Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Sustainable Design Related Abstracts

14 Towards a Sustainable Energy Future: Method Used in Existing Buildings to Implement Sustainable Energy Technologies

Authors: Georgi Vendramin, Aurea Lúcia, Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, Souza Melegari, N. Samuel

Abstract:

This article describes the development of a model that uses a method where openings are represented by single glass and double glass. The model is based on a healthy balance equations purely theoretical and empirical data. Simplified equations are derived through a synthesis of the measured data obtained from meteorological stations. The implementation of the model in a design tool integrated buildings is discussed in this article, to better punctuate the requirements of comfort and energy efficiency in architecture and engineering. Sustainability, energy efficiency, and the integration of alternative energy systems and concepts are beginning to be incorporated into designs for new buildings and renovations to existing buildings. Few means have existed to effectively validate the potential performance benefits of the design concepts. It was used a method of degree-days for an assessment of the energy performance of a building showed that the design of the architectural design should always be considered the materials used and the size of the openings. The energy performance was obtained through the model, considering the location of the building Central Park Shopping Mall, in the city of Cascavel - PR. Obtained climatic data of these locations and in a second step, it was obtained the coefficient of total heat loss in the building pre-established so evaluating the thermal comfort and energy performance. This means that the more openings in buildings in Cascavel – PR, installed to the east side, they may be higher because the glass added to the geometry of architectural spaces will cause the environment conserve energy.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, Energy Modeling, design validation, degree-days methods

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13 Sustainable Design in the Use of Deployable Structures

Authors: Anton Ianakiev, Umweni Osahon Joshua

Abstract:

Deployable structures have been used in various scenarios from moving roofs in stadia, space antennae or booms. There has been a lot of literature relating deployable structures but with main focus on space applications. The complexities in the design of deployable structures may be the reason only few have been constructed for earth based solutions. This paper intends to explore the possibilities of integrating sustainable design concepts in deployable structures. Key aspects of sustainable design of structures as applicable to deployable structures have not been explored. Sustainable design of structures have mainly been concerned with static structures in the built environment. However, very little literature, concepts or framework has been drafted as it relates to deployable structures or their integration to static structures as a model for sustainable design. This article seeks to address this flaw in sustainable design for structural engineering and to provide a framework for designing structures in a sustainable manner. This framework will apply to deployable structures for earth-based environments as a form of disaster relief measures and also as part of static structures in the built environment.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, framework, deployable structures, earth-based environments

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12 Analyzing the Shearing-Layer Concept Applied to Urban Green System

Authors: S. Pushkar, O. Verbitsky

Abstract:

Currently, green rating systems are mainly utilized for correctly sizing mechanical and electrical systems, which have short lifetime expectancies. In these systems, passive solar and bio-climatic architecture, which have long lifetime expectancies, are neglected. Urban rating systems consider buildings and services in addition to neighborhoods and public transportation as integral parts of the built environment. The main goal of this study was to develop a more consistent point allocation system for urban building standards by using six different lifetime shearing layers: Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space, and Stuff, each reflecting distinct environmental damages. This shearing-layer concept was applied to internationally well-known rating systems: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Neighborhood Development, BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) for Communities, and Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE) for Urban Development. The results showed that LEED for Neighborhood Development and BREEAM for Communities focused on long-lifetime-expectancy building designs, whereas CASBEE for Urban Development gave equal importance to the Building and Service Layers. Moreover, although this rating system was applied using a building-scale assessment, “Urban Area + Buildings” focuses on a short-lifetime-expectancy system design, neglecting to improve the architectural design by considering bio-climatic and passive solar aspects.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, standardization, urban community, green rating system, shearing-layer concept, passive solar architecture

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11 Sustainable Design for Building Envelope in Hot Climates: A Case Study for the Role of the Dome as a Component of an Envelope in Heat Exchange

Authors: Akeel Noori Almulla Hwaish

Abstract:

Architectural design is influenced by the actual thermal behaviour of building components, and this in turn depends not only on their steady and periodic thermal characteristics, but also on exposure effects, orientation, surface colour, and climatic fluctuations at the given location. Design data and environmental parameters should be produced in an accurate way for specified locations, so that architects and engineers can confidently apply them in their design calculations that enable precise evaluation of the influence of various parameters relating to each component of the envelope, which indicates overall thermal performance of building. The present paper will be carried out with an objective of thermal behaviour assessment and characteristics of the opaque and transparent parts of one of the very unique components used as a symbolic distinguished element of building envelope, its thermal behaviour under the impact of solar temperatures, and its role in heat exchange related to a specific U-value of specified construction materials alternatives. The research method will consider the specified Hot-Dry weather and new mosque in Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Also, data will be presented in light of the criteria of indoor thermal comfort in terms of design parameters and thermal assessment for a“model dome”. Design alternatives and considerations of energy conservation, will be discussed as well using comparative computer simulations. Findings will be incorporated to outline the conclusions clarifying the important role of the dome in heat exchange of the whole building envelope for approaching an indoor thermal comfort level and further research in the future.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, Building Envelope, dome impact, hot-climates, heat exchange

