Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Surgery Related Abstracts

22 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat


In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: Surgery, thermography, bone necrosis, bone drilling

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21 Craniopharyngiomas: Surgical Techniques: The Combined Interhemispheric Sub-Commissural Translaminaterminalis Approach to Tumors in and Around the Third Ventricle: Neurological and Functional Outcome

Authors: Pietro Mortini, Marco Losa


Objective: Resection of large lesions growing into the third ventricle remains a demanding surgery, sometimes at risk of severe post-operative complications. Transcallosal and transcortical routes were considered as approaches of choice to access the third ventricle, however neurological consequences like memory loss have been reported. We report clinical results of the previously described combined interhemispheric sub-commissural translaminaterminalis approach (CISTA) for the resection of large lesions located in the third ventricle. Methods: Authors conducted a retrospective analysis on 10 patients, who were operated through the CISTA, for the resection of lesions growing into the third ventricle. Results: Total resection was achieved in all cases. Cognitive worsening occurred only in one case. No perioperative deaths were recorded and, at last follow-up, all patients were alive. One year after surgery 80% of patients had an excellent outcome with a KPS 100 and Glasgow Outcome score (GOS) Conclusion: The CISTA represents a safe and effective alternative to transcallosal and transcortical routes to resect lesions growing into the third ventricle. It allows for a multiangle trajectory to access the third ventricle with a wide working area free from critical neurovascular structures, without any section of the corpus callosum, the anterior commissure and the fornix.

Keywords: Surgery, craniopharingioma, sub-commissural translaminaterminalis approach (CISTA)

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20 A Systematic Review of the Methodological and Reporting Quality of Case Series in Surgery

Authors: Riaz A. Agha, Alexander J. Fowler, Seon-Young Lee, Buket Gundogan, Katharine Whitehurst, Harkiran K. Sagoo, Kyung Jin Lee Jeong, Douglas G. Altman, Dennis P. Orgill


Introduction: Case Series are an important and common study type. Currently, no guideline exists for reporting case series and there is evidence of key data being missed from such reports. We propose to develop a reporting guideline for case series using a methodologically robust technique. The first step in this process is a systematic review of literature relevant to the reporting deficiencies of case series. Methods: A systematic review of methodological and reporting quality in surgical case series was performed. The electronic search strategy was developed by an information specialist and included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Methods Register, Science Citation index and Conference Proceedings Citation index, from the start of indexing until 5th November 2014. Independent screening, eligibility assessments and data extraction was performed. Included articles were analyzed for five areas of deficiency: failure to use standardized definitions missing or selective data transparency or incomplete reporting whether alternate study designs were considered. Results: The database searching identified 2,205 records. Through the process of screening and eligibility assessments, 92 articles met inclusion criteria. Frequency of methodological and reporting issues identified was a failure to use standardized definitions (57%), missing or selective data (66%), transparency, or incomplete reporting (70%), whether alternate study designs were considered (11%) and other issues (52%). Conclusion: The methodological and reporting quality of surgical case series needs improvement. Our data shows that clear evidence-based guidelines for the conduct and reporting of a case series may be useful to those planning or conducting them.

Keywords: Surgery, reporting quality, systematic review, case series

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19 Comparative Study of Outcome of Patients with Wilms Tumor Treated with Upfront Chemotherapy and Upfront Surgery in Alexandria University Hospitals

Authors: Golson Mohamed, Yasmine Gamasy, Khaled EL-Khatib, Anas Al-Natour, Shady Fadel, Haytham Rashwan, Haytham Badawy, Nadia Farghaly


