aware of possible impacts of such privilege on their future LGBTQ students. Also the participants had begun to develop pedagogic action plans and devised applicable teaching strategies for their future students based on the new understanding of heteronormativity. We expect this study will benefit teacher educators and educational administrators who want to address LGBTQ-related issues in their multicultural education programs and/or revisit the goals, directions, and implications of their approach.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Heteronormativity, Content Analysis, Multicultural Education, LGBTQ, social justice identity

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21 How Teachers Comprehend and Support Children's Needs to Be Scientists

Authors: Anita Yus

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Several Elementary Schools (SD) ‘favored’ by parents, especially those live in big cities in Indonesia, implicitly demand each child enrolled in the first grade of SD to be able to read, write and calculate. This condition urges the parents to push the teachers in PAUD (Kindergarten) to train their children to read, write, and calculate so they have a set of knowledge. According to Piaget, each child is capable of acquiring knowledge when he is given the opportunity to interact with his environment (things, people, and atmosphere). Teachers can make the interaction occur. There are several learning approaches suitable for the characteristics and needs of child’s growth. This paper talks about a research result conducted to investigate how twelve teachers of early childhood program comprehend the constructivist theory of Piaget, and how they inquire, how the children acquire and construct a number of knowledge through occurred interactions. This is a qualitative research with an observation method followed up by a focus group discussion (FGD). The research result shows that there is a reciprocal interaction between the behaviors of teachers and children affected by the size of the classroom and learning source, teaching experiences, education background, teachers’ attitude and motivation, as well as the way the teachers interpret and support the children’s needs. The teachers involved in this research came up with varied perspective on how knowledge acquired by children at first and how they construct it. This research brings a new perspective in understanding children as scientists.

Keywords: Teacher Education, constructivist approach, young children as a scientist, teacher practice

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20 Comparative Outlook of Teacher Education in Nigeria and India

Authors: Muhammad Badamasi Abdullahi

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Teacher education, both pre- and in-service programs, is offered in many countries of the world by different teacher education institutions as declared in the Policies on Education of the countries. However, differences exist from one country to another as a result of some factors peculiar to them. Notwithstanding, there also exist similarities among them in regard to teacher education. This paper is expected to dig into teacher education programs in Nigeria and India so that areas of similarities and differences would be highlighted as well as provide a venue for possible recommendation of both countries to learn from one another. All this is directed towards providing a no -border approach in enhancing effective teaching and learning.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Teaching and Learning, pre-service, in-service

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19 Reculturing: The Key to Sustainability of Private Universities

Authors: Yu Sing Ong

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This article explores the key issues and challenges facing private university leaders today. Universities are reculturing their operational processes, academic content and interactions with stakeholders. Many challenges centred around the need for university leaders to reculture the institutions and the redesigning of the teaching profession. It recommends a framework for university leaders to deal with the challenges they face. Only through reculturing, private universities can maintain the sustainability of its workforce and student population. The article has both theoretical and practical significance for private university leaders to follow.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Motivation, Improvement, private education, university leadership, reculturing

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18 Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

Authors: Kemal Izci

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Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student’s learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students’ learning. Thus, reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers’ practices of formative assessment will be crucial for guiding educators to support prospective teachers in using formative assessment and also eliminate limiting factors to let practicing teachers to engage in formative assessment practices during their instruction. The study, by using teacher’s change environment framework, reviews literature on formative assessment and presents a tentative model that illustrates the factors impacting teachers’ adoption of formative assessment in their teaching. The results showed that there are four main factors consisting personal, contextual, resource-related and external factors that influence teachers’ practices of formative assessment.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Formative Assessment, assessment practices, factors for use of formative assessment

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17 Elements of Sector Benchmarking in Physical Education Curriculum: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Kalpana Sharma, Jyoti Mann

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The study was designed towards institutional analysis for a clear understanding of the process involved in functioning and layout of determinants influencing physical education teacher’s education program in India. This further can be recommended for selection of parameters for creating sector benchmarking for physical education teachers training institutions across India. 165 stakeholders involving students, teachers, parents, administrators were surveyed from the identified seven institutions and universities from different states of India. They were surveyed on the basis of seven broad parameters which were associated with the post graduate physical education program in India. A physical education program assessment tool of 52 items was designed to administer it among the stakeholders selected for the survey. An item analysis of the contents was concluded through the review process from selected experts working in higher education with experience in teacher training program in physical education. The data was collected from the stakeholders of the selected institutions through Physical Education Program Assessment Tool (PEPAT). The hypothesis that PE teacher education program is independent of physical education institutions was significant. The study directed a need towards robust admission process emphasizing on identification, selection of potential candidates and quality control of intake with the scientific process developed according to the Indian education policies and academic structure. The results revealed that the universities do not have similar functional and delivery process related to the physical education teacher training program. The study reflects towards the need for physical education universities and institutions to identify the best practices to be followed regarding the functioning of delivery of physical education programs at various institutions through strategic management studies on the identified parameters before establishing strict standards and norms for achieving excellence in physical education in India.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Physical Education, Benchmarking, Assessment, Curriculum

