Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Tar Related Abstracts

6 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

Abstract:

The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, temperature, Tar, biomass fuels, advanced downdraft gasifier

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5 Response of Briquettes Application with Different Coating Materials on Yield and Quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]

Authors: V. N. Palsande, H. B. Torane, M. C. Kasture, S. S. Prabhudesai, P. B. Sanap, J. J. Palkar

Abstract:

The present investigation entitled “Response of briquettes application with different coating materials on yield and quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]” was conducted at Central Experiment Center, Wakawali during kharif season 2013. The field experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replicate. The four coating materials viz., Co – Non coating, C1 – Wax coating, C2 – Jaggary coating, and C3 – Tar coating was applied to Konkan Annapurna Briquette along with three sub treatments of application time i.e B1 – ½ at sowing, B2 - ½ at sowing and ½ at 30 days after sowing and B3 - 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 at 60 days after sowing. It was observed that the application of tar coated Konkan Annapurna Briquettes (KAB) in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing was found promising to enhancing the cucumber fruit yield, higher vine length, number of fruits vine-1, girth of fruit, length of fruit. It was also observed that the quality of the cucumber fruit increased in terms of ascorbic acid. UB-Godavari forms of briquettes .i.e. are promising source of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers as compared to straight fertilizers for enhancing green cucumber fruit yield of Sheetal variety of cucumber in lateritic soil. Amongst the three types of coated briquettes, the tar coated briquettes application was found to be superior for increasing cucumber fruit yield applied in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing @ 5 briquettes per plant at an interval of 30 days after sowing.

Keywords: Coating, Yield, Tar, briquettes, wax and quality

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4 The Effect of Santolina Plant Extract on Nitro-Oxidative Stress

Authors: Sabrina Sebbane, Alina Elena Parvu

Abstract:

Introduction: Santolina rosmarinifolia is a plant of the Santolina genus, a family made of medicinal plants widely used. Some of the Santolina species have been proven to have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, no in vivo study has been made to demonstrate this in Santolina rosmarinifolia. The aim of our study is to experimentally evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Santolina rosmarinifolia plant extracts on acute inflammation in rats. These effects are defined by measuring the modifications on nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant response in serum. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6). Three groups were given Santolina rosmarinifolia extract by gavage in different concentrations(100%, 50%, 25%) for a week. Inflammation was induced by i.m injection of turpentine oil on the 8th day. One group was only given turpentine oil and the fifth group acted as control and was given only saline solution. Blood was collected and serum separated. Global tests were used to measure the oxidative stress, total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) and the modified method of Griess assay to measure NO synthesis. Malondilaldehyde (MDA) and thiols levels were also assessed. Results: Santolina rosmarinifolia did not significantly change the TOS levels (p > 0.05). Santolina rosmarinifolia 25% and 50% decreased significantly the TAR levels (p < 0.001). Santolina 100% didn't have a significant effect on TAR (p > 0.05). All concentrations of Santolina rosmarinifolia increased the oxidative stress index (OSI) significantly(p < 0.05). Santolina rosmarinifolia 100% significantly decreased NO synthesis (p value < 0.05). In the diluted Santolina groups, no significant effect on NO synthesis was observed. In the groups treated with Santolina 100% and Santolina rosmarinifolia 50%, thiols concentration were significantly higher compared to the inflammation group (p < 0.02). A higher stimulatory effect was found in the Santolina 25% group (p value < 0.05). MDA levels were not significantly modified by the administration of Santolina rosmarinifolia (p > 0.05). Conclusion: All three solutions of Santolina rosmarinifolia had no important effect on oxidant production. However, Santolina rosmarinifolia solutions had a positive effect by increasing the thiols concentration in the serum of the models. The sum of all the effects produced by the administration of Santolina did not show a significant decrease of nitro-oxidative stress. Further experiments including smaller concentrations of Santolina rosmarinifolia will be made. Santolina rosmarinifolia should also be tested as a curative treatment.

Keywords: Inflammation, Tar, Nitric Oxide, MDA, santolina rosmarinifolia, thiols, TOS

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3 UV-Vis Spectroscopy as a Tool for Online Tar Measurements in Wood Gasification Processes

Authors: Philip Edinger, Christian Ludwig

Abstract:

The formation and control of tars remain one of the major challenges in the implementation of biomass gasification technologies. Robust, on-line analytical methods are needed to investigate the fate of tar compounds when different measures for their reduction are applied. This work establishes an on-line UV-Vis method, based on a liquid quench sampling system, to monitor tar compounds in biomass gasification processes. Recorded spectra from the liquid phase were analyzed for their tar composition by means of a classical least squares (CLS) and partial least squares (PLS) approach. This allowed for the detection of UV-Vis active tar compounds with detection limits in the low part per million by volume (ppmV) region. The developed method was then applied to two case studies. The first involved a lab-scale reactor, intended to investigate the decomposition of a limited number of tar compounds across a catalyst. The second study involved a gas scrubber as part of a pilot scale wood gasification plant. Tar compound quantification results showed good agreement with off-line based reference methods (GC-FID) when the complexity of tar composition was limited. The two case studies show that the developed method can provide rapid, qualitative information on the tar composition for the purpose of process monitoring. In cases with a limited number of tar species, quantitative information about the individual tar compound concentrations provides an additional benefit of the analytical method.

Keywords: Tar, Biomass Gasification, UV-vis, on-line

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2 Investigation of the Composition and Structure of Tar by Lignite Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetry, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrum Coupled Instrument System

Authors: Li Feng, Cheng Zhang, Chuanzhou Yuang

Abstract:

Understanding the macromolecular structure of low-rank coal is very important for its gasification and liquefaction. The pyrolysis is one of the methods of analyzing the macromolecular structure of coal. The gaseous products decomposed directly by the raw lignite at 500 °C and indirectly by tar products from raw lignite pyrolysis at 500 °C were investigated and compared by thermogravimetry, gas chromatography and mass spectrum coupled instrument system (TG/GC/MS) in this paper. The results show that 52 kinds of products were found from the raw lignite and 70 kinds of products from the tar. The pyrolysis products directly from the lignite appear more monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and less substituent groups or branch chain, compared with the products from the tar. There is less linear chain and double bonds structure in the tar, which can be speculated that linear chain and double bonds structure took part in the generation of condensed rings and other reactions. There are more kinds of phenol and furan in the tar, which indicate that these products may be generated from the secondary reaction. The formation process of phenol, phenol naphthalene, naphthene and furan are discussed.

Keywords: Tar, lignite, composition and structure, pyrolysis of coal, TG/GC/MS

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1 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Wei Li, Muhammad Awais, Anjum Munir

Abstract:

Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, Tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 16