Introduction: Wilm's tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in children. Much progress has been made in the management of patients with this malignancy over the last 3 decades. Today treatments are based on several trials and studies conducted by the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) in Europe and National Wilm's Tumor Study Group (NWTS) in the USA. It is necessary for us to understand why do we follow either of the protocols, NWTS which follows the upfront surgery principle or the SIOP which follows the upfront chemotherapy principle in all stages of the disease. Objective: The aim of is to assess outcome in patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and patients treated with upfront surgery to compare their effect on overall survival. Study design: to decide which protocol to follow, study was carried out on records for patients aged 1 day to 18 years old suffering from Wilm's tumor who were admitted to Alexandria University Hospital, pediatric oncology, pediatric urology and pediatric surgery departments, with a retrospective survey records from 2010 to 2015, Design and editing of the transfer sheet with a (PRISMA flow study) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Data were fed to the computer and analyzed using IBM SPSS software package version 20.0. (11) Qualitative data were described using number and percent. Quantitative data were described using Range (minimum and maximum), mean, standard deviation and median. Comparison between different groups regarding categorical variables was tested using Chi-square test. When more than 20% of the cells have expected count less than 5, correction for chi-square was conducted using Fisher’s Exact test or Monte Carlo correction. The distributions of quantitative variables were tested for normality using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and D'Agstino test, if it reveals normal data distribution, parametric tests were applied. If the data were abnormally distributed, non-parametric tests were used. For normally distributed data, a comparison between two independent populations was done using independent t-test. For abnormally distributed data, comparison between two independent populations was done using Mann-Whitney test. Significance of the obtained results was judged at the 5% level. Results: A significantly statistical difference was observed for survival between the two studied groups favoring the upfront chemotherapy(86.4%)as compared to the upfront surgery group (59.3%) where P=0.009. As regard complication, 20 cases (74.1%) out of 27 were complicated in the group of patients treated with upfront surgery. Meanwhile, 30 cases (68.2%) out of 44 had complications in patients treated with upfront chemotherapy. Also, the incidence of intraoperative complication (rupture) was less in upfront chemotherapy group as compared to upfront surgery group. Conclusion: Upfront chemotherapy has superiority over upfront surgery.As the patient who started with upfront chemotherapy shown, higher survival rate, less percent in complication, less percent needed for radiotherapy, and less rate in recurrence.

Keywords: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Wilm's tumor, renal tumor

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18 Results of Twenty Years of Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Surgeries

Authors: Arun Prasad


Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery of hernia started in early 1990 and has had a mixed acceptance across the world, unlike laparoscopic cholecystectomy that has become a gold standard. Laparoscopic hernia repair claims to have less pain, less recurrence, and less wound infection compared to open hernia repair leading to early recovery and return to work. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic hernia repair has been done in 2100 patients from 1995 till now with a follow-up data of 1350 patients. Data was analysed for results and satisfaction. Results: There is a recurrence rate of 0.1%. Early complications include bleeding, trocar injury and nerve pain. Late complications were rare. Conclusion: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has a steep learning curve but after that the results and patient satisfaction are very good. It should be the procedure of choice in all bilateral and recurrent hernias.

Keywords: Surgery, Laparoscopy, Mesh, Hernia

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17 ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT Impact on Staging of Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Jiri Kysucan, Dusan Klos, Katherine Vomackova, Pavel Koranda, Martin Lovecek, Cestmir Neoral, Roman Havlik


Aim: The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer is poor. The median of survival after establishing diagnosis is 3-11 months without surgical treatment, 13-20 months with surgical treatment depending on the disease stage, 5-year survival is less than 5%. Radical surgical resection remains the only hope of curing the disease. Early diagnosis with valid establishment of tumor resectability is, therefore, the most important aim for patients with pancreatic cancer. The aim of the work is to evaluate the contribution and define the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in preoperative staging. Material and Methods: In 195 patients (103 males, 92 females, median age 66,7 years, 32-88 years) with a suspect pancreatic lesion, as part of the standard preoperative staging, in addition to standard examination methods (ultrasonography, contrast spiral CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonographic biopsy), a hybrid 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed. All PET/CT findings were subsequently compared with standard staging (CT, EUS, EUS FNA), with peroperative findings and definitive histology in the operated patients as reference standards. Interpretation defined the extent of the tumor according to TNM classification. Limitations of resectability were local advancement (T4) and presence of distant metastases (M1). Results: PET/CT was performed in a total of 195 patients with a suspect pancreatic lesion. In 153 patients, pancreatic carcinoma was confirmed and of these patients, 72 were not indicated for radical surgical procedure due to local inoperability or generalization of the disease. The sensitivity of PET/CT in detecting the primary lesion was 92.2%, specificity was 90.5%. A false negative finding in 12 patients, a false positive finding was seen in 4 cases, positive predictive value (PPV) 97.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) 76,0%. In evaluating regional lymph nodes, sensitivity was 51.9%, specificity 58.3%, PPV 58,3%, NPV 51.9%. In detecting distant metastases, PET/CT reached a sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity was 97.8%, PPV 96.9%, NPV 87.0%. PET/CT found distant metastases in 12 patients, which were not detected by standard methods. In 15 patients (15.6%) with potentially radically resectable findings, the procedure was contraindicated based on PET/CT findings and the treatment strategy was changed. Conclusion: PET/CT is a highly sensitive and specific method useful in preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer. It improves the selection of patients for radical surgical procedures, who can benefit from it and decreases the number of incorrectly indicated operations.

