Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

taxonomy Related Abstracts

22 Leaf Epidermal Micromorphology as Identification Features in Accessions of Sesamum indicum L. Collected from Northern Nigeria

Authors: S. D. Abdul, F. B. J. Sawa, D. Z. Andrawus, G. Dan'ilu

Abstract:

Fresh leaves of twelve accessions of S. indicum were studied to examine their stomatal features, trichomes, epidermal cell shapes and anticlinal cell-wall patterns which may be used for the delimitation of the varieties. The twelve accessions of S. indicum studied have amphistomatic leaves, i.e. having stomata on both surfaces. Four types of stomatal complex types were observed namely, diacytic, anisocytic, tetracytic and anomocytic. Anisocytic type was the most common occurring on both surfaces of all the varieties and occurred 100% in varieties lale-duk, ex-sudan and ex-gombe 6. One-way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between the stomatal densities of ex-gombe 6, ex-sudan, adawa-wula, adawa-ting, ex-gombe 4 and ex-gombe 2 . Accession adawa-ting (improved) has the smallest stomatal size (26.39µm) with highest stomatal density (79.08mm2) while variety adawa-wula possessed the largest stomatal size (74.31µm) with lowest stomatal density (29.60mm2), the exception was found in variety adawa-ting whose stomatal size is larger (64.03µm) but with higher stomatal density (71.54mm2). Wavy, curve or undulate anticlinal wall patterns with irregular and or isodiametric epidermal cell shapes were observed. These accessions were found to exhibit high degree of heterogeneity in their trichome features. Ten types of trichomes were observed: unicellular, glandular peltate, capitate glandular, long unbranched uniseriate, short unbranched uniseriate, scale, multicellular, multiseriate capitate glandular, branched uniseriate and stallate trichomes. The most frequent trichome type is short-unbranched uniseriate, followed by long-unbranched uniseriate (72.73% and 72.5%) respectively. The least frequent was multiseriate capitate glandular (11.5%). The high variation in trichome types and density coupled with the stomatal complex types suggest that these varieties of S. indicum probably have the capacity to conserve water. Furthermore, the leaf micromorphological features varied from one accession to another, hence, are found to be good diagnostic and additional tool in identification as well as nomenclature of the accessions of S. indicum.

Keywords: taxonomy, Stomata, Sesamum indicum, trichomes, epidermal cells

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21 Description of a New Fruit Fly Species within Genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) Detected in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

As a result of broad trapping program for the collection of fruit flies fauna of Pakistan, adults or larvae samples of fruit flies were collected from different localities. After sampling, to characterize fruit fly fauna involved, the collected samples were brought to the laboratory for their species identification. In this study, based on extensive literature records, the presence of one fruit fly species Bactrocera abbasi (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) belonging to genus Bactrocera Macquar was recognized for the first time. This new species is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters, supported by data on its ecology and geographic distribution. Information is also given on host plant and location of type specimen, distinguish remarks and diagnosis are as well included.

Keywords: taxonomy, Pakistan, diptera, tephritidae, bactrocera, new species

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20 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Oysters (Bivalvia, Ostreoidea) from Siberia: Taxonomy and Variations of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Authors: Igor N. Kosenko

Abstract:

