Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Swelling Related Abstracts

8 Chemical Amelioration of Expansive Soils

Authors: B. R. Phanikumar, Sana Suri


Expansive soils swell when they absorb water and shrink when water evaporates from them. Hence, lightly loaded civil engineering structures found in these soils are subjected to severe distress. Therefore, there is a need to ameliorate or improve these swelling soils through some innovative methods. This paper discusses chemical stabilisation of expansive soils, a technique in which chemical reagents such as lime and calcium chloride are added to expansive soils to reduce the volumetric changes occurring in expansive soils and also to improve their engineering behaviour.

Keywords: lime, Swelling, expansive soils, shrinkage, amelioration, calcium chloride

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7 Parsonage Turner Syndrome PTS, Case Report

Authors: A. M. Bumbea, A. Musetescu, P. Ciurea, A. Bighea


Objectives: The authors present a Parsonage Turner syndrome, a rare disease characterized by onset in apparently healthy person with shoulder and/or arm pain, sensory deficit, motor deficit. The causes are not established, could be determinate by vaccination, postoperative, immunologic disease, post traumatic etc. Methods: The authors present a woman case, 32 years old, (in 2006), no medical history, with arm pain and no other symptom. The onset was sudden with pain at very high level quantified as 10 to a 0 to 10 scale, with no response to classical analgesic and corticoids. The only drugs which can reduce the intensity of pain were oxycodone hydrochloride, 60 mg daily and pregabalinum150 mg daily. After two weeks the intensity of pain was reduced to 5. The patient started a rehabilitation program. After 6 weeks the patient associated sensory and motor deficit. We performed electromyography for upper limb that showed incomplete denervation with reduced neural transmission speed. The patient receives neurotrophic drugs and painkillers for a long period and physical and kinetic therapy. After 6 months the pain was reduced to level 2 and the patient maintained only 150 mg pregabalinum for another 6 months. Then, the evaluation showed no pain but general amiotrophy in upper limb. Results: At the evaluation in 2009, the patient developed a rheumatoid syndrome with tender and swelling joints, but no positive inflammation test, no antibodies or rheumatoid factor. After two years, in 2011 the patient develops an increase of antinuclear antibodies. This context certifies the diagnosis of lupus and the patient receives the specific therapy. Conclusions: This case is not a typical case of onset of lupus with PTS, but the onset of PTS could include the onset of an immune disease.

Keywords: Patient, Lupus, Swelling, arm pain

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6 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Mujtahid Kaavessina, Fadilah


Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: Swelling, crosslinking, carrageenan, glucomannan

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5 Effect of Different Parameters on the Swelling Behaviour of Thermo-Responsive Elastomers in a Nematogenic Solvent

Authors: Nouria Bouchikhi, Soufiane Bedjaoui, C. Tewfik Bouchaour, Lamia Alachaher Bedjaoui, Ulrich Maschke


Swelling properties and phase diagrams of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline networks and a low molecular mass liquid crystal (LMWLC) have been investigated. The networks were prepared by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of reactive mixtures including a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a photo-initiator. These networks were prepared using two cross-linking agents: 1,6 hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA) and a mesogenic acrylic acid 6-(4’-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-yl oxy) hexyl ester (AHBH). The obtained dry networks were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, and immersed in an excess of a LMWLC solvent 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), forming polymer gels. A detailed study by polarized optical microscopy allowed to determine the swelling degree of the gels and to follow the phase behavior of the solvent inside the polymer matrix in a wide range of temperature. It has been found that the gels undergo a sharp decrease of their swelling degree in response to an infinitesimal change of temperature. This finding adds new and interesting aspects on the actuators applications. We have subsequently explored the effect of different parameters on volume phase transition of these liquid crystalline materials. Such as the cross-linking density (CD), a nature of cross-linking agent and the photo initiator concentration.

Keywords: Phase diagrams, Swelling, cross-linking density, liquid crystalline elastomers

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4 Swelling Behaviour of Kappa Carrageenan Hydrogel in Neutral Salt Solution

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


Hydrogel films were prepared from kappa carrageenan by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Carrageenan films extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed were immersed in glutaraldehyde solution for 2 min and then cured at 110 °C for 25 min. The obtained crosslinked films were washed with ethanol to remove the unreacted glutaraldehyde and then air dried to constant weights. The aim of this research was to study the swelling degree behaviour of the hydrogel film to neutral salts solution, namely NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. The results showed that swelling degree of crosslinked films varied non-monotonically with salinity of NaCl. Swelling degree decreased with the increasing of KCl concentration. Swelling degree of crosslinked film in CaCl2 solution was lower than that in NaCl and in KCl solutions.