Keywords: Cancer, Surgery, PET/CT, staging

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16 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar


Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: Surgery, Histopathology, camel, breathing organ

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15 Microbiological Analysis on Anatomical Specimens of Cats for Use in Veterinary Surgery

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Marita V. Cardozo, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Mariana T. Kihara, Fernando A. Ávila, Fabrício S. Oliveira


There are several fixative and preservative solutions for use on cadavers, many of them using formaldehyde as the fixative or anatomical part preservative. In some countries, such as Brazil, this toxic agent has been increasingly restricted. The objective of this study was to microbiologically identify and quantify the key agents in tanks containing 96GL ethanol or sodium chloride solutions, used respectively as fixatives and preservatives of cat cadavers. Eight adult cat corpses, three females and five males, with an average weight of 4.3 kg, were used. After injection via the external common carotid artery (120 ml/kg, 95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), the cadavers were fixed in a plastic tank with 96GL ethanol for 60 days. After fixing, they were stored in a 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for 120 days in a similar tank. Samples were collected at the start of the experiment - before the animals were placed in the ethanol tanks, and monthly thereafter. The bacterial count was performed by Pour Plate Method in BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) and the plates were incubated aerobically and anaerobically for 24h at 37ºC. MacConkey agar, SPS agar (Sulfite Polymyxin Sulfadizine) and MYP Agar Base were used to isolate the microorganisms. There was no microbial growth in the samples prior to alcohol fixation. After 30 days of fixation in the alcohol solution, total aerobic and anaerobic (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) were found and Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp. were the identified agents. After 60 days in the alcohol fixation solution, total aerobes (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<2.2 x 10 CFU/mL) were found, and the identified agents were the same. After 30 days of storage in the aqueous solution of 30% sodium chloride, total aerobic (<5.2 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<3.7 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the agents identified were Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. After 60 days of sodium chloride storage, total aerobic (<3.0 x 10 CFU / ml) and total anaerobes (<7.0 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the identified agents remained the same: Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. The microbiological count was low and visual inspection did not reveal signs of contamination in the tanks. There was no strong odor or purification, which proved the technique to be microbiologically effective in fixing and preserving the cat cadavers for the four-month period in which they are provided to undergraduate students of University of Veterinary Medicine for surgery practice. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: Surgery, Microbiology, Anatomy, Small Animal, Fixation

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14 Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian


In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.

Keywords: Surgery, eye, heat-transfer, keratoplasty laser

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13 Experience of Hydatid Disease of Liver at a Tertiary Care Center 7 Years Experience

Authors: Jibran Abbasy, Rizwan Sultan, Ammar Humayun, Tabish Chawla


Background: Hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus Granulosus affects liver in 70-90% of cases. Dogs are the definitive host while humans are the accidental host. Modalities used for its treatment are especially important for our population as the disease is endemic in many Asian countries. The aim of the study was to perform an audit of the various modalities used for treatment of hydatid disease of liver and the response to each modality in tertiary care center of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of patients diagnosed and treated for Hydatid disease of the liver at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2014 was completed. All patients aged 16 and above were included. Patients who had extra hepatic disease and missing records were excluded. Outcome measures were morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results: During the study period 56 patients were treated for isolated hepatic hydatid disease and were included. Mean age was 39 years with 48% being females and 52% males. Most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain seen in 53% of patients(n=41). Duration of symptoms was less than 6 months in 74% (n=38). Mostly right lobe was involved in 69% (n=38).Most common treatment modality used was surgery in 34 patients followed by PAIR in 14 patients while 8 patients were treated medically. At a median follow up of 34 months recurrence was seen in 2 patients treated with PAIR while no patient treated with surgery had recurrence with the median follow up of 20 months. While no morbidity and mortality were observed in PAIR, but in surgery 5 patients had morbidity while 1 patient had mortality. Conclusion: Our data is comparative to other studies in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence. We had adequate follow up. In our study PAIR and surgery both are effective and have less complications and recurrence rate. Surgery is still the gold standard in terms of recurrence.