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10 The Paradox of Design Aesthetics and the Sustainable Design

Authors: Gözen Güner Aktaş, Nur Ayalp, Asena Demirci

Abstract:

Nature provides a living space for humans, also in contrast it is destroyed by humans for their personal needs and ambitions. For decreasing these damages against nature, solutions are started to generate and to develop. Moreover, precautions are implemented. After 1960s, especially when the ozone layer got harmed and got thinner by toxic substances coming from man made structures, environmental problems which effected human’s activities of daily living. Thus, this subject about environmental solutions and precautions is becoming a priority issue for scientists. Most of the environmental problems are caused by buildings and factories which are built without any concerns about protecting nature. This situation creates awareness about environmental issues and also the terms like sustainability, Renewable energy show up in building, Construction and architecture sectors to provide environmental protection. In this perspective, the design disciplines also should be respectful to nature and the sustainability. Designs which involve the features like sustainability, renewability and being ecologic have specialties to be less detrimental to the environment rather than the designs which do not involve. Furthermore, these designs produce their own energy for consuming, So they do not use the natural resources. They do not contain harmful substances and they are made of recyclable materials. Thus, they are becoming environmentally friendly structures. There is a common concern among designers about the issue of sustainable design. They believe that the idea of sustainability inhibits the creativity. All works of design resemble each other from the point of aesthetics and technological matters. In addition, there is a concern about design ethics which aesthetic designs cannot be accepted as a priority. For these reasons, there are few designs included the features of being eco-friendly and well-designed and also had design concerns around the world. Despite the other design disciplines, The concept of sustainability is getting more important each day in interior architecture and interior design. As it is known that human being spends 90 % of his life in interior spaces, The importance of that concept in interior spaces is obvious. Aesthetic is another vital concern in interior space design also. Most of the time sustainable materials and sustainable interior design applications conflicts with personal aesthetic parameters. This study aims to discuss the great paradox between the design aesthetic and the sustainable design. Does the sustainable approach in interior design disturbs the design aesthetic? This is one of the most popular questions that have been discussed for a while. With this paper this question will be evaluated with a case study which analyzes the aesthetic perceptions and preferences of the users and designers in sustainable interior spaces.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Design, Aesthetics, Interior Design

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9 Sustainable Behavior and Design in Chinese Traditional Culture

Authors: Jin Chuhao

Abstract:

Sustainable design is the key for the human to realize the harmonious development. However, sustainable design requires localization that combines their own regional culture’s characteristics, then forms the most common cultural identity. As a result, the concept of sustainable design integrates into social behavior and promotes the harmonious development. Chinese Confucian doctrine is one of the important thoughts of human culture, which is accepted by more and more people. This paper summarizes the sustainable concept from the Chinese traditional culture and local design, discusses how they change the life of human being and produces enlightenment and significance to China and world.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, Confucianism, Chinese traditional culture, harmonious development

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8 Achieving Social Sustainability through Architectural Designs for Physically Challenged People: Datascapes Technique

Authors: Fatemeh Zare, Alireza Bolhari, Kaveh Bazrafkan

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Quality of life is one of the most recent issues in today's architectural world. It has numerous criteria and has diverse aspects in different nation's cultures. Social sustainability, on the other hand, is frequently a positive attitude which is manifested by integration of human beings and equity of access to fundamental amenities; for instance, transportation, hygienic systems, equal education facilities, etc. This paper demonstrates that achieving desired quality of life is through assurance of sustainable society. Choosing a sustainable approach in every day's life becomes a practical manner and solution for human life. By assuming that an architect is someone who designs people's life by his/her projects, scrutinizing the relationship between quality of life and architectural buildings would reveal hidden criteria through Datascapes technique. This would be enriched when considering this relationship with everyone's basic needs in the society. One the most impressive needs are the particular demands of physically challenged people which are directly examined and discussed.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, Social Sustainability, disabled people, datascapes technique

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7 CO2 Emission and Cost Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Frame Designed by Performance Based Design Approach

