Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Swimming Related Abstracts

7 The Effect of 6 Weeks Endurance Swimming Training on Blood Glucose and Cardiac Tissue Antioxidants in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Kh. Dehkordi, R. Sharifi Gholam, S. Arshadi


Objective: Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and possibly causes various forms of tissue damage inpatients with diabetes. Antioxidants defend against the harmful effect of free radicals, which are associated with heart disease, cancer, arthritis, aging and many other diseases1). Antioxidants are very stable molecules capable of neutralizing free radicals by donating an electron to them.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming training, fenugreek seed extract and glibenclamide on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidants activity in diabetic rats. Design: For this purpose, fifty male wistar rats were divided into five groups, two groups of control rats (diabetic control [DC] and healthy control [HC]), one group of endurance swimming training (EST), one group of fenugreek seed extract highdose (F1, 1.74 g/kg b.w), one group of fenugreek seed extract middle dose (F2, 0.87 g/kg b.w), one group of glibenclamide (G, 0.5 mg/kg b.w). Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by streptozotocine (STZ), data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey test. Significance level was 0.05. Results: All of the groups' exception of HC showed significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.05), but the diabetic control and swimming training group exhibited a more decrease. All of the groups have shown a significant decrease in plasma glucose than DC group (P < 0.05) but this reduction was more in G group than DC no HC group. S, G and HC groups have shown significant increase in cardiac antioxidant than DC group (P < 0.05) but there wasn't significant difference in other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that regular swimming training lead to decrease in plasma glucose and enhanced cardiac antioxidants in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Cardiac, Antioxidants, Swimming, Glucose

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6 Bone Mineral Density of the Lumbar Spine, Femur in Elite Egyptian Male Swimmers

Authors: Magdy Abouzeid


Introduction: Physical activity has been shown to have a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) among children, adolescents, and adults. Sports characterized by little or moderate weight bearing or impact have a low osteogenic effect. However, the action of such sports on bone turnover remains unclear. Swimming, as a non-weight-bearing sport, has been considered to be insignificant in the maintenance of bone mass. Purpose: To examine this issue we measured (BMD) and(BMC) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in the group of elite male swimmers, and determine the effect of swimming training on bone health and compared the results with matched controls group in age, body weight and height. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male swimmers (age 20.7+/-0.8 years) training for 12-15 hours/week; and the controls group consisted of 25 non-active male (age 21.3 +/-1.3 years) were studied BMD and BMC of lumbar spine, femur were assessed via (DXA) absorptiometry. Results: There was significant difference between swimmers and control group in BMD and BMC, BMD of Swimmers was significantly greater than controls at all sites. The lumbar spine (1, 08 +/-0.202 vs., 0717+0.57 gxcm (-2), right proximal femur (1, 02 +/-, 044 vs., 771+/-, 027 gxcm (-2), and left proximal femur (1.374+/-0.212 vs. 1.01 +/-0.141 gxcm (-2). Swimmers were significantly taller, and had greater BMC and BMD compared to the controls group (P<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming training may be beneficial in the prevention or therapy of OSTEOPENIA, and may lead to increased (BMD) and (BMC) for male swimmers. Swimming may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention for the adults and adolescent. Further research with younger athletes of another type of aquatics sport is warranted to better identify the periods of BMD development during which Aquatics sport has the greatest impact on bone health.

Keywords: Swimming, bone mineral density, lumbar spine, femur, DXA absorptiometry

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5 Comparing Practices of Swimming in the Netherlands against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and High Performance Sport: Perceptions of Coaches

Authors: Melissa de Zeeuw, Peter Smolianov, Arnold Bohl


This study was designed to help and improve international performance as well increase swimming participation in the Netherlands. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems from 28 Australasian, North and South American, Western and Eastern European countries were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of high performance swimming integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following seven elements and three levels: Micro level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes): 1. Talent search and development, 2. Advanced athlete support. Meso level (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs): 3. Training centers, 4. Competition systems, 5. Intellectual services. Macro level (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational): 6. Partnerships with supporting agencies, 7. Balanced and integrated funding and structures of mass and elite sport. This model emerged from the integration of instruments that have been used to analyse and compare national sport systems. The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. It has recently been accepted as a model for further understanding North American sport systems, including (in chronological order of publications) US rugby, tennis, soccer, swimming and volleyball. The above model was used to design a questionnaire of 42 statements reflecting desired practices. The statements were validated by 12 international experts, including executives from sport governing bodies, academics who published on high performance and sport development, and swimming coaches and administrators. In this study both a highly structured and open ended qualitative analysis tools were used. This included a survey of swim coaches where open responses accompanied structured questions. After collection of the surveys, semi-structured discussions with Federation coaches were conducted to add triangulation to the findings. Lastly, a content analysis of Dutch Swimming’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. A representative sample of 1,600 Dutch Swim coaches and administrators was collected via email addresses from Royal Dutch Swimming Federation' database. Fully completed questionnaires were returned by 122 coaches from all key country’s regions for a response rate of 7,63% - higher than the response rate of the previously mentioned US studies which used the same model and method. Results suggest possible enhancements at macro level (e.g., greater public and corporate support to prepare and hire more coaches and to address the lack of facilities, monies and publicity at mass participation level in order to make swimming affordable for all), at meso level (e.g., comprehensive education for all coaches and full spectrum of swimming pools particularly 50 meters long), and at micro level (e.g., better preparation of athletes for a future outside swimming and better use of swimmers to stimulate swimming development). Best Dutch swimming management practices (e.g., comprehensive support to most talented swimmers who win Olympic medals) as well as relevant international practices available for transfer to the Netherlands (e.g., high school competitions) are discussed.

