Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Surfactants Related Abstracts

10 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang


Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: Surfactants, Nanoemulsion, cell viability, MTT, ultrasonication, microemulsion

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9 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Kostandinos Katsamangas, Fawad Inam


Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, Surfactants, Dispersion, de-wrinkling, scanning electronic microscopy

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8 Quantum Chemical Calculations Synthesis and Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Nonionic Surfactants on API X65 Steel Surface under H2s Environment

Authors: E. G. Zaki, M. A. Migahed, A. M. Al-Sabagh, E. A. Khamis


Inhibition effect of four novel nonionic surfactants based on sulphonamide, of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABS), was reacted with 1 mole triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine then Ethoxylation of amide X 65 type carbon steel in oil wells formation water under H2S environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the steel surface. The results showed that these surfactants act as a corrosion inhibitor in and their inhibition efficiencies depend on the ethylene oxide content in the system. The obtained results showed that the percentage inhibition efficiency (η%) was increased by increasing the inhibitor concentration until the critical micelle concentration (CMC) reached The quantum chemistry calculations were carried out to study the molecular geometry and electronic structure of obtained derivatives. The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital has been calculated using the theoretical computations to reflect the chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of compounds.

Keywords: Quantum, Corrosion, Surfactants, steel surface

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7 Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants

Authors: Samira Ferhat, Redha Alouaoui, Leila Trifi, Abdelmalek Badis


The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

Keywords: Surfactants, Copper, Desorption, biosurfactant, naphthalene, critical micelle concentration, solubilization

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6 Synthesis and Solubilization of Flurbiprofen Derivatives and Investigation of Their Biological Activities

Authors: Muhammad Mustaqeem, Musa Kaleem Baloch, Irfan Ullah, Ammarah Luqman, Afshan Ahmad


Flurbiprofen is one of the most potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is widely used for relief of pain in patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, migraine, sore throat and primary dysmenorrhea. However, its aqueous solubility is very low and hinders the skin permeation. Thus, it is imperative to develop such a drug delivery systems which can improve its aqueous solubility and hence improve the skin permeation and therapeutic compliance. Microemulsions have been also proven to increase the cutaneous absorption of lipophilic drugs as compared to conventional vehicles. Micro-emulsion is thermodynamically stable emulsion that has the capacity to ‘hide/solubilize’ water-insoluble molecules within a continuous oil phase. Therefore, flurbiprofen was converted to Easters through chemical reactions with alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. The product was further treated with hydrazine to get hydrazide. The solubility of the parent drug Flurbiprofen and the products were solubilized in microemulsions formed using various surfactants like ionic, non-ionic and zwitterions. It has been concluded that the product was more soluble than the parent compound. The biological activities of these were also investigated. The outcome was very promising and the product was more active than the parent compound. It, therefore, concluded that in this way, we can not only enhance the solubility of the drug and increase its bioactivity, but also reduce the risk of stomach cancer.

Keywords: Surfactants, microemulsion, Flurbiprofen, hyrazides

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5 Numerical Study of the Breakdown of Surface Divergence Based Models for Interfacial Gas Transfer Velocity at Large Contamination Levels

Authors: Yasemin Akar, Jan G. Wissink, Herlina Herlina


The effect of various levels of contamination on the interfacial air–water gas transfer velocity is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The interfacial gas transfer is driven by isotropic turbulence, introduced at the bottom of the computational domain, diffusing upwards. The isotropic turbulence is generated in a separate, concurrently running the large-eddy simulation (LES). The flow fields in the main DNS and the LES are solved using fourth-order discretisations of convection and diffusion. To solve the transport of dissolved gases in water, a fifth-order-accurate WENO scheme is used for scalar convection combined with a fourth-order central discretisation for scalar diffusion. The damping effect of the surfactant contamination on the near surface (horizontal) velocities in the DNS is modelled using horizontal gradients of the surfactant concentration. An important parameter in this model, which corresponds to the level of contamination, is ReMa⁄We, where Re is the Reynolds number, Ma is the Marangoni number, and We is the Weber number. It was previously found that even small levels of contamination (ReMa⁄We small) lead to a significant drop in the interfacial gas transfer velocity KL. It is known that KL depends on both the Schmidt number Sc (ratio of the kinematic viscosity and the gas diffusivity in water) and the surface divergence β, i.e. K_L∝√(β⁄Sc). Previously it has been shown that this relation works well for surfaces with low to moderate contamination. However, it will break down for β close to zero. To study the validity of this dependence in the presence of surface contamination, simulations were carried out for ReMa⁄We=0,0.12,0.6,1.2,6,30 and Sc = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. First, it will be shown that the scaling of KL with Sc remains valid also for larger ReMa⁄We. This is an important result that indicates that - for various levels of contamination - the numerical results obtained at low Schmidt numbers are also valid for significantly higher and more realistic Sc. Subsequently, it will be shown that - with increasing levels of ReMa⁄We - the dependency of KL on β begins to break down as the increased damping of near surface fluctuations results in an increased damping of β. Especially for large levels of contamination, this damping is so severe that KL is found to be underestimated significantly.