Keywords: Surgery, hydatid disease, echinococcous granulosus, puncture aspiration irrigation reaspiration (PAIR)

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12 Anomalous Origin of Bilateral Testicular Arteries: A Case Report

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Arithra Banerjee, Saroj Kaler


Abdominal aorta is the sole purveyor of all organs in the abdomen. Anomalies of its main trunk or its branches are to be meticulously observed as it effects the perfusion of an organ. Varying patterns of the testicular artery is one of them. The origin and course of testicular arteries have to be identified carefully during various surgical procedures like renal transplant, intra abdominal surgeries and even in orthopedic surgery like spine surgery. With the advent of new intra-abdominal therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, the anatomy of testicular arteries has assumed much more significance. Though the variations of the testicular vein are well documented, the variations of the testicular artery are not so frequent in incidence. We report a case of the bilateral aberrant origin of the testicular artery from polar renal arteries. We also discuss its developmental basis. Such anomalies if left unnoticed will lead to serious intraoperative complications during procedures on retroperitoneal organs. Any damage to testicular arteries will compromise the function of the gonads.

Keywords: Surgery, Renal, gonadal, cadaver

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11 An Assessment of the Impact of Safe Motherhood Initiative on Maternal Health of Women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Mudi, Bala Zakar


The paper assesses the impact of safe motherhood initiative on maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. The work will specifically concentrate on the background on safe motherhood scheme and maternal health of women. The objective of this paper is to assess the level of safe motherhood scheme in Gumel local government area, to find out the level of maternal health in Gumel local government as well as to determine the impact of safe motherhood scheme on maternal health on women in Gumel Local Government Area Jigawa State. Various literature on the topic are reviewed, the paper adopts survey design and use questionnaire to collect data from the respondent. The study comprises 350 women selected from six rural communities in Gumel using random sampling techniques, and the data was analysed by simple frequency and percentage. The research concluded that safe motherhood initiative has a significant impact on the maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Finally, suitable recommendations were given on how to improve the scheme to ensure better maternal health in the region.

Keywords: Surgery, Assessment, Action, Maternal Health, Safe Motherhood

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10 Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery

Authors: K. Bensafia, A. Mansour, G. Le Maillot, B. Clement, O. Reynet, P. Ariès, S. Haddab


This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.

Keywords: Surgery, monitoring, Electrocardiography, Wireless System

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9 Role of Endotherapy vs Surgery in the Management of Traumatic Pancreatic Injury: A Tertiary Center Experience

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Ratnakar S. Kini, Bharat Narasimhan, Venkateswaran A. R, Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Mohammed Ali, Prem Kumar K., Kani Sheikh M., Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal


Introduction: Pancreatic injury remains a complicated condition requiring an individualized case by case approach to management. In this study, we aim to analyze the varied presentations and treatment outcomes of traumatic pancreatic injury in a tertiary care center. Methods: All consecutive patients hospitalized at our center with traumatic pancreatic injury between 2013 and 2017 were included. The American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification was used to stratify patients into five grades of severity. Outcome parameters were then analyzed based on the treatment modality employed. Results: Of the 35 patients analyzed, 26 had an underlying blunt trauma with the remaining nine presenting due to penetrating injury. Overall in-hospital mortality was 28%. 19 of these patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with the remaining 16 managed nonoperatively. Nine patients had a severe injury ( > grade 3) – of which four underwent endotherapy, three had stents placed and one underwent an endoscopic pseudocyst drainage. Among those managed nonoperatively, three underwent a radiological drainage procedure. Conclusion: Mortality rates were clearly higher in patients managed operatively. This is likely a result of significantly higher degrees of major associated non-pancreatic injuries and not just a reflection of surgical morbidity. Despite this, surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, especially in higher grades of pancreatic injury. However we would like to emphasize that endoscopic intervention definitely remains the preferred treatment modality when the clinical setting permits. This is especially applicable in cases of main pancreatic duct injury with ascites as well as pseudocysts.