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16 The Changing Face of Pedagogy and Curriculum Development Sub-Components of Teacher Education in Nigeria: A Comparative Evaluation of the University of Lagos, Lagos State University, and Sokoto State University Models

Authors: Saheed A. Rufai

Abstract:

Courses in Pedagogy and Curriculum Development expectedly occupy a core place in the professional education components of teacher education at Lagos, Lagos State, and Sokoto State Universities. This is in keeping with the National Teacher Education Policy statement that stipulates that for student teachers to learn effectively teacher education institutions must be equipped to prepare them adequately. However, there is a growing concern over the unfaithfulness of some of the dominant Nigerian models of teacher education, to this policy statement on teacher educators’ knowledge and skills. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively evaluate both the curricular provisions and the manpower for the pedagogy and curriculum development sub-components of the Lagos, Lagos State, and Sokoto State models of teacher preparation. The paper employs a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Preliminary analysis revealed a new trend in teacher educators’ pedagogical knowledge and understanding, with regard to the two intertwined sub-components. The significance of such a study lies in its potential to determine the degree of conformity of each of the three models to the stipulated standards. The paper’s contribution to scholarship lies in its correlation of deficiencies in teacher educators’ professional knowledge and skills and articulation of the implications of such deficiencies for the professional knowledge and skills of the prospective teachers, with a view to providing a framework for reforms.

Keywords: Teacher Education, pedagogy, Curriculum Development, dominant Nigerian teacher preparation models

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15 A Unique Professional Development of Teacher Educators: Teaching Colleagues

Authors: Naomi Weiner-Levy

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The Mofet Institute of Research, established a School of Professional Development, the only one of its kind in Israel and throughout the world. It offers specialized programs for teacher educators, providing them with the professional knowledge and skills. The studies aim at updating teachers about rapidly changing knowledge and skills. Teacher educators are conceptualized as shifting from first order practitioners (school teachers) to second order practitioners. Those who train teachers are referred to as third order practitioners. The instructors in the School of Professional Development are third-order practitioners – teacher educators specializing in teaching their colleagues. Collegial guidance by teachers’ college staff members is no simple task: Tutors must be expert in their field of specialization, as well as in instruction. Moreover, although colleagues, they have to position themselves within the group as authoritative figures in terms of instruction and knowledge. To date, the role and professional identity of these third-order practitioners, has not been studied. To understand the nature and development of professional identity, a qualitative study was conducted in which 12 tutors of various subjects were interviewed. These were analyzed by categorical content analysis. The findings, assessed professional identity through a post-modern prism, while examining the interplay among events that tutors experienced, the knowledge they acquired and the structuring of their professional identity. The Tutors’ identity transformed through negotiating with ‘self’ and ‘other’ in the class, and constructed by their mutual experiences as tutors and learners. Understanding the function and identity of tutors facilitates comprehension of this unique training process for teacher educators.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Professional Development, tutoring, professional identity

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14 The Role of Professional Teacher Development in Introducing Trilingual Education into the Secondary School Curriculum: Lessons from Kazakhstan, Central Asia

Authors: Kairat Kurakbayev, Dina Gungor, Adil Ashirbekov, Assel Kambatyrova

Abstract:

Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet economy located in the Central Asia, is making great efforts to internationalize its national system of education. The country is very ambitious in making the national economy internationally competitive and education has become one of the main pillars of the nation’s strategic development plan for 2030. This paper discusses the role of professional teacher development in upgrading the secondary education curriculum with the introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in grades 10-11 grades. Having Kazakh as the state language and Russian as the official language, English bears a status of foreign language in the country. The development of trilingual education is very high on the agenda of the Ministry of Education and Science. It is planned that by 2019 STEM-related subjects – Biology, Chemistry, Computing and Physics – will be taught in EMI. Introducing English-medium education appears to be a very drastic reform and the teaching cadre is the key driver here. At the same time, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the teaching profession is still struggling to become attractive in the eyes of the local youth. Moreover, the quality of Kazakhstan’s secondary education is put in question by OECD national review reports. The paper presents a case study of the nation-wide professional development programme arranged for 5 010 school teachers so that they could be able to teach their content subjects in English starting from 2019 onwards. The study is based on the mixed methods research involving the data derived from the surveys and semi-structured interviews held with the programme participants, i.e. school teachers. The findings of the study imply the significance of the school teachers’ attitudes towards the top-down reform of trilingual education. The qualitative research data reveal the teachers’ beliefs about advantages and disadvantages of having their content subjects (e.g. Biology or Chemistry) taught in EMI. The study highlights teachers’ concerns about their professional readiness to implement the top-down reform of English-medium education and discusses possible risks of academic underperforming on the part of students whose English language proficiency is not advanced. This paper argues that for the effective implementation of the English-medium education in secondary schools, the state should adopt a comprehensive approach to upgrading the national academic system where teachers’ attitudes and beliefs play the key role in making the trilingual education policy effective. The study presents lessons for other national academic systems considering to transfer its secondary education to English as a medium of instruction.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Case study, teachers' beliefs, trilingual education

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13 A Multiple Case Study of How Bilingual-Bicultural Teachers' Language Shame and Loss Affects Teaching English Language Learners

Authors: Lisa Winstead, Penny Congcong Wang

Abstract:

This two-year multiple case study of eight Spanish-English speaking teachers explores bilingual-bicultural Latino teachers’ lived experiences as English Language Learners and, more recently, as adult teachers who work with English Language Learners in mainstream schools. Research questions explored include: How do bilingual-bicultural teachers perceive their native language use and sense of self within society from childhood to adulthood? Correspondingly, what are bilingual teachers’ perceptions of how their own language learning experience might affect teaching students of similar linguistic and cultural backgrounds? This study took place in an urban area in the Pacific Southwest of the United States. Participants were K-8 teachers and enrolled in a Spanish-English bilingual authorization program. Data were collected from journals, focus group interviews, field notes, and class artifacts. Within case and cross-case analysis revealed that the participants were shamed about their language use as children which contributed to their primary language loss. They similarly reported how experiences of mainstream educator and administrator language shaming invalidated their ability to provide support for Latino heritage ELLs, despite their bilingual-bicultural expertise. However, participants reported that counter-narratives from the bilingual authorization program, parents, community and church organizations, and cultural responsive teachers were effective in promoting their language retention, pride, and feelings of well-being.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Social Justice, language loss, Bilingual education, English language learners, translanguaging, emergent bilinguals, language shame

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12 Infusion of Skills for Undergraduate Scholarship into Teacher Education: Two Case Studies in New York and Florida

Authors: Tunde Szecsi, Janka Szilagyi

Abstract:

Students majoring in education are underrepresented in undergraduate scholarship. To enable and encourage teacher candidates to engage in scholarly activities, it is essential to infuse skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, oral and written communication, collaboration and the utilization of information literacy, into courses in teacher preparation programs. In this empirical study, we examined two teacher education programs – one in New York State and one in Florida – in terms of the approaches of the course-based infusion of skills for undergraduate research, and the effectiveness of this infusion. First, course-related documents such as syllabi, assignment descriptions, and course activities were reviewed and analyzed. The goal of the document analysis was to identify and describe the targeted skills, and the pedagogical approaches and strategies for promoting research skills in teacher candidates. Next, a selection of teacher candidates’ scholarly products from the institution in Florida was used as a data set to examine teacher candidates’ skill development in the context of the identified assignments. This dataset was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to describe the changes that occurred in teacher candidates’ critical thinking, communication, and information literacy skills, and to uncover patterns in the skill development at the two institutions. Descriptive statistics were calculated to explore the changes in these skills of teacher candidates over a period of three years. The findings based on data from the teacher education program in Florida indicated a steady gain in written communication and critical thinking and a modest increase in informational literacy. At the institution in New York, candidates’ submission and success rates on the edTPA, a New York State Teacher Certification exam, was used as a measure of scholarly skills. Overall, although different approaches were used for infusing the development of scholarly skills in the courses, the results suggest that a holistic and well-orchestrated infusion of the skills into most courses in the teacher education program might result in steadily developing scholarly skills. These results offered essential implications for teacher education programs in terms of further improvements in teacher candidates’ skills for engaging in undergraduate research and scholarship. In this presentation, our purpose is to showcase two approaches developed by two teacher education programs to demonstrate how diverse approaches toward the promotion of undergraduate scholarship activities are responsive to the context of the teacher preparation programs.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Critical thinking, pedagogical strategies, undergraduate student research