The present contribution is an analysis of more than 300 specimens of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous oysters collected by V.A. Zakharov during the 1960s and currently stored in the Trofimuk Institute of Geology and Geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). They were sampled in the northwestern bounder of Western Siberia (Yatriya, Maurynia, Tol’ya and Lopsiya rivers) and the north of Eastern Siberia (Boyarka, Bolshaya Romanikha and Dyabaka-Tari rivers). During the last five years, they were examined with taxonomical and palaeoecological purposes. Based on carbonate material of oyster’s shells were performed isotopic analyses and associated palaeotemperatures. Taxonomical study consists on classical morphofunctional and biometrical analyses. It is completed by another large amount of Cretaceous oysters from Crimea as well as modern Pacific oyster - Crassostrea gigas. Those were studied to understand the range of modification variability between different species. Oysters previously identified as Liostrea are attributed now to four genera: Praeexogyra and Helvetostrea (Flemingostreidae), Pernostrea (Gryphaeidae) and one new genus (Gryphaeidae), including one species “Liostrea” roemeri (Quenstedt). This last is characterized by peculiar ethology, being attached to floating ammonites and morphology, outlined by a beak-shaped umbo on the right (!) valve. Endemic Siberian species from the Pernostrea genus have been included into the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum subgen. nov. Pernostrea and Deltoideum genera have been included into the tribe Pernostreini n. trib. from the Gryphaeinae subfamily. Model of phylogenetic relationships between species of this tribe has been proposed. Siberian oyster complexes were compared with complexes from Western Europe, Poland and East European Platform. In western Boreal and Subboreal Realm (England, northern France and Poland) two stages of oyster’s development were recognized: Jurassic-type and Cretaceous-type. In Siberia, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous oysters formed a unique complex. It may be due to the isolation of the Siberian Basin toward the West during the Early Cretaceous. Seven oyster’s shells of Pernostrea (Pernostrea) uralensis (Zakharov) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary Interval (Upper Volgian – Lower Ryazanian) of Maurynia river were used to perform δ13C and δ18O isotopic analyses. The preservation of the carbonate material was controlled by: cathodoluminescence analyses; content of Fe, Mn, Sr; absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O and content of Fe and Mn. The obtained δ13C and δ18O data were compared with isotopic data based on belemnites from the same stratigraphical interval of the same section and were used to trace palaeotemperatures. A general trend towards negative δ18O values is recorded in the Maurynia section, from the lower part of the Upper Volgian to the middle part of the Ryazanian Chetaites sibiricus ammonite zone. This trend was previously recorded in the Nordvik section. The higher palaeotemperatures (2°C in average) determined from oyster’s shells indicate that belemnites likely migrated laterally and lived part of their lives in cooler waters. This work financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant no. 16-35-00003).

Keywords: taxonomy, oysters, isotopes, Siberia

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19 Multilocus Phylogenetic Approach Reveals Informative DNA Barcodes for Studying Evolution and Taxonomy of Fusarium Fungi

Authors: Alexander A. Stakheev, Larisa V. Samokhvalova, Sergey K. Zavriev

Abstract:

Fusarium fungi are among the most devastating plant pathogens distributed all over the world. Significant reduction of grain yield and quality caused by Fusarium leads to multi-billion dollar annual losses to the world agricultural production. These organisms can also cause infections in immunocompromised persons and produce the wide range of mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone, which are hazardous to human and animal health. Identification of Fusarium fungi based on the morphology of spores and spore-forming structures, colony color and appearance on specific culture media is often very complicated due to the high similarity of these features for closely related species. Modern Fusarium taxonomy increasingly uses data of crossing experiments (biological species concept) and genetic polymorphism analysis (phylogenetic species concept). A number of novel Fusarium sibling species has been established using DNA barcoding techniques. Species recognition is best made with the combined phylogeny of intron-rich protein coding genes and ribosomal DNA sequences. However, the internal transcribed spacer of (ITS), which is considered to be universal DNA barcode for Fungi, is not suitable for genus Fusarium, because of its insufficient variability between closely related species and the presence of non-orthologous copies in the genome. Nowadays, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α) gene is the “gold standard” of Fusarium taxonomy, but the search for novel informative markers is still needed. In this study, we used two novel DNA markers, frataxin (FXN) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to discover phylogenetic relationships between Fusarium species. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of TEF1α, FXN, HSP90, as well as intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA (IGS), beta-tubulin (β-TUB) and phosphate permease (PHO) genes has been conducted for 120 isolates of 19 Fusarium species from different climatic zones of Russia and neighboring countries using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) algorithms. Our analyses revealed that FXN and HSP90 genes could be considered as informative phylogenetic markers, suitable for evolutionary and taxonomic studies of Fusarium genus. It has been shown that PHO gene possesses more variable (22 %) and parsimony informative (19 %) characters than other markers, including TEF1α (12 % and 9 %, correspondingly) when used for elucidating phylogenetic relationships between F. avenaceum and its closest relatives – F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum, F. torulosum. Application of novel DNA barcodes confirmed the fact that F. arthrosporioides do not represent a separate species but only a subspecies of F. avenaceum. Phylogeny based on partial PHO and FXN sequences revealed the presence of separate cluster of four F. avenaceum strains which were closer to F. torulosum than to major F. avenaceum clade. The strain F-846 from Moldova, morphologically identified as F. poae, formed a separate lineage in all the constructed dendrograms, and could potentially be considered as a separate species, but more information is needed to confirm this conclusion. Variable sites in PHO sequences were used for the first-time development of specific qPCR-based diagnostic assays for F. acuminatum and F. torulosum. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 15-29-02527).