Keywords: Surgery, endotherapy, non-operative management, traumatic pancreatic injury

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8 Review of the Safety of Discharge on the First Postoperative Day Following Carotid Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: John Yahng, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


Objective: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating the safety of discharge on the first postoperative day following carotid surgery - principally carotid endarterectomy. Methods: Between January 2010 to October 2017, 252 patients with mean age of 72 years, underwent carotid surgery by seven surgeons. Their medical records were consulted and their operative as well as complication timelines were databased. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse pooled responses and our indicator variables. The statistical package used was STATA 13. Results: There were 183 males (73%) and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (54%), diabetes (38%), hypertension (92%), stage 4 kidney impairment (5%) and current or ex-smoking (77%). The main indications were transient ischaemic attacks (42%), stroke (31%), asymptomatic carotid disease (16%) and amaurosis fugax (8%). 247 carotid endarterectomies (109 with patch arterioplasty, 88 with eversion and transection technique, 50 with endarterectomy only) were performed. 2 carotid bypasses, 1 embolectomy, 1 thrombectomy with patch arterioplasty and 1 excision of a carotid body tumour were also performed. 92% of the cases were performed under general anaesthesia. A shunt was used in 29% of cases. The mean length of stay was 5.1 ± 3.7days with the range of 2 to 22 days. No patient was discharged on day 1. The mean time from admission to surgery was 1.4 ± 2.8 days, ranging from 0 to 19 days. The mean time from surgery to discharge was 2.7 ± 2.0 days with the of range 0 to 14 days. 36 complications were encountered over this period, with 12 failed repairs (5 major strokes, 2 minor strokes, 3 transient ischaemic attacks, 1 cerebral bleed, 1 occluded graft), 11 bleeding episodes requiring a return to the operating theatre, 5 adverse cardiac events, 3 cranial nerve injuries, 2 respiratory complications, 2 wound complications and 1 acute kidney injury. There were no deaths. 17 complications occurred on postoperative day 0, 11 on postoperative day 1, 6 on postoperative day 2 and 2 on postoperative day 3. 78% of all complications happened before the second postoperative day. Out of the complications which occurred on the second or third postoperative day, 4 (1.6%) were bleeding episodes, 1 (0.4%) failed repair , 1 respiratory complication (0.4%) and 1 wound complication (0.4%). Conclusion: Although it has been common practice to discharge patients on the second postoperative day following carotid endarterectomy, we find here that discharge on the first operative day is safe. The overall complication rate is low and most complications are captured before the second postoperative day. We suggest that patients having an uneventful first 24 hours post surgery be discharged on the first day. This should reduce hospital length of stay and the health economic burden.

Keywords: Surgery, discharge, complication, carotid

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7 Frequency of Surgical Complications in Diabetic Patients after Kidney Transplantation

Authors: Hakan Duger, Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy


The improvement of surgical techniques in recent years has reduced the frequency of postoperative complications in kidney transplant recipients. Novel immunosuppressive agents have reduced rates of graft loss due to acute rejection to less than 1%. However, surgical complications may still lead graft loss and morbidity in recipients. Because of potent immunosuppression, impaired wound healing and complications are frequent after transplantation. We compared the frequency of post-operative surgical complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients after kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study conducted in consecutive patients (213 females, 285 males, median age 39 years) who underwent kidney transplant surgery at our center between December 2005 and October 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: diabetics (46 ± 10 year, 26 males, 16 females) and non-diabetics (39 ± 12 year, 259 males, 197 females). Characteristics of both groups were obtained from medical records. Results: We performed 225 living and 273 deceased donor transplantations. Renal replacement type was hemodialysis in 60.8%, peritoneal dialysis in 17.3% and preemptive in 12%. The mean body mass indexes of the recipients were 24 ± 4.6 kg/m², donor age was 48.6 ± 14.3 years, cold ischemic time was 11.3 ± 6.1 hours, surgery time was 4.9 ± 1.2 hours, and recovery time was 54±31 min. The mean hospitalization duration was 19.1 ± 13.5 days. The frequency of postoperative surgical complications was 43.8%. There was no significant difference between the ratios of post-operative surgical complications in non-diabetic (43.5%) and diabetic (47.4%) groups (p=0.648). Post-operative surgical complications were lymphocele (24.6% vs. 23.7%), delayed wound healing (13.2% vs. 7.6%), hematoma (7.8% vs.15.8 %), urinary leak (4.6% vs. 5.3%), hemorrhage (5.1% vs. 0%), hydronephrosis (2.2% vs. 0%), renal artery thrombosis (1.5% vs. 0%), renal vein thrombosis (1% vs. 2.6%), urinoma (0.7% vs. 0%), urinary obstruction (0.5% vs. 0%), ureteral stenosis (0.5% vs. 0%) and ureteral reflux (0.2% vs. 0%) in non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean serum creatinine levels in non-diabetics and diabetics were 1.43 ± 0.81 and 1.61 ± 0.96 mg/dL at 1st month (p=0.198). At the 6th month, the mean graft and patient survival times in patients with post-operative surgical complications were significantly lower than in those who did not (162.9 ± 3.4 vs. 175.6 ± 1.5 days, p=0.008, and 171 ± 2.9 vs. 176.1 ± 1.6 days, p=0.047, respectively). However, patient survival durations of non-diabetic (173 ± 27) and diabetic (177 ± 13 day) groups were comparable (p=0.396). Conclusion: As a result, we concluded that surgical complications such as lymphocele and delayed wound healing were common and that frequency of these complications in diabetic recipients did not differ from non-diabetic one. All persons involved in the postoperative care of kidney transplant recipients be aware of the potential surgical complications for rapid diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: Surgery, diabetes mellitus, kidney transplantation, complication

