Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Synthesis Related Abstracts

47 Eco-Benign and Highly Efficient Procedures for the Synthesis of Amides Catalyzed by Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquids under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Zhikai Chena, Renzhong Fu, Wen Chaib, Rongxin Yuanb


Two eco-benign and highly efficient routes for the synthesis of amides have been developed by treating amines with corresponding carboxylic acids or carboxamides in the presence of heteropolyanion-based ionic liquids (HPAILs) as catalysts. These practical reactions can tolerate a wide range of substrates. Thus, various amides were obtained in good to excellent yields under solvent-free conditions at heating. Moreover, recycling studies revealed that HPAILs are easily reusable for this two procedures. These methods provide green and much improved protocols over the existing methods.

Keywords: Synthesis, Catalyst, amide, ıonic liquid

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46 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri


We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: Synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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45 Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyesters Based on Diarylidene-1-Methyl-4-Piperidone

Authors: Tareg M. Elsunaki, Suleiman A. Arafa, Mohamed A. Abd-Alla


New interesting thermal stable polyesters containing 1-methyl-4-piperidone moiety in the main chain have been synthesized. These polyesters were synthesized by interfacial polycondensation technique of 3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (I) and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyli-dene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (II) with terphthaloyl, isophthaloyl, 4,4'-diphenic, adipoyl and sebacoyl dichlorides. The yield and the values of the reduced viscosity of the produced polyesters were found to be affected by the type of an organic phase. In order to characterize these polymers, the necessary model compounds (A), (B) were prepared from (I), (II) respectively and benzoyl chloride. The structure of monomers (I), (II), model compounds and resulting polyesters were confirmed by IR, elemental analysis and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The various characteristic of the resulting polymers including solubility, thermal properties, viscosity and X-ray analysis were also studied.

Keywords: Chemistry, Characterization, Synthesis, new polyesters

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44 Newly Developed Epoxy-Polyol and Epoxy- Polyurethane from Renewable Resources

Authors: Akintayo Emmanuel Temitope, Akintayo Cecilia Olufunke, Ziegler Thomas


Bio-polyols are important components in polyurethane industries. The preliminary studies into the synthesis of bio-polyol products (epoxy-polyol and epoxyl-polyurethanes) from Jatropha curcas were investigated. The reactions were followed by both infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical characterisation of the samples for iodine value (IV), acid value (AV), saponification value (SV) and hydroxyl value (HV) were carried out. Thermal transitions of the products were studied by heating 5 mg of the sample from 20ºC to 800ºC and then cooling down to -500ºC on a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The preparation of epoxylpolyol and polyurethane from Jatropha curcas oil was smooth and efficient. Results of film and solubility properties revealed that coatings of Jatropha curcas epoxy-polyurethanes performed better with increased loading of toluylene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) up to 2 wt% while their solvent resistance decreased beyond a TDI loading of 1.2 wt%. DSC analysis shows the epoxy-polyurethane to be less stable compared to the epoxy-polyol.

Keywords: Synthesis, jatropha curcas oil, epoxy-polyol, epoxy-polyurethane

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43 Study of the Impact of Synthesis Method and Chemical Composition on Photocatalytic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Vicente Rives, Martin Tsvetkov, Raquel Trujillano, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Maria Milanova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva


The nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type materials Sample A - Co0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample B - Co0.5Fe2.5O4, and Sample C - CoFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation in our previous investigations. The co-precipitated Sample B and Sample C were mechanochemically activated in order to produce Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample E- CoFe2O4. The PXRD, Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, specific surface area determination by the BET method, thermal analysis, element chemical analysis and temperature-programmed reduction were used to investigate the prepared nano-sized samples. The changes of the Malachite green dye concentration during reaction of the photocatalytic decolorization using nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts with different chemical composition are included. The photocatalytic results show that the increase in the degree of incorporation of cobalt ions in the magnetite host structure for co-precipitated cobalt ferrite-type samples results in an increase of the photocatalytic activity: Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1) < Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) < Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1). Mechanochemically activated photocatalysts showed a higher activity than the co-precipitated ferrite materials: Sample D (16 х10-3 min-1) > Sample E (14 х10-3 min-1) > Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1) > Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) > Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1). On decreasing the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones a higher sorption ability of the dye after the dark period for the co-precipitated cobalt ferrite materials was observed: Sample C (72 %) < Sample B (78 %) < Sample A (80 %). Mechanochemically treated ferrite catalysts and co-precipitated Sample B possess similar sorption capacities, Sample D (78 %) ~ Sample E (78 %) ~ Sample B (78 %). The prepared nano-sized cobalt ferrite-type materials demonstrate good photocatalytic and sorption properties. Mechanochemically activated Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 (16х10-3 min-1) and Sample E-CoFe2O4 (14х10-3 min-1) possess higher photocatalytic activity than that of the most common used UV-light catalyst Degussa P25 (12х10-3 min-1). The dependence of the photo-catalytic activity and sorption properties on the preparation method and different degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ions in synthesized cobalt ferrite samples is established. The mechanochemical activation leads to formation of nano-structured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts (Sample D and Sample E) with higher rate constants than those of the ferrite materials (Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C) prepared by the co-precipitation procedure. The increase in the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones leads to improved photocatalytic properties and lower sorption capacities of the co-precipitated ferrite samples. The good sorption properties between 72 and 80% of the prepared ferrite-type materials show that they could be used as potential cheap absorbents for purification of polluted waters.

Keywords: Synthesis, nanodimensional cobalt ferrites, photocatalyst, mechanochemical activation

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42 Synthesis of Hard Magnetic Material from Secondary Resources

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy, O. N. Alzeghaibi


Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19; Sr-ferrite) is one of the well-known materials for permanent magnets. In this study, M-type strontium ferrite was prepared by following the conventional ceramic method from steelmaking by-product. Initial materials; SrCO3 and by-product, were mixed together in the composition of SrFe12O19 in different Sr/Fe ratios. The mixtures of these raw materials were dry-milled for 6h. The blended powder was pre-sintered (i.e. calcination) at 1000°C for different times periods, then cooled down to room temperature. These pre-sintered samples were re-milled in a dry atmosphere for 1h and then fired at different temperatures in atmospheric conditions, and cooled down to room temperature. The produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure. The calculated energy product values for the produced samples ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 MGOe.

Keywords: Synthesis, hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite

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41 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, V. Ramu


In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: Synthesis, Multilevel Inverter, total harmonic distortion, cascaded connection

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40 Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

Authors: Fereshteh Chekin, Sepideh Sadeghi


Nickel nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of applications in catalysis, medical diagnostics and magnetic applications. In this work, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized NiO-NPs were characterized by a variety of means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles with high crystalline can be obtained using this simple method. The grain size measured by TEM was 16 in presence of SDS, which agrees well with the XRD data. SDS plays an important role in the formation of the NiO nanoparticles. Moreover, the NiO nanoparticles have been used as a solid phase catalyst for the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate at room temperatures. The decomposition process has been monitored by UV–vis analysis. The present study showed that nanoparticles are not poisoned after their repeated use in decomposition of hydrazine.

Keywords: Synthesis, stabilizer, nickel oxide nanoparticles, sodium dodecyl sulphate

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39 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S-Triazine Vinyl Sulphone Reactive Dyes

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Chindo Istifanus


A series of ten bi functional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on H-acid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were examined in various solvents and results shows positive and negative salvatochromism as the solvent polarity; changes, melting point, percentage yield and molar extinction co-efficient of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyeing.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, bifunctional, reactive dyes

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38 A Methodology for the Synthesis of Multi-Processors

Authors: Hamid Yasinian


Random epistemologies and hash tables have garnered minimal interest from both security experts and experts in the last several years. In fact, few information theorists would disagree with the evaluation of expert systems. In our research, we discover how flip-flop gates can be applied to the study of superpages. Though such a hypothesis at first glance seems perverse, it is derived from known results.