Keywords: Identification, Phylogenetics, taxonomy, Fusarium, DNA barcode

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18 Linking Theory to Practice: An Analysis of Papers Submitted by Participants in a Teacher Mentoring Course

Authors: Varda Gil, Ella Shoval, Tussia Mira

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Teacher mentoring is a complex practical profession whose unique characteristic is the teacher-mentors' commitment to helping teachers link theory with teaching practice in the process of decision-making and in their reflections on teaching. The aim of this research is to examine the way practicing teacher-mentors participating in a teacher mentoring course made the connection between theory and practice. The researchers analyzed 20 final papers submitted by participants in a course to train teacher mentors. The participants were all veteran high-school teachers. The course comprised 112 in-class hours in addition to mentoring novices in the field. The course covered the following topics: The teacher-mentors' perception of their role; formative and summative evaluation of the novices; tutoring strategies and tools; types of learners; and ways of communicating and dealing with novice teachers' resistance to counseling. The course participants were required to write a 4-5 page reflective summary of their field mentoring practice. In addition, they were required to link theories explicitly learned in the course to their practice in the field. A qualitative analysis of the papers led to the creation of the taxonomy of the link between theory and practice relating to four topics: The kinds of links made between theory and practice, the quality of these links, the links made between private teaching theories and official teaching theory, and the qualities of these links. This taxonomy may prove to be a useful tool in the teacher-mentor training processes.

Keywords: Theory, Practice, taxonomy, teacher-mentors, teacher-mentor training

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17 Diversity and Taxonomy: Malaysian Marine Algae Genus Halimeda (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta)

Authors: Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim, Asmida Ismail

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The study of genus Halimeda in Malaysia is in the early stage due to less specific study on its taxonomy. Most of the previous research tend to choose other genus such as Caulerpa and Gracilaria because of the potential of being utilized. The identification of Halimeda is complex by the high morphological variation within individual species due to different types of habitat and the changes in composition of seawater. The study was completed to study the diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Malaysia and to identify the morphological and anatomical differences between Halimeda species. The methods which have been used for this study are collection of Halimeda and seawater, preservation of specimen, identification of the specimen including the preparation of the temporary slide and decalcification of the calcium layer by using diluted hydrochloric acid. The specimen were processed in laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Environmental parameters were tested by using YSI multiparameter probe and the recorded data were temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The nutrient content of seawater such as nitrate and phosphate were analysed by using Hach kit model DR 2000. In the present study, out of 330 herbarium specimen, ten species were identified as Halimeda cuneata, H. discoidea, H. macroloba, H. macrophysa, H. opuntia, H. simulans, H. stuposa, H. taenicola, H. tuna and H. velasquezii. Of these, five species were new record to Malaysia. They are Halimeda cuneata, H. macrophysa, H. stuposa, H. taenicola and H. velasquezii. H. opuntia was found as the most abundance species with wide distribution in Malaysia coastal area. Meanwhile, from the study of their distribution, two localities in which Pulau Balak Balak, Kudat and Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, were noted having high number of Halimeda species. As a conclusion, this study has successfully identified ten species of Halimeda of Malaysia with full description of morphological characteristics that may assist further researcher to differentiate and identify Halimeda.

Keywords: Diversity, Distribution, taxonomy, morphological, Halimeda

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16 A Taxonomy of the Informational Content of Virtual Heritage Serious Games

Authors: Laurence C. Hanes, Robert J. Stone

Abstract:

Video games have reached a point of huge commercial success as well as wide familiarity with audiences both young and old. Much attention and research have also been directed towards serious games and their potential learning affordances. It is little surprise that the field of virtual heritage has taken a keen interest in using serious games to present cultural heritage information to users, with applications ranging from museums and cultural heritage institutions, to academia and research, to schools and education. Many researchers have already documented their efforts to develop and distribute virtual heritage serious games. Although attempts have been made to create classifications of the different types of virtual heritage games (somewhat akin to the idea of game genres), no formal taxonomy has yet been produced to define the different types of cultural heritage and historical information that can be presented through these games at a content level, and how the information can be manifested within the game. This study proposes such a taxonomy. First the informational content is categorized as heritage or historical, then further divided into tangible, intangible, natural, and analytical. Next, the characteristics of the manifestation within the game are covered. The means of manifestation, level of demonstration, tone, and focus are all defined and explained. Finally, the potential learning outcomes of the content are discussed. A demonstration of the taxonomy is then given by describing the informational content and corresponding manifestations within several examples of virtual heritage serious games as well as commercial games. It is anticipated that this taxonomy will help designers of virtual heritage serious games to think about and clearly define the information they are presenting through their games, and how they are presenting it. Another result of the taxonomy is that it will enable us to frame cultural heritage and historical information presented in commercial games with a critical lens, especially where there may not be explicit learning objectives. Finally, the results will also enable us to identify shared informational content and learning objectives between any virtual heritage serious and/or commercial games.

Keywords: taxonomy, Serious Games, virtual heritage, informational content

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15 Morphology, Chromosome Numbers and Molecular Evidences of Three New Species of Begonia Section Baryandra (Begoniaceae) from Panay Island, Philippines

Authors: Rosario Rivera Rubite, Ching-I Peng, Che-Wei Lin, Mark Hughes, Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung

Abstract:

The flora of Panay Island is under-collected compared with the other islands of the Philippines. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia and compared them with potentially allied species. The three species are clearly assignable to Begonia section Baryandra which is largely endemic to the Philippines. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new species: Begonia culasiensis, Begonia merrilliana, and Begonia sykakiengii. Somatic chromosomes at metaphase were determined to be 2n=30 for B. culasiensis and 2n=28 for both B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii, which are congruent with those of most species in sect. Baryandra. Molecular phylogenetic evidence is consistent with B. culasiensis being a relict from the late Miocene, and with B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii being younger species of Pleistocene origin. The continuing discovery of endemic Philippine species means the remaining fragments of both primary and secondary native vegetation in the archipelago are of increasing value in terms of natural capital. A secure future for the species could be realized through ex-situ conservation collections and raising awareness with community groups.

Keywords: Conservation, Phylogenetics, taxonomy, limestone, endemic, herbarium

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14 Host Range and Taxonomy of Hairy Caterpillars (Erebidae: Lepidoptera) in Different Cropping Ecosystems

Authors: Mallikarjun Warad, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, P. R. Shashank

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Studies were conducted to record the occurrence of different species of hairy caterpillar on different host plants in and around Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. Twelve genera of hairy caterpillars belonging to Arctiinae and Lymantriinae were recorded on different host plants and reared to adults in laboratory on their respective hosts. The Porthesia sp. feed on castor, Creatonotus gangis on cocoa, Perina nuda on fig, Pericalia ricini on pigeon pea, Utetheisa pulchella on sunhemp and Euproctis sp. on paddy and banana. Illustrations of immature and adults were made to associate them. Along with this, light traps were also set during the rainy season, to capture adults of hairy caterpillars. An illustrated identification key was provided for easy and accurate identification of adult of hairy caterpillars based on their morphological (male genitalial) characters. The study through a light on the existence of sexual dimorphism, polyphagous nature and diapause are the major hindrance in taxonomic identification. Hence, attempts were made to address these issues in the study.

Keywords: taxonomy, Erebidae, hairy caterpillars, male genitalia

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13 Palyno-Morphological Characteristics of Gymnosperm Flora of Pakistan and Its Taxonomic Implications with Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy Methods

Authors: Raees Khan, Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Abdul S. Mumtaz, Jie Liu

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The present study is intended to assess gymnosperms pollen flora of Pakistan using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for its taxonomic significance in identification of gymnosperms. Pollens of 35 gymnosperm species (12 genera and five families) were collected from its various distributional sites of gymnosperms in Pakistan. LM and SEM were used to investigate different palyno-morphological characteristics. Five pollen types (i.e., Inaperturate, Monolete, Monoporate, Vesiculate-bisaccate, and Polyplicate) were observed. In equatorial view seven types of pollens were observed, in which ten species were sub-angular, nine species were triangular, six species were perprolate, three species were rhomboidal, three species were semi-angular, two species were rectangular and two species were prolate. While five types of pollen were observed in polar view, in which ten species were spheroidal, nine species were angular, eight were interlobate, six species were circular, and two species were elliptic. Eighteen species have rugulate and 17 species has faveolate ornamentation. Eighteen species have verrucate and 17 have gemmate type sculpturing. The data was analysed through cluster analysis. The study showed that these palyno-morphological features have significance value in classification and identification of gymnosperms. Based on these different palyno-morphological features, a taxonomic key was proposed for the accurate and fast identifications of gymnosperms from Pakistan.