Authors: Hyo Seon Park, Byung Kwan Oh, Yousok Kim, Jin Woo Hwang

Abstract:

As greenhouse effect has been recognized as serious environmental problem of the world, interests in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which comprises major part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been increased recently. Since construction industry takes a relatively large portion of total CO2 emissions of the world, extensive studies about reducing CO2 emissions in construction and operation of building have been carried out after the 2000s. Also, performance based design (PBD) methodology based on nonlinear analysis has been robustly developed after Northridge Earthquake in 1994 to assure and assess seismic performance of building more exactly because structural engineers recognized that prescriptive code based design approach cannot address inelastic earthquake responses directly and assure performance of building exactly. Although CO2 emissions and PBD approach are recent rising issues on construction industry and structural engineering, there were few or no researches considering these two issues simultaneously. Thus, the objective of this study is to minimize the CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach in structural design stage considering structural materials. 4 story and 4 span reinforced concrete building optimally designed to minimize CO2 emissions and cost of building and to satisfy specific seismic performance (collapse prevention in maximum considered earthquake) of building satisfying prescriptive code regulations using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Optimized design result showed that minimized CO2 emissions and cost of building were acquired satisfying specific seismic performance. Therefore, the methodology proposed in this paper can be used to reduce both CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach.

Keywords: Optimization, Sustainable Design, Co2 Emissions, Performance Based Design

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6 The Sustainable Development of Chinese Rural Areas Promoted by Agricultural Cultural and Creative Industries

Authors: Jin Chuhao, Chen Xiang

Abstract:

In recent years, due to the rapid development of Chinese urbanization, a great deal of rural population surge into urban to make a living. This fact causes the vicious circulation of rural development including sharp decrease of agricultural labor force in rural area, the obvious increase of rural land price, the shrinking of traditional agriculture and the bigger gap between Chinese urban and rural areas. With the improvement of living condition and ideological level of the Chinese people, the use and renewal of the traditional villages are gaining more and more attention, thus agricultural cultural and creative industries appears. Basing on the investigation of practical projects, this paper discusses how the agricultural cultural and creative industries promote the sustainable development of Chinese rural areas.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, renewal, Chinese rural areas, agricultural cultural and creative industries

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5 The Functional-Engineered Product-Service System Model: An Extensive Review towards a Unified Approach

Authors: Nicolas Haber

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The study addresses the design process of integrated product-service offerings as a measure of answering environmental sustainability concerns by replacing stand-alone physical artefacts with comprehensive solutions relying on functional results rather than conventional product sales. However, views regarding this transformation are dissimilar and differentiated: The study discusses the importance and requirements of product-service systems before analysing the theoretical studies accomplished in the extent of their design and development processes. Based on this, a framework, built on a design science approach, is proposed, where the distinct approaches from the literature are merged towards a unified structure serving as a generic methodology to designing product-service systems. Each stage of this model is then developed to present a holistic design proposal called the Functional Engineered Product-Service System (FEPSS) model. Product-service systems are portrayed as customisable solutions tailored to specific settings and defined circumstances. Moreover, the approaches adopted to guide the design process are diversified. A thorough analysis of the design strategies and development processes however, allowed the extraction of a design backbone, valid to varied situations and contexts whether they are product-oriented, use-oriented or result-oriented. The goal is to guide manufacturers towards an eased adoption of these integrated offerings, given their inherited environmental benefits, by proposing a robust all-purpose design process.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, Product-Service Systems, functional product, integrated product-service offerings

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4 A Systematic Literature Review on Changing Customer Requirements for Sustainable Design over Time

Authors: Lara F. Horani

Abstract:

Design is one of the most important stages in the process of product development. Product design has experienced significant changes over the years ranging from concentrating on cost and performance to combining economic, environmental and social considerations in customer requirements. Its evolution is in accordance with rapidly changing technology, economic situations, and climate change and environmental issues, as well as social context. Within product design, sustainability is a concept that balances economic, social and environmental aspects. This research aims to express changes in customer requirements over time from the viewpoint of sustainable design. It does so by systematically reviewing a broad scope of sustainable design literature. There is a need for a model to consider the changes that take place in customer requirements over time to build a successful relationship with customers which has been presented. Today’s literature does very little to even mention it, let alone present any progress in it. Systematic literature reviews are conducted primarily to: summarize the existing literature around a subject, highlight commonalities to build consensus, illuminate differences, identify gaps that can be filled, provide a background to position future research, and build a framework that can help designers meet the challenges of sustainable design.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, customer requirements for sustainable design, systematic literature reviews, changing customer requirements