Keywords: High Performance, Swimming, sport development, mass participation

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4 Comparison of Dynamic Balance Ability and Flexibility in Different Sports

Authors: Inci Kesilmis, Manolya Akin, Mehmet Melih Kesilmis


The aim of this research was to compare dynamic balance ability (bipedal, right, left foot) and plantar-dorsi flexion range of motion in fencers and swimmers. 43 fencers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.74±1.90year and mean training year 4.97±2.37year. 25 swimmers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.36±1.65 yr. and mean training year 5.98±2.35 yr. Dynamic balance measured while participants were standing in the anatomical position with prokin tecno body for bipedal, right, left foot. Plantar and dorsal flexion range of motion measured while participants in seated position on the examination table and goniometer placed on the lateral malleolus. For statistical analyses; independent samples t test was used. There were significant differences between bipedal (p < 0.05), right foot (p < 0.05), left foot (p < 0.05) dynamic balance ability in favor of fencers. Also there was significant difference between right and left foot dorsal flexion range of motion (p < 0.001) in favor of fencers. There was no significant difference in plantar flexion range of motion between fencers and swimmers. The difference observed in fencers may be due to the use of more dorsal flexion in action moves and that swimming does not impact loading sport and it is performed in pool.

Keywords: Fencing, Swimming, Flexibility, dynamic balance

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3 The Effect of Relaxing Exercises in Water on Endorphin Hormone for the Beginner in Swimming

Authors: Yasmin Hussein Embaby


Introduction: Athletic Training has its essentials, rules, and methods that help individual in reaching the maximum possible athletic level during the exercised physical activity, therefore; it is important for those working in athletic field to recognize and understand what is going on inside our bodies. This will show the close relationship between physiology and athletic training as the science that explains the various changes that happen to respond to the practice of physical activities. Swimming is one of the water sports that play a major role in influencing the full compatibility of body parts and its systems during the practice of different swimming methods, which uses aqueous to move. It is the initial nucleus in swimming learning and through which the beginner gain a sense of security, safety and the ability to move in aqueous by learning basic skills. Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental methodology by using pre and post measurement on two equal groups (experimental – control) because it is appropriate for the research. Conclusions: Through the results and information found by the researcher, and in light of the related studies, theoretical readings and the statistical treatments of data; the researcher reached the following conclusions: 1. Muscle relaxation exercises have a positive effect on performance level in crawl swimming and on endorphin hormone as it helps in increasing its normal rater in body, the improvement percentage for experimental group in the relaxation ability, level of endorphin hormone exceeds those of control group. 2. The validity of muscle relaxation exercises proposed for the application, which achieved its objectives, namely increasing the level of endorphin hormone in the body; where research results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of endorphin hormone in favor of the experimental sample.

Keywords: Swimming, beginners, endorphin hormone, relaxing exercises

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2 Effects of Swimming Exercise Training on Persistent Pain in Rats after Thoracotomy

Authors: Shao-Cyuan Yewang, Yu-Wen Chen


Background: Exercise training is well known to alleviate chronic pain syndromes improve of chronic pain. This study investigated the effect of swimming exercise training on thoracotomy and rib retraction-induced allodynia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats that received animal model of persistent postthoracotomy pain. All rats were divided into three groups: sham operations group (Sham), thoracotomy and rib retraction group (TRR), and TRR with swimming exercise training for 90min/day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks (TRR-SEW). The sham group did not receive retraction of the ribs. Thus, they received a pleural incision. The levels of mechanical and cold allodynia were measured by von Frey and acetone test. Results: In von Frey test, the level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. In acetone test, the level of cold allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of cold allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming exercise training decreases persistent postthoracotomy pain caused by TRR surgery. It may provide one of the new therapeutic effects of swimming exercise training could alleviate persistent postthoracotomy pain.

Keywords: Swimming, Chronic Pain, thoracotomy pain, von Frey test, acetone test

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1 Core Stability Training and the Young Para-Swimmers’ Results on 50 Meters and 100 Meters Freestyle

Authors: Ninomyslaw Jakubczyk, Anna Zwierzchowska, Adam Maszczyk


Background: Central stabilisation training aims to improve neuromuscular coordination. It is used in the form of injury prevention and completing the swimmers' process. The aim of the study was to access the impact of this training on the results by disabled swimmers at 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Material/Method: 20 competitors with similar dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, randomly assigned to the experimental and control group, participated in the study. Each group consisted of 7 swimmers started in competitions from the standing starting position, and 3 started from the water. The study included a 4-week set of stabilization exercises, 4 times a week instead of pulling by legs. Exercises were held under specialist swimming conditions and involved controlled circuit muscle movements while maintaining a floating stable position in the water. Results: All groups improved their 'best times' besides swimmers started from standing position in the control group. There were no significant differences between intergroup and intra-group results, both at distance 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Conclusions: Better improvements in the experimental group were noted, but this effect cannot be attributed to 4-week stabilisation training. However, this investigation might suggest that this type of training could be beneficial for junior disabled swimmers.

Keywords: Youth, athletes, Swimming, trunk exercises

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