Keywords: taxonomy, Pakistan, palynology, gymnosperms

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12 A Taxonomy Proposal on Criterion Structure for Evaluating Freight Village Concepts in Early-Stage Design Projects

Authors: Rıza Gürhan Korkut, Metin Çelik, Süleyman Özkaynak

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The early-stage design and development projects for the freight village initiatives require a comprehensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data. Considering the literature review on structural and operational management requirements, this study proposed an original taxonomy on criterion structure to assess freight village conceptualization. The potential challenges and uncertainties of the developed taxonomy are extended. Besides requirement analysis, this study is also expected to contribute to forthcoming research on benchmarking of freight villages in different regions. The methodology used in this research is a systematic review on several articles as per their modelling approaches, sustainability, entities and decisions made together with the uncertainties and features of their models taken into consideration. The major findings of the study that are the categories for assessing the projects attributes on their environmental, socio-economical, accessibility and location aspects.

Keywords: taxonomy, Operational management, logistics centers, freight village

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11 Molecular Evidence for Three Species of Giraffa

Authors: Alice Petzold, Alexandre Hassanin

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The number of giraffe species has been in focus of interest since the exploration of sub-Saharan Africa by European naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries, as previous taxonomists, like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen or William Edward de Winton, recognized two or three species of Giraffa. For the last decades, giraffes were commonly considered as a single species subdivided into nine subspecies. In this study, we have re-examined available nuclear and mitochondrial data. Our genetic admixture analyses of seven introns support three species: G. camelopardalis (i.e., northern giraffes including reticulated giraffes), G. giraffa (southern giraffe) and G. tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe). However, the nuclear alignments show small variation and our phylogenetic analyses provide high support only for the monophyly of G. camelopardalis. Comparisons with the mitochondrial tree revealed a robust conflict for the position and monophyly of G. giraffa and G. tippelskirchi, which is explained firstly by a mitochondrial introgression from Masai giraffe to southeastern giraffe, and secondly, by gene flow mediated by male dispersal between southern populations (subspecies angolensis and giraffa). We conclude that current data gives only moderate support for three giraffe species and point out that additional nuclear data need to be studied to revise giraffe taxonomy.

Keywords: taxonomy, autosomal markers, Giraffidae, mitochondrial introgression

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10 Taxonomic Study and Environmental Ecology of Parrot (Rose Ringed) in City Mirpurkhas, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

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The Parrot rose ringed (Psittaculla krameri) commonly known as Tota, belongs to the order ‘Psittaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’. Its sub-species inhabiting Pakistan are Psittaculla borealis. The parrot rose-ringed has been categorized the least concern species, the core aim of the present study is to investigate the ecology and taxonomy of parrot (rose-ringed). Sampling was obtained for the taxonomic identification from various adjoining areas in City Mirpurkhas by non-random method, which was conducted from Feb to June 2017. The different parameters measured with the help of a vernier caliper, foot scale, digital weighing machine. Body parameters were measured via; length of body, length of the wings, length of tail, mass in grams. During present study, a total number of 36 specimens were collected from different localities of City Mirpurkhas (38.2%) were male and (62.7%) were female. Maximum population density of Psittaculla Krameri borealis (52.9%) was collected from Sindh Horticulture Research Station (fruit farm) Mirpurkhas. Minimum no: of Psittaculla krameri borealis (5.5%) collected in urban parks. It was observed that Psittaculla krameri borealis were in dense population during the months of ‘May’ and ‘June’ when the temperature ranged between 20°C and 45°C. A Psittaculla krameri borealis female was found the heaviest in body weight. The species of parrot (rose ringed) captured during study having green plumage, coverts were gray, upper beak, red and lower beak black, shorter tail in female long tail in the male which was similar to the Psittaculla krameri borealis.