Keywords: Salt, Hydrogel, Swelling, glutaraldehyde, carrageenan

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3 Investigation of Changes of Physical Properties of the Poplar Wood in Radial and Longitudinal Axis at Chaaloos Zone

Authors: Afshin Veisi


In this study, the physical properties of wood in poplar wood (Populous sp.) were analyzed in longitudinal and radial directions of the stem. Three Populous Alba tree were cut in chaloos zone and from each tree, 3 discs were selected at 130cm, half of tree and under of crown. The test samples from pith to bark (heartwood to sapwood) were prepared from these discs for measuring the involved properties such as, wet, dry and critical specific gravity, porosity, volume shrinkage and swelling based on the ASTM standard, and data in two radial and longitudinal directions in the trank were statistically analyzed. Such as, variations of wet, dry and critical specific gravity had in radial direction respectively: irregular increase, increase and increase, and in longitudinal direction respectively: irregular decrease, irregular increase and increase. Results of variations to moisture content and porosity show that in radial direction respectively: irregular increasing and decreasing, and in longitudinal direction from down to up respectively: irregular decreasing and stability. Volume shrinkage and swelling variations show in radial direction irregular and in longitudinal axial regular decreasing.

Keywords: Physical Properties, Swelling, shrinkage, poplar wood, critical specific gravity, wet specific gravity, dry specific gravity

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2 Increased Stability of Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures to Swelling, Expansion and Rebound Effect during Post-Compaction

Authors: Fernando Martinez Soto, Gaetano Di Mino


The application of rubber into bituminous mixtures requires attention and care during mixing and compaction. Rubber modifies the properties because it reacts in the internal structure of bitumen at high temperatures changing the performance of the mixture (interaction process of solvents with binder-rubber aggregate). The main change is the increasing of the viscosity and elasticity of the binder due to the larger sizes of the rubber particles by dry process but, this positive effect is counteracted by short mixing times, compared to wet technology, and due to the transport processes, curing time and post-compaction of the mixtures. Therefore, negative effects as swelling of rubber particles, rebounding effect of the specimens and thermal changes by different expansion of the structure inside the mixtures, can change the mechanical properties of the rubberized blends. Based on the dry technology, different asphalt-rubber binders using devulcanized or natural rubber (truck and bus tread rubber), have served to demonstrate these effects and how to solve them into two dense-gap graded rubber modified asphalt concrete mixes (RUMAC) to enhance the stability, workability and durability of the compacted samples by Superpave gyratory compactor method. This paper specifies the procedures developed in the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Palermo during September 2016 to March 2017, for characterizing the post-compaction and mix-stability of the one conventional mixture (hot mix asphalt without rubber) and two gap-graded rubberized asphalt mixes according granulometry for rail sub-ballast layers with nominal size of Ø22.4mm of aggregates according European standard. Thus, the main purpose of this laboratory research is the application of ambient ground rubber from scrap tires processed at conventional temperature (20ºC) inside hot bituminous mixtures (160-220ºC) as a substitute for 1.5%, 2% and 3% by weight of the total aggregates (3.2%, 4.2% and, 6.2% respectively by volumetric part of the limestone aggregates of bulk density equal to 2.81g/cm³) considered, not as a part of the asphalt binder. The reference bituminous mixture was designed with 4% of binder and ± 3% of air voids, manufactured for a conventional bitumen B50/70 at 160ºC-145ºC mix-compaction temperatures to guarantee the workability of the mixes. The proportions of rubber proposed are #60-40% for mixtures with 1.5 to 2% of rubber and, #20-80% for mixture with 3% of rubber (as example, a 60% of Ø0.4-2mm and 40% of Ø2-4mm). The temperature of the asphalt cement is between 160-180 ºC for mixing and 145-160 ºC for compaction, according to the optimal values for viscosity using Brookfield viscometer and 'ring and ball' - penetration tests. These crumb rubber particles act as a rubber-aggregate into the mixture, varying sizes between 0.4mm to 2mm in a first fraction, and 2-4mm as second proportion. Ambient ground rubber with a specific gravity of 1.154g/cm³ is used. The rubber is free of loose fabric, wire, and other contaminants. It was found optimal results in real beams and cylindrical specimens with each HMA mixture reducing the swelling effect. Different factors as temperature, particle sizes of rubber, number of cycles and pressures of compaction that affect the interaction process are explained.

Keywords: Swelling, superpave mix-design, crumb-rubber, gyratory compactor, rebounding effect, sub-ballast railway

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1 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: Swelling, shrinkage, moisture content, void volume

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