Keywords: Synthesis, multi-processors, interactive model, moor’s law

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37 Synthesis and Characterization of Model Amines for Corrosion Applications

Authors: John Vergara, Giuseppe Palmese


Fundamental studies aimed at elucidating the key contributions to corrosion performance are needed to make progress toward effective and environmentally compliant corrosion control. Epoxy/amine systems are typically employed as barrier coatings for corrosion control. However, the hardening agents used for coating applications can be very complex, making fundamental studies of water and oxygen permeability challenging to carry out. Creating model building blocks for epoxy/amine coatings is the first step in carrying out these studies. We will demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of model amine building blocks from saturated fatty acids and simple amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA) and Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. The structure-property relationship of thermosets made from these model amines and Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGBEA) will be discussed.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, building block, amine

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36 Quinazolino-Thiazoles: Fused Pharmacophores as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Sanjay Bari, Vinod Ugale, Kamalkishor Patil


Over the past several years the emergence of micro-organisms resistant to nearly all the class of antimicrobial agents has become a serious public health concern. In the present research, we report the synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of a new series of novel quinazolino-thiadiazoles 3 (a-j). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by melting point, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. In general, the results of the in-vitro antibacterial activity are encouraging, as out of 10 compounds tested, Compound 3f and 3i with a 4-chloro phenyl and 4-nitro phenyl at C-2 of thiadiazolyl of quinazolino-thiadiazoles, displayed the excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the tested microorganisms (Bacterial and Fungal strain) with MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL. It is worth to mention that the combination of two biologically active moieties quinazoline and thiadiazole profoundly influences the biological activity. While evaluating the antimicrobial activity, it was observed that compounds having electron withdrawing groups on thiazole has shown profound activity in comparison to compounds having electron releasing groups. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that halogen substituent on thiazole ring increases antimicrobial activity. Possible improvements in the antimicrobial activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituent’s and/or additional structural activity investigations to have good antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Synthesis, Antimicrobial, Antifungal, quinazolino-thiazoles

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35 Study of the Kinetic of the Reduction of Alpha and Beta PbO2 in H2SO4 on the Microcavity Electrode

Authors: N. Chahmana, I. Zerroual


The aim of our work is the contribution to the improvement of the performances of the positive plate of the lead acid battery. For that, we synthesized two varieties of PbO2 used in industry, alpha and beta PbO2 by electrochemical way starting from the not formed industrial plates. We studied the kinetics of reduction of the alpha varieties and PbO2 beta on electrode with microcavity in sulphuric medium. The electrochemical study of the powders of α and β-PbO2 was made by cyclic voltamperometry with sweeping of potential by using a traditional assembly with three electrodes. Values of the coefficient of diffusion of the proton in α and β-PbO2 are respectively equal to 0.498*10-8cm2 /s and 0.793*10-8 cm2 /s. During the cycling of the two varieties of PbO2, we obtain a clear increase in the capacity.

Keywords: Synthesis, Kinetics, lead accumulator, α and β - PbO2, cyclic voltametry, coefficient of diffusion

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34 Design, Synthesis and in-vitro Antitumor Evaluation of Some Novel Substituted Quinazoline Derivatives

Authors: Adel S. El-Azab, Alaa A. M. Abdel-Aziz, Ibrahim A. Al-Suwaidan, Amer M. Alanazi


A novel series of 2,3,6-trisubstitute quinazolinone were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in-vitro antitumor activity. 3 (Benzylideneamino)-6-chloro-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H)-One, 2-[(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)thio]-N-(3,4;5-trimethoxyphenyl) acetamide and 3-(3-benzyl-6-methyl-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) propanamide have shown amazing broad spectrum antitumor activity with mean GI50; 15.8, 3.16, and 7.4 μM respectively compared to known Quinazoline Derivatives antitumor drug 5-FU mean GI50=22.6 μM.

Keywords: Synthesis, quinazoline derivatives, in vitro antitumor, NCI

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33 Catalytic Performance of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) in the Synthesis of Pyrazolines

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan


Different Pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by cyclization of substituted chalcone derivatives in presence of hydrazine hydrate. A series of novel 1,3,5-triaryl pyrazoline derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone and phenylhydrazine in the presence of the Fe3O4 NPs, in high yields. The structures of compounds obtained were determined by IR and 1H NMR spectra. Fe3O4 NPs was recycled and no appreciable change in activity was noticed after three cycles.

