Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

symbols Related Abstracts

3 Culture of Manager of a Medium or Small Enterprises

Authors: Omar Bendjimaa, Karzabi Abdelatif


Small and medium enterprises have witnessed several developments in recent years thanks to the policies and programs of support given by the state, and that is due to their importance in local and national development. Nevertheless, the success and development of these firms depends on a number of factors, especially the human element, for instance, the culture of the manager has its origin in the culture of the community and is of crucial influence in these firms. In fact, this culture is nothing more than a set of values, perceptions, beliefs, symbols and practices repeated, in addition to the knowledge it has received from the readings and the modern means of education. All these factors have an impact on the effectiveness of governance, its resolutions, instructions and performance of its function as a manager of a medium or small enterprise is inevitably affected by these cultural values, it is the driving force, the leader, and the observer at the same time.

Keywords: Performance, Values, beliefs, Small and medium enterprises, perceptions, the culture of the manager, the culture of the community, symbols

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2 Overcoming Reading Barriers in an Inclusive Mathematics Classroom with Linguistic and Visual Support

Authors: A. Noll, J. Roth, M. Scholz


The importance of written language in a democratic society is non-controversial. Students with physical, learning, cognitive or developmental disabilities often have difficulties in understanding information which is presented in written language only. These students suffer from obstacles in diverse domains. In order to reduce such barriers in educational as well as in out-of-school areas, access to written information must be facilitated. Readability can be enhanced by linguistic simplifications like the application of easy-to-read language. Easy-to-read language shall help people with disabilities to participate socially and politically in society. The authors state, for example, that only short simple words should be used, whereas the occurrence of complex sentences should be avoided. So far, these guidelines were not empirically proved. Another way to reduce reading barriers is the use of visual support, for example, symbols. A symbol conveys, in contrast to a photo, a single idea or concept. Little empirical data about the use of symbols to foster the readability of texts exist. Nevertheless, a positive influence can be assumed, e.g., because of the multimedia principle. It indicates that people learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. A qualitative Interview and Eye-Tracking-Study, which was conducted by the authors, gives cause for the assumption that besides the illustration of single words, the visualization of complete sentences may be helpful. Thus, the effect of photos, which illustrate the content of complete sentences, is also investigated in this study. This leads us to the main research question which was focused on: Does the use of easy-to-read language and/or enriching text with symbols or photos facilitate pupils’ comprehension of learning tasks? The sample consisted of students with learning difficulties (N = 144) and students without SEN (N = 159). The students worked on the tasks, which dealt with introducing fractions, individually. While experimental group 1 received a linguistically simplified version of the tasks, experimental group 2 worked with a variation which was linguistically simplified and furthermore, the keywords of the tasks were visualized by symbols. Experimental group 3 worked on exercises which were simplified by easy-to-read-language and the content of the whole sentences was illustrated by photos. Experimental group 4 received a not simplified version. The participants’ reading ability and their IQ was elevated beforehand to build four comparable groups. There is a significant effect of the different setting on the students’ results F(3,140) = 2,932; p = 0,036*. A post-hoc-analyses with multiple comparisons shows that this significance results from the difference between experimental group 3 and 4. The students in the group easy-to-read language plus photos worked on the exercises significantly more successfully than the students who worked in the group with no simplifications. Further results which refer, among others, to the influence of the students reading ability will be presented at the ICERI 2018.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Inclusive Education, Special Educational Needs, symbols, easy-to-read language, photos

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1 Egyptian and Irish Female Protagonists: A Comparative Study of Al-Hakim's Song of Death and Synge's Riders to the Sea

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Ghaleb, Ehab Saleh Alnuzaili


This paper attempts to generally examine Tawfiq Al-Hakim's Song of Death (1950) and John Millington Synge's Riders to the Sea (1904) by comparatively bringing the two plays under focus. Strikingly, the similarities between the two plays appear in the plot, picturization of the characters, tragic intensity, structural perfection, and the economy of language. Plot structure, albeit a simple one in both plays, is enriched by the playwrights' effective use of language, symbols, imagery, and tragic irony. Neither of the two plays has the traditional five-act structure; they are one-act plays. From a feminist point of view, the domination of female characters is observed in both plays. The female protagonists are the main focus of the two plays. Their brave characters and struggle are highly depicted. While Al-Hakim's protagonist is presented as a victim of tribal customs, Synge's protagonist is shown as a victim of nature. Both plays can be described as 'feminine tragedies' using the words of Oona Frwaley. Although the two plays appeared in totally different historical periods of time, both share considerable similarities, thematic as well as linguistic, which result in a concern to investigate them. The paper, basically, aims at asserting the commonalities between human beings and creating awareness of intercultural negotiations and connections. It attempts to bridge the cultural, intellectual, and social gap between Arab and Irish drama by exploring the common elements of the two plays. Thus, the paper presents a critical and comparative study of both plays highlighting the portrayal of the female protagonists.

Keywords: Imagery, symbols, economy of language, protagonist, tragic intensity, tragic irony

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