Keywords: taxonomy, environmental ecology, Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan, parrot, rose-ringed

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9 Cataloguing Beetle Fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) of India: Estimating Diversity, Distribution, and Taxonomic Challenges

Authors: Devanshu Gupta, Kailash Chandra, Priyanka Das, Joyjit Ghosh

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Beetles, in the insect order Coleoptera are the most species-rich group on this planet today. They represent about 40% of the total insect diversity of the world. With a considerable range of landform types including significant mountain ranges, deserts, fertile irrigational plains, and hilly forested areas, India is one of the mega-diverse countries and includes more than 0.1 million faunal species. Despite having rich biodiversity, the efforts to catalogue the beetle diversity of the extant species/taxa reported from India have been less. Therefore, in this paper, the information on the beetle fauna of India is provided based on the data available with the museum collections of Zoological Survey of India and taxa extracted from zoological records and published literature. The species were listed with their valid names, synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and their distribution in states and biogeographic zones of India. The catalogue also incorporates the bibliography on Indian Coleoptera. The exhaustive species inventory, prepared by us include distributional records from Himalaya, Trans Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, Northeast, Islands, and Coastal areas of the country. Our study concludes that many of the species are still known from their type localities only, so there is need to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the taxonomic evaluation of those species. There are species which exhibit single locality records, and taxa-specific biodiversity assessments are required to be undertaken to understand the distributional range of such species. The primary challenge is taxonomic identifications of the species which were described before independence, and the type materials are present in overseas museums. For such species, taxonomic revisions of the different group of beetles are required to solve the problems of identification and classification.

Keywords: taxonomy, Museum Collections, checklist, biogeographic zones

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8 Systematics of Water Lilies (Genus Nymphaea L.) Using 18S rDNA Sequences

Authors: M. Nakkuntod, S. Srinarang, K.W. Hilu

Abstract:

Water lily (Nymphaea L.) is the largest genus of Nymphaeaceae. This family is composed of six genera (Nuphar, Ondinea, Euryale, Victoria, Barclaya, Nymphaea). Its members are nearly worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. The classification of some species in Nymphaea is ambiguous due to high variation in leaf and flower parts such as leaf margin, stamen appendage. Therefore, the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA were constructed to delimit this genus. DNAs of 52 specimens belonging to water lily family were extracted using modified conventional method containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The results showed that the amplified fragment is about 1600 base pairs in size. After analysis, the aligned sequences presented 9.36% for variable characters comprising 2.66% of parsimonious informative sites and 6.70% of singleton sites. Moreover, there are 6 regions of 1-2 base(s) for insertion/deletion. The phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with high bootstrap support indicated that genus Nymphaea was a paraphyletic group because of Ondinea, Victoria and Euryale disruption. Within genus Nymphaea, subgenus Nymphaea is a basal lineage group which cooperated with Euryale and Victoria. The other four subgenera, namely Lotos, Hydrocallis, Brachyceras and Anecphya were included the same large clade which Ondinea was placed within Anecphya clade due to geographical sharing.

Keywords: taxonomy, phylogeny, nrDNA, waterlily

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7 Data Analysis for Taxonomy Prediction and Annotation of 16S rRNA Gene Sequences from Metagenome Data

Authors: Suchithra V., Shreedhanya, Kavya Menon, Vidya Niranjan

Abstract:

Skin metagenomics has a wide range of applications with direct relevance to the health of the organism. It gives us insight to the diverse community of microorganisms (the microbiome) harbored on the skin. In the recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the interaction between skin microbiome and the human body plays a prominent role in immune system development, cancer development, disease pathology, and many other biological implications. Next Generation Sequencing has led to faster and better understanding of environmental organisms and their mutual interactions. This project is studying the human skin microbiome of different individuals having varied skin conditions. Bacterial 16S rRNA data of skin microbiome is downloaded from SRA toolkit provided by NCBI to perform metagenomics analysis. Twelve samples are selected with two controls, and 3 different categories, i.e., sex (male/female), skin type (moist/intermittently moist/sebaceous) and occlusion (occluded/intermittently occluded/exposed). Quality of the data is increased using Cutadapt, and its analysis is done using FastQC. USearch, a tool used to analyze an NGS data, provides a suitable platform to obtain taxonomy classification and abundance of bacteria from the metagenome data. The statistical tool used for analyzing the USearch result is METAGENassist. The results revealed that the top three abundant organisms found were: Prevotella, Corynebacterium, and Anaerococcus. Prevotella is known to be an infectious bacterium found on wound, tooth cavity, etc. Corynebacterium and Anaerococcus are opportunist bacteria responsible for skin odor. This result infers that Prevotella thrives easily in sebaceous skin conditions. Therefore it is better to undergo intermittently occluded treatment such as applying ointments, creams, etc. to treat wound for sebaceous skin type. Exposing the wound should be avoided as it leads to an increase in Prevotella abundance. Moist skin type individuals can opt for occluded or intermittently occluded treatment as they have shown to decrease the abundance of bacteria during treatment.

