Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

synthetic jet Related Abstracts

3 The Structure and Development of a Wing Tip Vortex under the Effect of Synthetic Jet Actuation

Authors: Marouen Dghim, Mohsen Ferchichi


The effect of synthetic jet actuation on the roll-up and the development of a wing tip vortex downstream a square-tipped rectangular wing was investigated experimentally using hotwire anemometry. The wing is equipped with a hallow cavity designed to generate a high aspect ratio synthetic jets blowing at an angles with respect to the spanwise direction. The structure of the wing tip vortex under the effect of fluidic actuation was examined at a chord Reynolds number Re_c=8×10^4. An extensive qualitative study on the effect of actuation on the spanwise pressure distribution at c⁄4 was achieved using pressure scanner measurements in order to determine the optimal actuation parameters namely, the blowing momentum coefficient, Cμ, and the non-dimensionalized actuation frequency, F^+. A qualitative study on the effect of actuation parameters on the spanwise pressure distribution showed that optimal actuation frequencies of the synthetic jet were found within the range amplified by both long and short wave instabilities where spanwise pressure coefficients exhibited a considerable decrease by up to 60%. The vortex appeared larger and more diffuse than that of the natural vortex case. Operating the synthetic jet seemed to introduce unsteadiness and turbulence into the vortex core. Based on the ‘a priori’ optimal selected parameters, results of the hotwire wake survey indicated that the actuation achieved a reduction and broadening of the axial velocity deficit. A decrease in the peak tangential velocity associated with an increase in the vortex core radius was reported as a result of the accelerated radial transport of angular momentum. Peak vorticity level near the core was also found to be largely diffused as a direct result of the increased turbulent mixing within the vortex. The wing tip vortex a exhibited a reduced strength and a diffused core as a direct result of increased turbulent mixing due to the presence of turbulent small scale vortices within its core. It is believed that the increased turbulence within the vortex due to the synthetic jet control was the main mechanism associated with the decreased strength and increased size of the wing tip vortex as it evolves downstream. A comparison with a ‘non-optimal’ case was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of selecting the appropriate control parameters. The Synthetic Jet will be operated at various actuation configurations and an extensive parametric study is projected to determine the optimal actuation parameters.

Keywords: Flow control, hotwire anemometry, synthetic jet, wing tip vortex

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2 Numerical Investigation of Improved Aerodynamic Performance of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet

Authors: K. Boualem, T. Yahiaoui, A. Azzi


Numerical investigations are performed to analyze the flow behavior over NACA0015 and to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic jet as active control device. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influence of momentum coefficient of synthetic jet on the flow behaviour. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using, k-ω SST provided by ANSYS CFX-CFD code. The model presented in this paper is a comprehensive representation of the information found in the literature. Comparison of obtained numerical flow parameters with the experimental ones shows that the adopted computational procedure reflects nearly the real flow nature. Also, numerical results state that use of synthetic jets devices has positive effects on the flow separation, and thus, aerodynamic performance improvement of NACA0015 airfoil. It can also be observed that the use of synthetic jet increases the lift coefficient about 13.3% and reduces the drag coefficient about 52.7%.

Keywords: CFD, Active Control, NACA airfoil, synthetic jet

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1 Characteristics of Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator in Repetitive Working Mode

Authors: Haohua Zong, Marios Kotsonis


Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is a new concept of zero net mass flow actuator which utilizes pulsed arc/spark discharge to rapidly pressurize gas in a small cavity under constant-volume conditions. The unique combination of high exit jet velocity (>400 m/s) and high actuation frequency (>5 kHz) provides a promising solution for high-speed high-Reynolds-number flow control. This paper focuses on the performance of PSJA in repetitive working mode which is more relevant to future flow control applications. A two-electrodes PSJA (cavity volume: 424 mm3, orifice diameter: 2 mm) together with a capacitive discharge circuit (discharge energy: 50 mJ-110 mJ) is designed to enable repetitive operation. Time-Resolved Particle Imaging Velocimetry (TR-PIV) system working at 10 kHz is exploited to investigate the influence of discharge frequency on performance of PSJA. In total, seven cases are tested, covering a wide range of discharge frequencies (20 Hz-560 Hz). The pertinent flow features (shock wave, vortex ring and jet) remain the same for single shot mode and repetitive working mode. Shock wave is issued prior to jet eruption. Two distinct vortex rings are formed in one cycle. The first one is produced by the starting jet whereas the second one is related with the shock wave reflection in cavity. A sudden pressure rise is induced at the throat inlet by the reflection of primary shock wave, promoting the shedding of second vortex ring. In one cycle, jet exit velocity first increases sharply, then decreases almost linearly. Afterwards, an alternate occurrence of multiple jet stages and refresh stages is observed. By monitoring the dynamic evolution of exit velocity in one cycle, some integral performance parameters of PSJA can be deduced. As frequency increases, the jet intensity in steady phase decreases monotonically. In the investigated frequency range, jet duration time drops from 250 µs to 210 µs and peak jet velocity decreases from 53 m/s to approximately 39 m/s. The jet impulse and the expelled gas mass (0.69 µN∙s and 0.027 mg at 20 Hz) decline by 48% and 40%, respectively. However, the electro-mechanical efficiency of PSJA defined by the ratio of jet mechanical energy to capacitor energy doesn’t show significant difference (o(0.01%)). Fourier transformation of the temporal exit velocity signal indicates two dominant frequencies. One corresponds to the discharge frequency, while the other accounts for the alternation frequency of jet stage and refresh stage in one cycle. The alternation period (300 µs approximately) is independent of discharge frequency, and possibly determined intrinsically by the actuator geometry. A simple analytical model is established to interpret the alternation of jet stage and refresh stage. Results show that the dynamic response of exit velocity to a small-scale disturbance (jump in cavity pressure) can be treated as a second-order under-damping system. Oscillation frequency of the exit velocity, namely alternation frequency, is positively proportional to exit area, but inversely proportional to cavity volume and throat length. Theoretical value of alternation period (305 µs) agrees well with the experimental value.

Keywords: plasma, Actuator, synthetic jet, frequency effect

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