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6 Survey of Neonatologists’ Burnout on a Neonatal Surgical Unit: Audit Study from Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital

Authors: Mahmoud Tarek, Alaa Obeida, Mai Magdy, Khalid Hussein, Aly Shalaby


Background: More doctors are complaining of burnout than before, Burnout is a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by the doctor’s lifestyle, unfortunately, Medical errors are also more likely in those suffering from burnout and these may result in malpractice suits. Methodology: It is a retrospective audit of burnout response on all neonatologists over a 9 months period. We gathered data using burnout questionnaire, it was obtained from 23 physicians, the physicians divided into 5 categories according to the final score of the 28 questions in the questionnaire. Category 1 with score from 28-38 with almost no work stress, category 2 with score (38-50) who express a low amount of job related stress, category 3 with score (51-70) with moderate amount of stress, category 4 with score (71-90) those express a high amount of job stress and begun to burnout, category 5 with score (91 and above) who are under a dangerous amount of stress and advanced stage of burnout. Results: 33 neonatologists have received the questionnaire, 23 responses were sent back with a response rate of 69.6%. The results showed that 61% of physicians fall in category 4, 31% of the physician in category 5, while 8% of physicians equally distributed between category 2 and 3 (4% each of them). On the other hand, there is no physician present in category 1. Conclusion: Burnout is prevalent in SNICUs, So interventions to minimize burnout prevalence may be of greater importance as this may be reflected indirectly on medical conditions of the patients and physicians, efforts should be done to decrease this high rate of burnout.

Keywords: Surgery, Cairo, exhaustion, work overload, neonatal ICU

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5 The Effect of Patient Positioning on Pleth Variability Index during Surgery

Authors: Omid Azimaraghi, Noushin Khazaei


Background: Fluid therapy is an important aspect of the perioperative period and a major challenge for anesthesiologists. To authors best knowledge, there is a lack of strong guidance and evidence regarding the optimal approach to fluid therapy. Therefore a variety of medical devices have been introduced to help physicians. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pleth variability index in guiding fluid therapy in different patient positions. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of patients aged 18-50 years old and classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, who were candidates for elective thyroidectomy surgery. In total, 36 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. After induction of anesthesia and start of mechanical ventilation Pleth variability index was measured in the supine position, then patients were placed in Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg position (30 degrees, 5 minutes); Pleth Variability Index has measured again in the mentioned positions. Results: Mean PVI (Pleth Variability Index) in the supine position was 14.3 ± 3.7 in comparison to 21.5 ± 4.3 in the reverse Trendelenburg position. The mean PVI in Trendelenburg position was 9.1 ± 2.0 in Trendelenburg position (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that Pleth Variability Index varies with patient position and this should be taken into account when using this index during fluid therapy.

Keywords: Surgery, Position, fluid therapy, Pleth Variability Index

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4 Nursing and Allied Health Perception of Desirable Junior Doctor Attributes for Effective Collaboration and Teamwork

Authors: Maneka Marianne Britto, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


The ability of a junior doctor to deliver complex multi-disciplinary care to patients in a paradigm of respect and collaboration requires a multitude of interpersonal skills and competencies. A short survey was used to explore the perspective of allied health staff on the desirable attributes of a junior doctor which are conducive to good teamwork. 23 allied health professionals (14 nurses, 4 physiotherapists, 2 dietitians, 1 occupational therapist, 1 speech therapist and 1 audiologist) responded to this 17-item survey. There were 17 females. The mean age of the respondents was 34.9 ± 10.1 years. The salient findings of our survey are that 95% of our respondents rated friendliness and non-clinical small talk with average importance or greater. 45% of them viewed these 2 items as very important or absolutely essential. A single respondent viewed these 2 items with little importance. The other criteria which were rated with high levels of importance were the acknowledgment of allied health suggestions and good ward organizational skills. Training these collaborative skills is challenging, and an enhanced understanding of interprofessional perspectives will help a junior doctor to achieve better clinical outcomes. It is hoped that this paper will further stimulate discussion in this area and will encourage junior doctors to engage in non-clinical conversations with allied health staff in the spirit of promoting effective teamwork.