Keywords: taxonomy, Next Generation Sequencing, skin microbiome, bacterial 16S rRNA, skin metagenomics

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6 Taxonomic Study of Squirrel Order Rodentia, Family Sciuridea of District Jamshoro Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

Abstract:

The squirrel commonly known as ‘Gulhari’ belongs to the order Rodentia, family sciuridea, its sub-species inhabit tropical to sub tropical regions of Asia. The core aim of the present study is to investigate the taxonomy of squirrel in District Jamshoro. Sampling was obtained for the taxonomic identification from various adjoining areas of District Jamshoro by non random method. During present study a total number of 107 specimens were collected from July 2018 to December 2018, specimens were collected from District Jamshoro it was observed that the prevalence of the sub-species Funambulus tristriatus numarius (23.3%), Funambulus pennant tulescens (23.3%) was high while Funambulus tristriatus tristriatus ((20.5%), Funambulus palmarun brodie (18.6%) and the minimum prevalence Funambulus palmaruns palmaruns (14.1%). In the present research, it is established that the climate factors, altitude has principal importance in the poor density of squirrel.

Keywords: taxonomy, Prevalence, Jamshoro District Pakistan, squirrel

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5 Preliminary Study of Medicinal Plants in Phu Langka National Park, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Chatan, W. Promprom

Abstract:

Phu Langka National Park is located in Nakhon Phanom Province, the Northeast of Thailand. It contains about 50 km2 of one mountain and three types of forest including deciduous dipterocarp, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests. It was interesting area because of that there were some local ethnic groups living around the national park and most people use plants in this area for their life. The objective of this research is to preliminary survey of the use of medicinal plants from this area by local ethnic groups living around the national park. Colour photographs of each species were prepared. In addition, ecology, distribution in the study area, utilization and vernacular names were provided. The result showed that sixteen species of medicinal plant species were found and most plants were used for digestive system and wound. The voucher specimens were deposited in the Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (BKF), Thailand.

Keywords: Diversity, Utilization, taxonomy, Ethnobotany, ethnophamacology

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4 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Promprom, W. Chatan

Abstract:

Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: Utilization, taxonomy, Ethnobotany, medicinal plant, ethnophamacology

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3 Introducing Two Species of Parastagonospora (Phaeosphaeriaceae) on Grasses from Italy and Russia, Based on Morphology and Phylogeny

Authors: Ishani D. Goonasekara, Erio Camporesi, Timur Bulgakov, Rungtiwa Phookamsak, Kevin D. Hyde

Abstract:

Phaeosphaeriaceae comprises a large number of species occurring mainly on grasses and cereal crops as endophytes, saprobes and especially pathogens. Parastagonospora is an important genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae that includes pathogens causing leaf and glume blotch on cereal crops. Currently, there are fifteen Parastagonospora species described, including both pathogens and saprobes. In this study, one sexual morph species and an asexual morph species, occurring as saprobes on members of Poaceae are introduced based on morphology and a combined molecular analysis of the LSU, SSU, ITS, and RPB2 gene sequence data. The sexual morph species Parastagonospora elymi was isolated from a Russian sample of Elymus repens, a grass commonly known as couch grass, and important for grazing animals, as a weed and used in traditional Austrian medicine. P. elymi is similar to the sexual morph of P. avenae in having cylindrical asci, bearing 8, overlapping biseriate, fusiform ascospores but can be distinguished by its subglobose to conical shaped, wider ascomata. In addition, no sheath was observed surrounding the ascospores. The asexual morph species was isolated from a specimen from Italy, on Dactylis glomerata, a commonly found grass distributed in temperate regions. It is introduced as Parastagonospora macrouniseptata, a coelomycete, and bears a close resemblance to P. allouniseptata and P. uniseptata in having globose to subglobose, pycnidial conidiomata and hyaline, cylindrical, 1-septate conidia. However, the new species could be distinguished in having much larger conidiomata. In the phylogenetic analysis which consisted of a maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis P. elymi showed low bootstrap support, but well segregated from other strains within the Parastagonospora clade. P. neoallouniseptata formed a sister clade with P. allouniseptata with high statistical support.