Keywords: Synthesis, Nanoparticles, Catalyst, Fe3O4, pyrazoline, chalcone

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32 Preparation of 1D Nano-Polyaniline/Dendritic Silver Composites

Authors: Wen-Bin Liau, Wan-Ting Wang, Chiang-Jen Hsiao, Sheng-Mao Tseng


In this paper, an interesting and easy method to prepare one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites is reported. It is well known that the morphology of metal particle is a very important factor to influence the properties of polymer-metal composites. Usually, the dendritic silver is prepared by kinetic control in reduction reaction. It is not a thermodynamically stable structure. It is the goal to reduce silver ion to dendritic silver by polyaniline polymer via kinetic control and form one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites. The preparation is a two steps sequential reaction. First step, the polyaniline networks composed of nano fibrillar polyaniline are synthesized from aniline monomers aqueous with ammonium persulfate as the initiator at room temperature. In second step, the silver nitrate is added into polyaniline networks dispersed in deionized water. The dendritic silver is formed via reduction by polyaniline networks under the kinetic control. The formation of polyaniline is discussed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanosheets, nanotubes, nanospheres, nanosticks, and networks are observed via TEM. Then, the mechanism of formation of one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites is discussed. The formation of dendritic silver is observed by TEM and X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: Synthesis, dendritic silver

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31 A Study on the Synthesis of Boron Nitride Microtubes

Authors: Pervaiz Ahmad, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Yusoff Mohd Amin


A unique cone-like morphologies of boron nitride microtubes with larger internal space and thin walls structure are synthesized in a dual zone quartz tube furnace at 1200 ° C with ammonia as a reaction atmosphere. The synthesized microtubes are found to have diameter in the range of 1 to ̴ 2 μm with walls thickness estimated from 10 – 100 nm. XPS survey shows N 1s and B 1s peaks at 398.7 eV and 191 eV that represent h-BN in the sample. Raman spectroscopy indicates a high intensity peak at 1372.53 (cm-1) that corresponds to the E2g mode of h-BN.

Keywords: Synthesis, Growth, BNMTs, reaction atmosphere

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30 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sonali Patil, Sachinkumar Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, Application, magnetic nanoparticles, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia

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29 Monitoring Synthesis of Biodiesel through Online Density Measurements

Authors: Matthieu Tubino, Arnaldo G. de Oliveira


The transesterification process of triglycerides with alcohols that occurs during the biodiesel synthesis causes continuous changes in several physical properties of the reaction mixture, such as refractive index, viscosity and density. Amongst them, density can be an useful parameter to monitor the reaction, in order to predict the composition of the reacting mixture and to verify the conversion of the oil into biodiesel. In this context, a system was constructed in order to continuously determine changes in the density of the reacting mixture containing soybean oil, methanol and sodium methoxide (30 % w/w solution in methanol), stirred at 620 rpm at room temperature (about 27 °C). A polyethylene pipe network connected to a peristaltic pump was used in order to collect the mixture and pump it through a coil fixed on the plate of an analytical balance. The collected mass values were used to trace a curve correlating the mass of the system to the reaction time. The density variation profile versus the time clearly shows three different steps: 1) the dispersion of methanol in oil causes a decrease in the system mass due to the lower alcohol density followed by stabilization; 2) the addition of the catalyst (sodium methoxide) causes a larger decrease in mass compared to the first step (dispersion of methanol in oil) because of the oil conversion into biodiesel; 3) the final stabilization, denoting the end of the reaction. This density variation profile provides information that was used to predict the composition of the mixture over the time and the reaction rate. The precise knowledge of the duration of the synthesis means saving time and resources on a scale production system. This kind of monitoring provides several interesting features such as continuous measurements without collecting aliquots.

Keywords: Synthesis, Biodiesel, density measurements, online continuous monitoring

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28 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hollow Silica Particle through DODAB Vesicle Templating

Authors: Eun Ju Park, Wendy Rusli, He Tao, Alexander M. Van Herk, Sanggu Kim


Hollow micro-/nano- structured materials have proven to be promising in wide range of applications, such as catalysis, drug delivery and controlled release, biotechnology, and personal and consumer care. Hollow sphere structures can be obtained through various templating approaches; colloid templates, emulsion templates, multi-surfactant templates, and single crystal templates. Vesicles are generally the self-directed assemblies of amphiphilic molecules including cationic, anionic, and cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions. The directed silica capsule formations were performed at the surface of dioctadecyldimethylammoniumbromide(DODAB) bilayer vesicles as soft template. The size of DODAB bilayer vesicles could be tuned by extrusion of a preheated dispersion of DODAB. The synthesized hollow silica particles were characterized by conventional TEM, cryo-TEM and SEM to determine the morphology and structure of particles and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to measure the particle size and particle size distribution.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, DODAB, hollow silica particle, vesicle