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11 Mentees’ Agency in Practicum: A Qualitative Study of Two Teacher Education Programs in Vietnam

Authors: Tien Nguyen

Abstract:

The relationship between mentors and mentees in teaching practicum has received the attention of researchers and been widely investigated. Mentors’ authority and power have captured a large and growing body of the literature in the field of teaching practicum. This article revisits mentor-mentee relationship and shifts the focus to mentees’ agency in planning and delivering lessons, an area which has been under-researched. Drawing on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development and Harré’s Positioning Theory, this qualitative study examines how mentees responded to mentors’ instructions in practicum. Interviews and classroom observations were conducted with 20 participants including both mentors and mentees across two English language teacher education programs in two different geographical locations in Vietnam. The result indicates that regardless of the similarities and/or differences of the programs, mentees’ agency varied in accordance with their identities in specific contexts. Specifically, mentees follow or resist to mentors’ feedback and instruction in revising their lesson plans and delivery these lessons, depending on their professional identities and institutional conditions. This study contributes to the importance of supporting the agency of mentees in teacher education.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Relationship, Agency, mentors, professional identity, mentees

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10 Effectiveness of a Traits Cooperative Learning on Developing Writing Achievement and Composition among Teacher Candidates

Authors: Abdelaziz Hussien

Abstract:

This article reports investigations of a study into the effectiveness of a traits cooperative learning (TCL) on teacher candidates’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach and small group learning. Mixed methodologies were used with the participants in a repeated measures quasi-experimental design. Forty-two class teacher candidates, enrolled in the Bahrain Teachers College, completed the pre and post author-developed measures. The results suggest that TCL has a positive effect on the participants’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach, but not on the attitudes towards small group learning. Further implications to teacher education are presented.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Cooperative Learning, writing achievement, trait-based language education, writing composition, traits of writing

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9 Global Service-Learning: Lessons Learned from Teacher Candidates

Authors: Miranda Lin

Abstract:

This project examined the impact of a globally focused service-learning project implemented in a multicultural education course in a Midwestern university. This project facilitated critical self-reflection and build cross-cultural competence while nurturing a partnership with two schools that serve students with disabilities in Vietnam. Through a service-learning project, pre-service teachers connected via Skype with the principals/teachers at schools in Vietnam to identify and subsequently develop needed instructional materials for students with mild, moderate, and severe disabilities. Qualitative data sources include students’ intercultural competence self-reflection survey (pre-test and post-test), reflections, discussions, service project, and lesson plans. Literature Review- Global service-learning is a teaching strategy that encompasses service experiences both in the local community and abroad. Drawing on elements of global learning and international service-learning, global service-learning experiences are guided by a framework that is designed to support global learning outcomes and involve direct engagement with difference. By engaging in real-world challenges, global service-learning experiences can support the achievement of learning outcomes such as civic. Knowledge and intercultural knowledge and competence. Intercultural competence development is considered essential for cooperative and reciprocal engagement with community partners.Method- Participants (n=27*) were mostly elementary and early childhood pre-service teachers who were enrolled in a multicultural education course. All but one was female. Among the pre-service teachers, one Asian American, two Latinas, and the rest were White. Two pre-service teachers identified themselves as from the low socioeconomic families and the rest were from the middle to upper middle class.The global service-learning project was implemented in the spring of 2018. Two Vietnamese schools that served students with disabilities agreed to be the global service-learning sites. Both schools were located in an urban city.Systematic collection of data coincided with the course schedule as follows: an initial intercultural competence self-reflection survey completed in week one, guided reflections submitted in week 1, 9, and 16, written lesson plans and supporting materials for the service project submitted in week 16, and a final intercultural competence self-reflection survey completed in week 16. Significance-This global service-learning project has helped participants meet Merryfield’s goals in various degrees. They 1) learned knowledge and skills in the basics of instructional planning, 2) used a variety of instructional methods that encourage active learning, meet the different learning styles of students, and are congruent with content and educational goals, 3) gained the awareness and support of their students as individuals and as learners, 4) developed questioning techniques that build higher-level thinking skills, and 5) made progress in critically reflecting on and improving their own teaching and learning as a professional educator as a result of this project.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Diversity, intercultural competence, global service-learning

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