Keywords: taxonomy, dothideomycetes, multi-gene analysis, Poaceae, saprobes

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2 A Taxonomy of Professional Engineering Attributes for Tackling Global Humanitarian Challenges

Authors: Georgia Kremmyda, Angelos Georgoulas, Yiannis Koumpouros, James T. Mottram

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in enhancing the creativity and problem-solving ability of engineering students by expanding their engagement to complex, interdisciplinary problems such as environmental issues, resilience to man-made and natural disasters, global health matters, water needs, increased energy demands, and other global humanitarian challenges. Tackling societal challenges requires knowledgeable and erudite engineers who can handle, combine, transform and create innovative, affordable and sustainable solutions. This view simultaneously complements and challenges current conceptions of an emerging educational movement that, almost without exception, are underpinned by calls for competitive economic growth and technological development. This article reveals a taxonomy of humanitarian attributes to be enabled to professional engineers, through reformed curricula and innovative pedagogies, which once implemented and integrated efficiently in higher engineering education, they will provide students and educators with opportunities to explore interdependencies and connections between resources, sustainable design, societal needs, and the natural environment and to critically engage with implicit and explicit facets of disciplinary identity. The research involves carrying out a study on (a) current practices, best practices and barriers in knowledge organisation, content, and hierarchy in graduate engineering programmes, (b) best practices associated with teaching and research in engineering education around the world, (c) opportunities inherent in general reforms of graduate engineering education and inherent in integrating the humanitarian context throughout engineering education programmes, and, (d) an overarching taxonomy of professional attributes for tackling humanitarian challenges. Research methods involve state-of-the-art literature review on engineering education and pedagogy to resource thematic findings on current status in engineering education worldwide, and qualitative research through three practice dialogue workshops, run in Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh) involving a variety of national, international and local stakeholders (industries; NGOs, governmental organisations). Findings from this study provide evidence on: (a) what are the professional engineering attributes (skills, experience, knowledge) needed for tackling humanitarian challenges; (b) how we can integrate other disciplines and professions to engineering while defining the professional attributes of engineers who are capable of tackling humanitarian challenges. The attributes will be linked to those discipline(s) and profession(s) that are more likely to enforce the attributes (removing the assumption that engineering education as it stands at the moment can provide all attributes), and; (c) how these attributes shall be supplied; what kind of pedagogies or training shall take place beyond current practices. Acknowledgment: The study is currently in progress and is being undertaken in the framework of the project ENHANCE - ENabling Humanitarian Attributes for Nurturing Community-based Engineering (project No: 598502-EEP-1-2018-1-UK-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP (2018-2582/001-001), funded by the Erasmus + KA2 Cooperation for innovation and the exchange of good practices – Capacity building in the field of Higher Education.

Keywords: Engineering Education, taxonomy, Humanitarian Challenges, professional engineering attributes, humanitarian engineering

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1 A Taxonomy of Behavior for a Medical Coordinator by Utlizing Leadership Styles

Authors: Aryana Collins Jackson, Elisabetta Bevacqua, Pierre De Loor, Ronan Querrec

Abstract:

This paper presents a taxonomy of non-technical skills, communicative intentions, and behavior for an individual acting as a medical coordinator. In medical emergency situations, a leader among the group is imperative to both patient health and team emotional and mental health. Situational Leadership is used to make clear and easy-to-follow guidelines for behavior depending on circumstantial factors. Low-level leadership behaviors belonging to two different styles, directive and supporting, are identified from literature and are included in the proposed taxonomy. The high-level information in the taxonomy consists of the necessary non-technical skills belonging to a medical coordinator: situation awareness, decision making, task management, and teamwork. Finally, communicative intentions, dimensions, and functions are included. Thus this work brings high-level and low-level information - medical non-technical skills, communication capabilities, and leadership behavior - into a single versatile taxonomy of behavior.

Keywords: Medical, Human Behavior, taxonomy, Leadership Styles

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