Keywords: Medicine, Surgery, Collaboration, Allied Health, doctor

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3 The Role of Pulmonary Resection in Complicated Primary Pediatric Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An Evidence-Based Case Report

Authors: Hendra Wibowo, Suprayitno Wardoyo, Dhama Shinta


Introduction: Pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) incidence was increasing, with many undetected cases. In complicated TB, treatment should consist of returning pulmonary function, preventing further complications, and eliminating bacteria. Complicated TB management was still controversial, and surgery was one of the treatments that should be evaluated in accordance with its role in the treatment of complicated TB. Method: This study was an evidence-based case report. The database used for the literature search were Cochrane, Medline, Proquest, and ScienceDirect. Keywords for the search were ‘primary pulmonary tuberculosis’, ‘surgery’, ‘lung resection’, and ‘children’. Inclusion criteria were studies in English or Indonesian, with children under 18 years old as subject, and full-text articles available. The assessment was done according to Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine 2011. Results: Six cohort studies were analyzed. Surgery was indicated for patients with complicated TB that were unresponsive towards treatment. It should be noted that the experiments were done before the standard WHO antituberculosis therapy was applied; thus, the result may be different from the current application. Conclusion: Currently, there was no guideline on pulmonary resection. However, surgery yielded better mortality and morbidity in children with complicated pulmonary TB.

Keywords: Therapy, Surgery, Pulmonary, Pediatric, Tuberculosis

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2 It Is Time to Perform Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy (TLH) without the Use of Uterine Manipulator: Kamran's TLH

Authors: Ahmed Gendia, Waseem Kamran


Objective: Total Laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) remains a common approach among laparoscopic surgeons. However, this approach depends on the use of uterine manipulator to facilitate the surgery. Although many studies reported the effectiveness of TLH with uterine manipulator, only few reported TLH without the use of any uterine or vaginal manipulation. the aim of this report is to demonstrate our Technique (kamran's TLH) in performing TLH without the use of any uterine or vaginal manipulation in benign conditions and report our intra- and post-operative outcomes. Methodology : surgical technique will be demonstrated through a short video highlighting the easy and safe to learn surgical steps. Additionally, the data of 86 patients who underwent KTLH for benign condition were retrospectively analyzed. the data included intra- and postoperative finding and complications. Results : A total of 86 hysterectomies were performed utilizing the Kamran's TLH ( KTHL). Mean age was 52.2 (±11) years old and BMI was 28.2(±7). Mean operative time was 64.7(±27.9) minutes and estimated bloods loss was 46.2(±54.6) ml. No intraoperative complications were recorded and there was no conversion to open surgery. Only one patient required readmission and surgery for vaginal vault dehiscence. Conclusion & Significance: Uterine manipulator is a key component in performing laparoscopic hysterectomy. However, our approach demonstrated that TLH can be safely performed without the use of any uterine or vaginal manipulation.

Keywords: Surgery, laparoscopic hystrectomy, TLH, uterine manipulator

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1 Preoperative Weight Management Education and Its Influence on Bariatric Surgery Patient Weights

Authors: Meghana Pandit, Abhishek Chakraborty


There are a multitude of factors that influence the clinical success of bariatric surgery. This study seeks to determine the efficacy of preoperative weight management education. The Food and Fitness Program at Mount Sinai serves to educate patients on topics such as stress management, sleep habits, body image, nutrition, and exercise 5-6 months before their surgeries to slowly decrease their weight. Each month, patients are weighed, and a different topic is presented. To evaluate the longitudinal effects of these lectures, patient’s weights are evaluated at the first appointment, before an informative lecture is presented. Weights are then reevaluated at the last appointment before the surgery. The weights were statistically analyzed using a paired t-test and the results demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p < .0001, n=55). Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the education paradigm employed successfully empowered patients to maintain and reduce their gross BMI before clinical intervention.

Keywords: Education, Surgery, weight, bariatric

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