Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Surfaces Related Abstracts

4 Symbolic Computation via Grobner Basis

Authors: Haohao Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to find elimination ideals via Grobner basis. We first introduce the concept of Grobner bases, and then, we provide computational algorithms to applications for curves and surfaces.

Keywords: Surfaces, Curves, Grobner basis, elimination

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3 Influence of Thermal Treatments on Ovomucoid as Allergenic Protein

Authors: Nasser A. Al-Shabib

Abstract:

Food allergens are most common non-native form when exposed to the immune system. Most food proteins undergo various treatments (e.g. thermal or proteolytic processing) during food manufacturing. Such treatments have the potential to impact the chemical structure of food allergens so as to convert them to more denatured or unfolded forms. The conformational changes in the proteins may affect the allergenicity of treated-allergens. However, most allergenic proteins possess high resistance against thermal modification or digestive enzymes. In the present study, ovomucoid (a major allergenic protein of egg white) was heated in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) at different temperatures, aqueous solutions and on different surfaces for various times. The results indicated that different antibody-based methods had different sensitivities in detecting the heated ovomucoid. When using one particular immunoassay‚ the immunoreactivity of ovomucoid increased rapidly after heating in water whereas immunoreactivity declined after heating in alkaline buffer (pH 10). Ovomucoid appeared more immunoreactive when dissolved in PBS (pH 7.4) and heated on a stainless steel surface. To the best of our knowledge‚ this is the first time that antibody-based methods have been applied for the detection of ovomucoid adsorbed onto different surfaces under various conditions. The results obtained suggest that use of antibodies to detect ovomucoid after food processing may be problematic. False assurance will be given with the use of inappropriate‚ non-validated immunoassays such as those available commercially as ‘Swab’ tests. A greater understanding of antibody-protein interaction after processing of a protein is required.

Keywords: solutions, Surfaces, Thermal treatment, ovomucoid

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2 Quantum Dots Incorporated in Biomembrane Models for Cancer Marker

Authors: Thiago E. Goto, Carla C. Lopes, Helena B. Nader, Anielle C. A. Silva, Noelio O. Dantas, José R. Siqueira Jr., Luciano Caseli

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QD) are semiconductor nanocrystals that can be employed in biological research as a tool for fluorescence imagings, having the potential to expand in vivo and in vitro analysis as cancerous cell biomarkers. Particularly, cadmium selenide (CdSe) magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) exhibit stable luminescence that is feasible for biological applications, especially for imaging of tumor cells. For these facts, it is interesting to know the mechanisms of action of how such QDs mark biological cells. For that, simplified models are a suitable strategy. Among these models, Langmuir films of lipids formed at the air-water interface seem to be adequate since they can mimic half a membrane. They are monomolecular films formed at liquid-gas interfaces that can spontaneously form when organic solutions of amphiphilic compounds are spread on the liquid-gas interface. After solvent evaporation, the monomolecular film is formed, and a variety of techniques, including tensiometric, spectroscopic and optic can be applied. When the monolayer is formed by membrane lipids at the air-water interface, a model for half a membrane can be inferred where the aqueous subphase serve as a model for external or internal compartment of the cell. These films can be transferred to solid supports forming the so-called Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and an ampler variety of techniques can be additionally used to characterize the film, allowing for the formation of devices and sensors. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this work was to investigate the specific interactions of CdSe MSQDs with tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells using Langmuir monolayers and LB films of lipids and specific cell extracts as membrane models for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) showed an intrinsic interaction between the quantum dots, inserted in the aqueous subphase, and Langmuir monolayers, constructed either of selected lipids or of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells extracts. The quantum dots expanded the monolayers and changed the PM-IRRAS spectra for the lipid monolayers. The mixed films were then compressed to high surface pressures and transferred from the floating monolayer to solid supports by using the LB technique. Images of the films were then obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy, which provided information about the morphology of the films. Similarities and differences between films with different composition representing cell membranes, with or without CdSe MSQDs, was analyzed. The results indicated that the interaction of quantum dots with the bioinspired films is modulated by the lipid composition. The properties of the normal cell monolayer were not significantly altered, whereas for the tumorigenic cell monolayer models, the films presented significant alteration. The images therefore exhibited a stronger effect of CdSe MSQDs on the models representing cancerous cells. As important implication of these findings, one may envisage for new bioinspired surfaces based on molecular recognition for biomedical applications.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Surfaces, biomembrane, langmuir monolayers

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1 Elimination of Mixed-Culture Biofilms Using Biological Agents

Authors: Csaba Vágvölgyi, Anita Vidacs, Judit Krisch

Abstract:

The attachment of microorganisms to different surfaces and the development of biofilms can lead to outbreaks of food-borne diseases and economic losses due to perished food. In food processing environments, bacterial communities are generally formed by mixed cultures of different species. Plants are sources of several antimicrobial substances that may be potential candidates for the development of new disinfectants. We aimed to investigate cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Essential oils and their major components (cinnamaldehyde, terpinene-4-ol, and thymol) on four-species biofilms of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, and S. aureus. Experiments had three parts: (i) determination of minimum bactericide concentration and the killing time with microdilution methods; (ii) elimination of the four-species 24– and 168-hours old biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene, tile and wood surfaces; and (iii) comparing the disinfectant effect with industrial used per-acetic based sanitizer (HC-DPE). E. coli and P. putida were more resistant to investigated essential oils and their main components in biofilm, than L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. These Gram-negative bacteria were detected on the surfaces, where the natural based disinfectant had not total biofilm elimination effect. Most promoted solutions were the cinnamon essential oil and the terpinene-4-ol that could eradicate the biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene and even from tile, too. They have a better disinfectant effect than HC-DPE. These natural agents can be used as alternative solutions in the battle against bacterial biofilms.

Keywords: Surfaces, Biofilm, essential oils, terpinene-4-ol

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