Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Surface treatment Related Abstracts

11 Effect Different Moisture States of Surface-treated Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli


This study examined the properties of fresh and hardened concretes as influenced by the moisture state of the coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) after surface treatment. Surface treatment was performed by immersing the coarse RCA in a calcium metasilicate (CM) solution. The treated coarse RCA was maintained in three controlled moisture states, namely, air-dried, oven-dried, and saturated surface-dried (SSD), prior to its use in a concrete mix. The physical properties of coarse RCA were evaluated after surface treatment during the first phase of the experiment to determine the density and the water absorption characteristics of the RCA. The second phase involved the evaluation of the slump, slump loss, density, and compressive strength of the concretes that were prepared with different proportions of natural and treated coarse RCA. Controlling the moisture state of the coarse RCA after surface treatment was found to significantly influence the properties of the fresh and hardened concretes.

Keywords: Surface treatment, moisture state, recycled concrete aggregate

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10 Effect of Surface Treatments on the Cohesive Response of Nylon 6/silica Interfaces

Authors: S. Arabnejad, D. W. C. Cheong, H. Chaobin, V. P. W. Shim


Debonding is the one of the fundamental damage mechanisms in particle field composites. This phenomenon gains more importance in nano composites because of the extensive interfacial region present in these materials. Understanding the debonding mechanism accurately, can help in understanding and predicting the response of nano composites as the interface deteriorates. The small length scale of the phenomenon makes the experimental characterization complicated and the results of it, far from real physical behavior. In this study the damage process in nylon-6/silica interface is examined through Molecular Dynamics (MD) modeling and simulations. The silica has been modeled with three forms of surfaces – without any surface treatment, with the surface treatment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and with Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ) surface treatment. The APTES surface modification used to create functional groups on the silica surface, reacts and form covalent bonds with nylon 6 chains while the HMDZ surface treatment only interacts with both particle and polymer by non-bond interaction. The MD model in this study uses a PCFF force field. The atomic model is generated in a periodic box with a layer of vacuum on top of the polymer layer. This layer of vacuum is large enough that assures us from not having any interaction between particle and substrate after debonding. Results show that each of these three models show a different traction separation behavior. However, all of them show an almost bilinear traction separation behavior. The study also reveals a strong correlation between the length of APTES surface treatment and the cohesive strength of the interface.

Keywords: Surface treatment, debonding, cohesive response, separation behaviour

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9 Modification and Surface Characterization of the Co20Cr15W10Ni Alloy for Application as Biomaterial

Authors: Fernanda A. Vechietti, Natália O. B. Muniz, Laura C. Treccani, Kurosch. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos


CoCr alloys are widely used in prosthetic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties, such as good tensile strength, elastic modulus and wear resistance. Their biocompatibility and lack of corrosion are also prominent features of this alloy. One of the most effective and simple ways to protect metal’s surfaces are treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation by passivation, which is used as a protect release of metallic ions. Another useful treatment is the electropolishing, which is used to reduce the carbide concentration and protrusion at the implanted surface. Electropolishing is a cheap and effective method for treatment of implants, which generally has complex geometries. The purpose of this study is surface modification of the alloy CoCr(ASTM F90-09) by different methods: polishing, electro polishing, passivation and heat treatment for application as biomaterials. The modification of the surface was studied and characterized by SEM, profilometry, wettability and compared to the surface of the samples untreated. The heat treatment and of passivation increased roughness (0.477 µm and 0.825 µm) the samples in relation the sample electropolished and polished(0.131 µm and 0.274 µm) and were observed the improve wettability’s with the increase the roughness.

Keywords: Biomaterial, Surface treatment, roughness, CoCr, heat treatment

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8 The Influence of Morphology and Interface Treatment on Organic 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl)-Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Daniel Bülz, Franziska Lüttich, Sreetama Banerjee, Georgeta Salvan, Dietrich R. T. Zahn


For the development of electronics, organic semiconductors are of great interest due to their adjustable optical and electrical properties. Especially for spintronic applications they are interesting because of their weak spin scattering, which leads to longer spin life times compared to inorganic semiconductors. It was shown that some organic materials change their resistance if an external magnetic field is applied. Pentacene is one of the materials which exhibit the so called photoinduced magnetoresistance which results in a modulation of photocurrent when varying the external magnetic field. Also the soluble derivate of pentacene, the 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) exhibits the same negative magnetoresistance. Aiming for simpler fabrication processes, in this work, we compare TIPS-pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) made from solution with those fabricated by thermal evaporation. Because of the different processing, the TIPS-pentacene thin films exhibit different morphologies in terms of crystal size and homogeneity of the substrate coverage. On the other hand, the interface treatment is known to have a high influence on the threshold voltage, eliminating trap states of silicon oxide at the gate electrode and thereby changing the electrical switching response of the transistors. Therefore, we investigate the influence of interface treatment using octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) or using a simple cleaning procedure with acetone, ethanol, and deionized water. The transistors consist of a prestructured OFET substrates including gate, source, and drain electrodes, on top of which TIPS-pentacene dissolved in a mixture of tetralin and toluene is deposited by drop-, spray-, and spin-coating. Thereafter we keep the sample for one hour at a temperature of 60 °C. For the transistor fabrication by thermal evaporation the prestructured OFET substrates are also kept at a temperature of 60 °C during deposition with a rate of 0.3 nm/min and at a pressure below 10-6 mbar. The OFETs are characterized by means of optical microscopy in order to determine the overall quality of the sample, i.e. crystal size and coverage of the channel region. The output and transfer characteristics are measured in the dark and under illumination provided by a white light LED in the spectral range from 450 nm to 650 nm with a power density of (8±2) mW/cm2.