Keywords: Turbulence, Surfactants, Contamination, gas transfer

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4 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman


Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Surfactants, P. aeruginosa, rhamnolipid

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3 Development of Composition and Technology of Vincristine Nanoparticles Using High-Molecular Carbohydrates of Plant Origin

Authors: L. Ebralidze, A. Tsertsvadze, D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze


Current cancer therapy strategies are based on surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The problems associated with chemotherapy are one of the biggest challenges for clinical medicine. These include: low specificity, broad spectrum of side effects, toxicity and development of cellular resistance. Therefore, anti-cance drugs need to be develop urgently. Particularly, in order to increase efficiency of anti-cancer drugs and reduce their side effects, scientists work on formulation of nano-drugs. The objective of this study was to develop composition and technology of vincristine nanoparticles using high-molecular carbohydrates of plant origin. Plant polysacharides, particularly, soy bean seed polysaccharides, flaxseed polysaccharides, citrus pectin, gum arabic, sodium alginate were used as objects. Based on biopharmaceutical research, vincristine containing nanoparticle formulations were prepared. High-energy emulsification and solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of nanosystems. Polysorbat 80, polysorbat 60, sodium dodecyl sulfate, glycerol, polyvinyl alcohol were used in formulation as emulsifying agent and stabilizer of the system. The ratio of API and polysacharides, also the type of the stabilizing and emulsifying agents are very effective on the particle size of the final product. The influence of preparation technology, type and concentration of stabilizing agents on the properties of nanoparticles were evaluated. For the next stage of research, nanosystems were characterized. Physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles: their size, shape, distribution was performed using Atomic force microscope and Scanning electron microscope. The present study explored the possibility of production of NPs using plant polysaccharides. Optimal ratio of active pharmaceutical ingredient and plant polysacharids, the best stabilizer and emulsifying agent was determined. The average range of nanoparticles size and shape was visualized by SEM.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Surfactants, target delivery, natural high molecule carbohydrates

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2 Re-Entrant Direct Hexagonal Phases in a Lyotropic System Induced by Ionic Liquids

Authors: Saheli Mitra, Ramesh Karri, Praveen K. Mylapalli, Arka. B. Dey, Gourav Bhattacharya, Gouriprasanna Roy, Syed M. Kamil, Surajit Dhara, Sunil K. Sinha, Sajal K. Ghosh


The most well-known structures of lyotropic liquid crystalline systems are the two dimensional hexagonal phase of cylindrical micelles with a positive interfacial curvature and the lamellar phase of flat bilayers with zero interfacial curvature. In aqueous solution of surfactants, the concentration dependent phase transitions have been investigated extensively. However, instead of changing the surfactant concentrations, the local curvature of an aggregate can be altered by tuning the electrostatic interactions among the constituent molecules. Intermediate phases with non-uniform interfacial curvature are still unexplored steps to understand the route of phase transition from hexagonal to lamellar. Understanding such structural evolution in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems is important as it decides the complex rheological behavior of the system, which is one of the main interests of the soft matter industry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic surfactant and can be considered as a unique system to tune the electrostatics by cationic additives. In present study, imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different number of carbon atoms in their single hydrocarbon chain were used as the additive in the aqueous solution of SDS. At a fixed concentration of total non-aqueous components (SDS and IL), the molar ratio of these components was changed, which effectively altered the electrostatic interactions between the SDS molecules. As a result, the local curvature is observed to modify, and correspondingly, the structure of the hexagonal liquid crystalline phases are transformed into other phases. Polarizing optical microscopy of SDS and imidazole-based-IL systems have exhibited different textures of the liquid crystalline phases as a function of increasing concentration of the ILs. The small angle synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SAXD) study has indicated the hexagonal phase of direct cylindrical micelles to transform to a rectangular phase at the presence of short (two hydrocarbons) chain IL. However, the hexagonal phase is transformed to a lamellar phase at the presence of long (ten hydrocarbons) chain IL. Interestingly, at the presence of a medium (four hydrocarbons) chain IL, the hexagonal phase is transformed to another hexagonal phase of direct cylindrical micelles through the lamellar phase. To the best of our knowledge, such a phase sequence has not been reported earlier. Even though the small angle x-ray diffraction study has revealed the lattice parameters of these phases to be similar to each other, their rheological behavior has been distinctly different. These rheological studies have shed lights on how these phases differ in their viscoelastic behavior. Finally, the packing parameters, calculated for these phases based on the geometry of the aggregates, have explained the formation of the self-assembled aggregates.

Keywords: Rheology, Surfactants, lyotropic liquid crystals, polarizing optical microscopy, small angle x-ray diffraction

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1 Luminescent Enhancement with Morphology Controlled Gd2O3:Eu Phosphors

Authors: Ruby Priya, Om Parkash Pandey


Eu doped Gd₂O₃ phosphors are synthesized via co-precipitation method using ammonia as a precipitating agent. The concentration of the Eu was set as 4 mol% for all the samples. The effect of the surfactants (CTAB, PEG, and SDS) on the structural, morphological and luminescent properties has been studied in details. The as-synthesized phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence technique. It was observed that the surfactants have not changed the crystal structure, but influenced the morphology of as-synthesized phosphors to a great extent. The as-synthesized phosphors are expected to be promising candidates for optoelectronic devices, biosensors, MRI contrast agents and various biomedical applications.

Keywords: Surfactants, Photoluminescence, co-precipitation, europium

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