Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Tantalum Related Abstracts

3 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee

Abstract:

The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Tantalum, electroplating, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy

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2 Exploration Tools for Tantalum-Bearing Pegmatites along Kibara Belt, Central and Southwestern Uganda

Authors: Sadat Sembatya

Abstract:

Tantalum metal is used in addressing capacitance challenge in the 21st-century technology growth. Tantalum is rarely found in its elemental form. Hence it’s often found with niobium and the radioactive elements of thorium and uranium. Industrial processes are required to extract pure tantalum. Its deposits are mainly oxide associated and exist in Ta-Nb oxides such as tapiolite, wodginite, ixiolite, rutile and pyrochlore-supergroup minerals are of minor importance. The stability and chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum. Each period of Tantalum ore formation is characterized by specific mineralogical and geochemical features. Compositions of Columbite-Group Minerals (CGM) are variable: Fe-rich types predominate in the Man Shield (Sierra Leone), the Congo Craton (DR Congo), the Kamativi Belt (Zimbabwe) and the Jos Plateau (Nigeria). Mn-rich columbite-tantalite is typical of the Alto Ligonha Province (Mozambique), the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt, Ethiopia) and the Tantalite Valley pegmatites (southern Namibia). There are large compositional variations through Fe-Mn fractionation, followed by Nb-Ta fractionation. These are typical for pegmatites usually associated with very coarse quartz-feldspar-mica granites. They are young granitic systems of the Kibara Belt of Central Africa and the Older Granites of Nigeria. Unlike ‘simple’ Be-pegmatites, most Ta-Nb rich pegmatites have the most complex zoning. Hence we need systematic exploration tools to find and rapidly assess the potential of different pegmatites. The pegmatites exist as known deposits (e.g., abandoned mines) and the exposed or buried pegmatites. We investigate rocks and minerals to trace for the possibility of the effect of hydrothermal alteration mainly for exposed pegmatites, do mineralogical study to prove evidence of gradual replacement and geochemistry to report the availability of trace elements which are good indicators of mineralisation. Pegmatites are not good geophysical responders resulting to the exclusion of the geophysics option. As for more advanced prospecting, we bulk samples from different zones first to establish their grades and characteristics, then make a pilot test plant because of big samples to aid in the quantitative characterization of zones, and then drill to reveal distribution and extent of different zones but not necessarily grade due to nugget effect. Rapid assessment tools are needed to assess grade and degree of fractionation in order to ‘rule in’ or ‘rule out’ a given pegmatite for future work. Pegmatite exploration is also unique, high risk and expensive hence right traceability system and certification for 3Ts are highly needed.

Keywords: Exploration, Mineralogy, Tantalum, pegmatites

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1 Plasma Ion Implantation Study: A Comparison between Tungsten and Tantalum as Plasma Facing Components

Authors: Jerzy A. Szpunar, Tahreem Yousaf, Michael P. Bradley

Abstract:

Currently, nuclear fusion is considered one of the most favorable options for future energy generation, due both to its abundant fuel and lack of emissions. For fusion power reactors, a major problem will be a suitable material choice for the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) which will constitute the reactor first wall. Tungsten (W) has advantages as a PFC material because of its high melting point, low vapour pressure, high thermal conductivity and low retention of hydrogen isotopes. However, several adverse effects such as embrittlement, melting and morphological evolution have been observed in W when it is bombarded by low-energy and high-fluence helium (He) and deuterium (D) ions, as a simulation conditions adjacent to a fusion plasma. Recently, tantalum (Ta) also investigate as PFC and show better reluctance to nanostructure fuzz as compared to W under simulated fusion plasma conditions. But retention of D ions found high in Ta than W. Preparatory to plasma-based ion implantation studies, the effect of D and He ion impact on W and Ta is predicted by using the stopping and range of ions in the matter (SRIM) code. SRIM provided some theoretical results regarding projected range, ion concentration (at. %) and displacement damage (dpa) in W and Ta. The projected range for W under Irradiation of He and D ions with an energy of 3-keV and 1×fluence is determined 75Å and 135 Å and for Ta 85Å and 155Å, respectively. For both W and Ta samples, the maximum implanted peak for helium is predicted ~ 5.3 at. % at 12 nm and for De ions concentration peak is located near 3.1 at. % at 25 nm. For the same parameters, the displacement damage for He ions is observed in W ~ 0.65 dpa and Ta ~ 0.35 dpa at 5 nm. For D ions the displacement damage for W ~ 0.20 dpa at 8 nm and Ta ~ 0.175 dpa at 7 nm. The mean implantation depth is same for W and Ta, i.e. for He ions ~ 40 nm and D ions ~ 70 nm. From these results, we conclude that retention of D is high than He ions, but damage is low for Ta as compared to W. Further investigation still in progress regarding W and T.

Keywords: Tungsten, Tantalum, helium and deuterium ion impact, plasma facing components, SRIM simulation

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