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27 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

Authors: F. Karim


In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

Keywords: Synthesis, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber, dispersion compensation, directed tabu search

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26 Spent Paint Solvent Recoveries by Ionic Liquids: Potential for Industrial Application

Authors: Mbongeni Mabaso, Kandasamy Moodley, Gan Redhi


The recovery of industrially valuable organic solvents from liquid waste, generated in chemical processes, is economically crucial to countries which need to import organic solvents. In view of this, the main objective of this study was to determine the ability of selected ionic liquids, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate, [EMIM] [ESO4] and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulphate, [EMpy][ESO4] to recover aromatic components from spent paint solvents. Preliminary studies done on the liquid waste, received from a paint manufacturing company, showed that the aromatic components were present in the range 6 - 21 % by volume. The separation of the aromatic components was performed with the ionic liquids listed above. The phases, resulting from the separation of the mixtures, were analysed with a Gas Chromatograph (GC) coupled to a FID detector. Chromatograms illustrate that the chosen ZB-Wax-Plus column gave excellent separation of all components of interest from the mixtures, including the isomers of xylene. The concentrations of aromatics recovered from the spent solvents were found to be the % ranges 13-33 and 23-49 respectively for imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. These results also show that there is a significant correlation between π-character of ionic liquids and the level of extraction. It is therefore concluded that ionic liquids have the potential for macro-scale recovery of re-useable solvents present in liquid waste emanating from paint manufacture.

Keywords: Synthesis, Extraction, ionic liquid, imidazolium, pyridinium, aromatic solvents, spent paint organic solvents

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25 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: Synthesis, Visible light, photocatalyst, ZnO/ZnS

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24 New 5’-O- and 6-Substituted Purine Nucleoside Analogs: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Meral Tuncbilek, Duygu Sac, Irem Durmaz, Rengul Cetin Atalay


Nucleoside analogs are a pharmacologically diverse family that includes cytotoxic compounds, antiviral agents, and immunosuppressive molecules. Purine nucleoside derivatives such as fludarabine, cladribine, and pentostatin are significant drugs used in chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In this study, we synthesized novel purine ribonucleoside analogs containing a 4-(4-substituted phenylsulfonyl) piperazine in the substituent at N6- and O-substituted sulfonyl group at 5’-position as putative cytotoxic agents. The newly obtained compounds were then characterized for their cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines. The 5’, 6-disubstituted 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives (44-67) were readily obtained from commercially available inosine in seven steps in very cost effective synthesis approach. The newly synthesized compounds were first evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against human liver (Huh7), colon (HCT116) and breast (MCF7) carcinoma cell lines. The IC50 values were in micromolar concentrations with 5’, 6-disubstituted purine nucleoside derivatives. Time-dependent IC50 values for each molecule were also calculated in comparison with known cytotoxic agents Camptothecin (CPT), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Cladribine, Pentostatine and Fludarabine. N6-(4-trifluoromethyl phenyl) / N6-(4-bromophenyl) and 5’-O-(4-methoxybenzene sulfonyl) / 5’-O-(benzenesulfonyl) derivatives 54, 64 displayed the best cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 8.8, 7 µM against MCF7 cell line. The N6-(4-methylphenyl) analog 50 was also very active (IC50= 10.7 μM) against HCT116 cell line. Furthermore, compound 64 had a better cytotoxic activity than the known cell growth inhibitors 5-FU and Fludarabine on Huh7 (1.5 vs 30.7, 29.9 μM for 5-FU and Fludarabine).