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3 Reducing the Urban Heat Island Effect by Urban Design Strategies: Case Study of Aksaray Square in Istanbul

Authors: Busra Ekinci

Abstract:

Urban heat island term becomes one of the most important problem in urban areas as a reflection of global warming in local scale last years. Many communities and governments are taking action to reduce heat island effects on urban areas where the half of the world's population live today. At this point, urban design turned out to be an important practice and research area for providing an environmentally sensitive urban development. In this study, mitigating strategies of urban heat island effects by urban design are investigated in Aksaray Square and surroundings in Istanbul. Aksaray is an important historical and commercial center of Istanbul, which has an increasing density due to be the node of urban transportation. Also, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality prepared an urban design project to respond the needs of growing population in the area for 2018. The purpose of the study is emphasizing the importance of urban design objectives and strategies that are developed to reduce the heat island effects on urban areas. Depending on this, the urban heat island effect of the area was examined based on the albedo (reflectivity) parameter which is the most effective parameter in the formation of the heat island effect in urban areas. Albedo values were calculated by Albedo Viewer web application model that was developed by Energy and Environmental Engineering Department of Kyushu University in Japan. Albedo parameter had examined for the present situation and the planned situation with urban design project. The results show that, the current area has urban heat island potential. With the Aksaray Square Project, the heat island effect on the area can be reduced, but would not be completely prevented. Therefore, urban design strategies had been developed to reduce the island effect in addition to the urban design project of the area. This study proves that urban design objectives and strategies are quite effective to reduce the heat island effects, which negatively affect the social environment and quality of life in urban areas.

Keywords: urban Design, Sustainable Design, Urban Heat Island, albedo

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2 Design Practices, Policies and Guidelines towards Implementing Architectural Passive Cooling Strategies in Public Library Buildings in Temperate Climates

Authors: Lesley Metibogun, Regan Potangaroa

Abstract:

Some existing sustainable public libraries in New Zealand now depend on air conditioning system for cooling. This seems completely contradictory to sustainable building initiatives. A sustainable building should be ‘self- sufficient’ and must aim at optimising the use of natural ventilation, wind and daylight and avoiding too much summer heat penetration into the building, to save energy consumption and enhance occupants’ comfort. This paper demonstrates that with appropriate architectural passive design input public libraries do not require air conditioning. Following a brief outline of how our dependence on air conditioning has spread over the full range of building types and climatic zones, this paper focuses on public libraries in temperate climates where passive cooling should be feasible for long periods of mild outside temperature. It was found that current design policies, regulations and guidelines and current building design practices militate passive cooling strategies. Perceived association with prestige, inflexibility of design process, rigid planning regulations and sustainability rating systems were identified as key factors forcing the need for air conditioning. Recommendations are made on how to further encourage development in this direction from the perspective of architectural design. This paper highlights how architectural passive cooling design strategies should be implemented in government initiated policies and regulations to develop a more sustainable public libraries.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Sustainable Design, passive cooling, public library, temperate climate

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1 Sustainable Design Features Implementing Public Rental Housing for Remodeling

Authors: So-Young Lee, Myoung-Won Oh, Soon-Cheol Eom, Yeon-Won Suh

Abstract:

Buildings produce more than one thirds of the total energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. Korean government agency pronounced and initiated Zero Energy Buildings policy for construction as of 2025. The net zero energy design features include passive (daylight, layout, materials, insulation, finishes, etc.) and active (renewable energy sources) elements. The Zero Energy House recently built in Nowon-gu, Korea is provided for 121 households as a public rental housing complex. However most of public rental housing did not include sustainable features which can reduce housing maintaining cost significantly including energy cost. It is necessary to implement net zero design features to the obsolete public rental housing during the remodeling procedure since it can reduce housing cost in long term. The purpose of this study is to investigate sustainable design elements implemented in Net Zero Energy House in Korea and passive and active housing design features in order to apply the sustainable features to the case public rental apartment for remodeling. Housing complex cases in this study are Nowan zero Energy house, Gangnam Bogemjari House, and public rental housings built in more than 20 years in Seoul areas. As results, energy consumption in public rental housing built in 5-years can be improved by exterior surfaces. Energy optimizing in case housing built in more than 20 years can be enhanced by renovated materials, insulation, replacement of windows, exterior finishes, lightings, gardening, water, renewable energy installation, Green IT except for sunlight and layout of buildings. Further life costing analysis is needed for energy optimizing for case housing alternatives.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, Affordable Housing, remodeling, zero-energy house

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