Keywords: Surface treatment, organic field effect transistors, solution processed, TIPS-pentacene

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7 Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs

Authors: Andrej Golowin, Viktor Denk, Axel Riepe


Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.

Keywords: Surface treatment, Engine, Damage Tolerance, combined fatigue

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6 Effect of Gas-Diffusion Oxynitriding on Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: Dong Bok Lee, Min Jung Kim


The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.

Keywords: Gas Diffusion, Surface treatment, titanium alloy, oxynitriding

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5 Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles

Authors: Štěpán Hýsek, Milan Podlena, Miloš Pavelek, Matěj Hodoušek, Martin Böhm, Petra Gajdačová


Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.

Keywords: Composite, Surface treatment, cold plasma, straw, lignocellulosic materials

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4 Fluorination Renders the Wood Surface Hydrophobic without Any Loos of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Martial Pouzet, Marc Dubois, Karine Charlet, Alexis Béakou


The availability, the ecologic and economic characteristics of wood are advantages which explain the very wide scope of applications of this material, in several domains such as paper industry, furniture, carpentry and building. However, wood is a hygroscopic material highly sensitive to ambient humidity and temperature. The swelling and the shrinking caused by water absorption and desorption cycles lead to crack and deformation in the wood volume, making it incompatible for such applications. In this study, dynamic fluorination using F2 gas was applied to wood samples (douglas and silver fir species) to decrease their hydrophilic character. The covalent grafting of fluorine atoms onto wood surface through a conversion of C-OH group into C-F was validated by Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy and 19F solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. It revealed that the wood, which is initially hydrophilic, acquired a hydrophobic character comparable to that of the Teflon, thanks to fluorination. A good durability of this treatment was also determined by aging tests under ambient atmosphere and under UV irradiation. Moreover, this treatment allowed obtaining hydrophobic character without major structural (morphology, density and colour) or mechanical changes. The maintaining of these properties after fluorination, which requires neither toxic solvent nor heating, appears as a remarkable advantage over other more traditional physical and chemical wood treatments.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Surface treatment, Cellulose, water absorption

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3 Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Keywords: Composites, Natural Fiber, Surface treatment, acetylation

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2 Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Conditions to Improve Interfacial Adhesion

Authors: Filip Stojcevski, Tim Hilditch, Luke Henderson


Although carbon fibre composites are becoming ever more prominent in the engineering industry, interfacial failure still remains one of the most common limitations to material performance. Carbon fiber surface treatments have played a major role in advancing composite properties however research into the influence of manufacturing variables on a fiber manufacturing line is lacking. This project investigates the impact of altering carbon fiber manufacturing conditions on a production line (specifically electrochemical oxidization and sizing variables) to assess fiber-matrix adhesion. Pristine virgin fibers were manufactured and interfacial adhesion systematically assessed from a microscale (single fiber) to a mesoscale (12k tow), and ultimately a macroscale (laminate). Correlations between interfacial shear strength (IFSS) at each level is explored as a function of known interfacial bonding mechanisms; namely mechanical interlocking, chemical adhesion and fiber wetting. Impact of these bonding mechanisms is assessed through extensive mechanical, topological and chemical characterisation. They are correlated to performance as a function of IFSS. Ultimately this study provides a bottoms up approach to improving composite laminates. By understanding the scaling effects from a singular fiber to a composite laminate and linking this knowledge to specific bonding mechanisms, material scientists can make an informed decision on the manufacturing conditions most beneficial for interfacial adhesion.

Keywords: sizing, Surface treatment, Carbon Fibers, interfacial adhesion

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1 Composite Materials from Beer Bran Fibers and Polylactic Acid: Characterization and Properties

Authors: Camila Hurtado, Maria A. Morales, Diego Torres, L.H. Reyes, Alejandro Maranon, Alicia Porras


This work presents the physical and chemical characterization of beer brand fibers and the properties of novel composite materials made of these fibers and polylactic acid (PLA). Treated and untreated fibers were physically characterized in terms of their moisture content (ASTM D1348), density, and particle size (ASAE S319.2). A chemical analysis following TAPPI standards was performed to determine ash, extractives, lignin, and cellulose content on fibers. Thermal stability was determined by TGA analysis, and an FTIR was carried out to check the influence of the alkali treatment in fiber composition. An alkali treatment with NaOH (5%) of fibers was performed for 90 min, with the objective to improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix in composites. Composite materials based on either treated or untreated beer brand fibers and polylactic acid (PLA) were developed characterized in tension (ASTM D638), bending (ASTM D790) and impact (ASTM D256). Before composites manufacturing, PLA and brand beer fibers (10 wt.%) were mixed in a twin extruder with a temperature profile between 155°C and 180°C. Coupons were manufactured by compression molding (110 bar) at 190°C. Physical characterization showed that alkali treatment does not affect the moisture content (6.9%) and the density (0.48 g/cm³ for untreated fiber and 0.46 g/cm³ for the treated one). Chemical and FTIR analysis showed a slight decrease in ash and extractives. Also, a decrease of 47% and 50% for lignin and hemicellulose content was observed, coupled with an increase of 71% for cellulose content. Fiber thermal stability was improved with the alkali treatment at about 10°C. Tensile strength of composites was found to be between 42 and 44 MPa with no significant statistical difference between coupons with either treated or untreated fibers. However, compared to neat PLA, composites with beer bran fibers present a decrease in tensile strength of 27%. Young modulus increases by 10% with treated fiber, compared to neat PLA. Flexural strength decreases in coupons with treated fiber (67.7 MPa), while flexural modulus increases (3.2 GPa) compared to neat PLA (83.3 MPa and 2.8 GPa, respectively). Izod impact test results showed an improvement of 99.4% in coupons with treated fibers - compared with neat PLA.

Keywords: Characterization, Surface treatment, polylactic acid, beer bran, green composite

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