Keywords: Synthesis, cytotoxic activity, MCF7, Huh7, HCT116, nucleoside

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23 Synthesis of Some 1h-Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase

Authors: Ismail Celik, Gülgün Ayhan-Kılcıgi̇l, Arzu Onay-Beşi̇kçi̇


In this study, some 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)- lH-benzo[d]'imidazol-l-yl)-N'-(alkylthiosemicarbazide were designed and prepared. Firstly, 2-phenyl/ suhstitutedphenyl-lH-Benzo[d]imidazole was prepared via oxidative condensation of o-phenylenediamine, benzaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. Treatment of the benzimidazole compound with ethyl chloroacetate in KOH/DMSO gave the ester compound ethyl 2-(2-substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetate. Hydrazine hydrate and the ester in ethanol were refluxed for 4 h to give 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetohydrazide. Thiosemicarbazides were obtained by condensing acyl hydrazide with the alkylisothiocyanate in ethanol. Following the structure elucidation, benzimidazole compounds were tested for their EGFR kinase inhibitory activities by using ADP-GloTM Kinase Assay.

Keywords: Synthesis, thiosemicarbazide, benzimidazole, EGFR kinase inhibitor

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22 Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma

Authors: A. V. Samokhin, A. A. Fadeev, M. A. Sinaiskii, N. V. Alekseev, A. V. Kolesnikov


Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.

Keywords: Synthesis, plasma, Material, nanocomposite, electrical contact

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21 An Investigation of Anticancer Fluorinated Aza-Heterocycles

Authors: Darya O. Prima, Elena V. Vorontsova, Yuri G. Slizhov, Andrey V. Zibarev


A broad family of carbocycle-fluorinated aza-heterocycles including 1,3-benzodiazoles (benzimidazoles), 1,2,3-benzotriazoles, 2,1,3-benzothia/selenadiazoles and 1,4-benzodiazines (quinoxalines) was synthesized in the unified way and assessed for cytotoxicity towards the Hep2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, a kind of oral cancer) cells. The diazoles, triazoles and selenadiazoles revealed low medium inhibitory concentrations IC50 = 2.2-26.4 µМ and induced the cells’ apoptosis at low concentrations C = 1-25 µМ. For selenadiazoles, cell death dynamics was observed already in the first hours after the treatment. Replacement of one atom F by group Me2N in some cases enlarged apoptotic activity of the compounds towards the Hep2 cells. In contrast, the archetypal (i.e. non-fluorinated) 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole were low toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) and induced apoptosis only at high concentrations. The chlorinated congeners of the heterocycles under discussion were highly toxic towards the Hep2 cells but revealed insignificant ability to induce their apoptosis. Overall, the findings above suggest that fluorinated 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole derivatives can be considered as potential anticancer drugs. For the laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (for which, according to available statistics, the five-year survival rate remained ~50% during the past 30 years), it is especially important since surgical treatment is seriously complicated here thus encouraging medicament one.

Keywords: Synthesis, apoptosis, Cytotoxicity, aza-heterocycles, fluorinated, Hep2 cells

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20 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Tinatin Kuchukhidze, Natia Jalagonia


Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: Synthesis, Electrolyte, Membrane, PMHS

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19 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues

Authors: Irlana C. do Mar, Thayna A. Ferreira, Dayane S. Rezende, Bruno A. M. Figueira, José M. R. Mercury


This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, Mn residues, Octahedral Molecular Sieve

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18 The Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Water-Soluble Silane Coupling Agents for Increasing Silica Filler Content in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Authors: Dong Hyun Kim, Jun Choi, Bo Ram Lee, Ji Hye Choi, Jung Soo Kim, No-Hyung Park


The synthetic rubber compound, which is widely used as the core material for automobile tire industry, is manufactured by mixing styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and organic/inorganic fillers. It is known that the most important factor for the physical properties of rubber compound is the interaction between the filler and the rubber, which affects the rotational, braking and abrasion resistance. Silica filler has hydrophilic groups such as a silanol group on their surface which has a low affinity with hydrophobic rubbers. In order to solve this problem, researches on an efficient silane coupling agent (SCA) has been continuously carried out. In this study, highly water-soluble SCAs which are expected to show higher hydrolysis efficiency were synthesized. The hydrophobization process of the silica with the prepared SCAs was economical and environment-friendly. The SCAs structures were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, their hydrolysis efficiency and condensation side reaction in SBR wet master batch were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively.

Keywords: Synthesis, Rubber, silane coupling agent, water-soluble

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