Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

surface tension Related Abstracts

13 Analysis of the Detachment of Water Droplets from a Porous Fibrous Surface

Authors: Ibrahim Rassoul, E-K. Si Ahmed


The growth, deformation, and detachment of fluid droplets adherent to solid substrates is a problem of fundamental interest with numerous practical applications. Specific interest in this proposal is the problem of a droplet on a fibrous, hydrophobic substrate subjected to body or external forces (gravity, convection). The past decade has seen tremendous advances in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. However, there remain many challenges to bring commercially viable stationary PEMFC products to the market. PEMFCs are increasingly emerging as a viable alternative clean power source for automobile and stationary applications. Before PEMFCs can be employed to power automobiles and homes, several key technical challenges must be properly addressed. One technical challenge is elucidating the mechanisms underlying water transport in and removal from PEMFCs. On the one hand, sufficient water is needed in the polymer electrolyte membrane or PEM to maintain sufficiently high proton conductivity. On the other hand, too much liquid water present in the cathode can cause 'flooding' (that is, pore space is filled with excessive liquid water) and hinder the transport of the oxygen reactant from the gas flow channel (GFC) to the three-phase reaction sites. The aim of this work is to investigate the stability of a liquid water droplet emerging form a GDL pore, to gain fundamental insight into the instability process leading to detachment. The approach will combine analytical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements.

Keywords: Contact angle, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, water droplet, gas diffusion layer, surface tension

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12 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri


Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: Remediation, Interfacial tension, surface tension, oil contamination, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant

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11 Air–Water Two-Phase Flow Patterns in PEMFC Microchannels

Authors: A. Serir, Ibrahim Rassoul, E-K. Si Ahmed, J. Legrand


The acronym PEM refers to Proton Exchange Membrane or alternatively Polymer Electrolyte Membrane. Due to its high efficiency, low operating temperature (30–80 °C), and rapid evolution over the past decade, PEMFCs are increasingly emerging as a viable alternative clean power source for automobile and stationary applications. Before PEMFCs can be employed to power automobiles and homes, several key technical challenges must be properly addressed. One technical challenge is elucidating the mechanisms underlying water transport in and removal from PEMFCs. On one hand, sufficient water is needed in the polymer electrolyte membrane or PEM to maintain sufficiently high proton conductivity. On the other hand, too much liquid water present in the cathode can cause “flooding” (that is, pore space is filled with excessive liquid water) and hinder the transport of the oxygen reactant from the gas flow channel (GFC) to the three-phase reaction sites. The experimental transparent fuel cell used in this work was designed to represent actual full scale of fuel cell geometry. According to the operating conditions, a number of flow regimes may appear in the microchannel: droplet flow, blockage water liquid bridge /plug (concave and convex forms), slug/plug flow and film flow. Some of flow patterns are new, while others have been already observed in PEMFC microchannels. An algorithm in MATLAB was developed to automatically determine the flow structure (e.g. slug, droplet, plug, and film) of detected liquid water in the test microchannels and yield information pertaining to the distribution of water among the different flow structures. A video processing algorithm was developed to automatically detect dynamic and static liquid water present in the gas channels and generate relevant quantitative information. The potential benefit of this software allows the user to obtain a more precise and systematic way to obtain measurements from images of small objects. The void fractions are also determined based on images analysis. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of two-phase flow in an operating fuel cell which can be used towards the optimization of water management and informs design guidelines for gas delivery microchannels for fuel cells and its essential in the design and control of diverse applications. The approach will combine numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements.

Keywords: Image Processing, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, gas diffusion layer, surface tension, void fraction, microchannels, air-water two phase flow, advancing contact angle, receding contact angle

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10 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi


Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: Simulation, Rheology, Viscoelastic, Interpolation, surface tension, reactive rotational molding, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flows

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9 Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibria at an Air-Liquid Interface of Biosurfactant and Synthetic Surfactant

Authors: Sagheer A. Onaizi


The adsorption of anionic biosurfactant (surfactin) and anionic synthetic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate, abbreviated as SDOBS) from phosphate buffer containing high concentrations of co- and counter-ions to the air-buffer interface has been investigated. The self-assembly of the two surfactants at the interface has been monitored through dynamic surface tension measurements. The equilibrium surface pressure-surfactant concentration data in the premicellar region were regressed using Gibbs adsorption equation. The predicted surface saturations for SDOBS and surfactin are and, respectively. The occupied area per an SDOBS molecule at the interface saturation condition is while that occupied by a surfactin molecule is. The surface saturations reported in this work for both surfactants are in a very good agreement with those obtained using expensive techniques such as neutron reflectometry, suggesting that the surface tension measurements coupled with appropriate theoretical analysis could provide useful information comparable to those obtained using highly sophisticated techniques.

Keywords: Adsorption, surface tension, biosurfactant, air-liquid interface

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8 Waterless Fracking: An Alternative to Conventional Fracking

Authors: Md Imtiaz, Sanchita Dei, Shubham Damke


To stimulate the well and to enhance the production from the shaly formations, fracturing is essential. Presently the chiefly employed technology is Hydraulic Fracturing. However Hydraulic Fracturing accompanies itself with problems like disposing large volumes of fracturing wastewater, removal of water from the pores, formation damage due to injection of large amount of chemicals into underground formations and many more. Therefore embarking on the path of innovation new techniques have been developed which uses different gases such as Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Frac Oil, LPG, etc. are used as a base fluid for fracturing formation. However LPG proves to be the most favorable of them which eliminates the use of water and chemicals. When using it as a fracturing fluid, within the surface equipment, it is stored, gelled, and proppant blended at a constant pressure. It is then pressurized with high pressure pumps to the required surface injection pressure With lowering the total cost and increasing the productivity, LPG is also very noteworthy for fracturing shale, where if the hydraulic fracturing is done the water ‘swells’ the formation and creates surface tension, both of which inhibit the flow of oil and gas. Also fracturing with LPG increases the effective fracture length and since propane, butane and pentane is used which are already present in the natural gas therefore there is no problem of back flow because these gases get mixed with the natural gas. LPG Fracturing technology can be a promising substitute of the Hydraulic Fracturing, which could substantially reduce the capital cost of fracturing shale and will also restrict the problems with the disposal of water and on the same hand increasing the fracture length and the productivity from the shale.

Keywords: viscosity, Shale, surface tension, Fracking

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7 Innovative Screening Tool Based on Physical Properties of Blood

Authors: Basant Singh Sikarwar, Mukesh Roy, Ayush Goyal, Priya Ranjan


This work combines two bodies of knowledge which includes biomedical basis of blood stain formation and fluid communities’ wisdom that such formation of blood stain depends heavily on physical properties. Moreover biomedical research tells that different patterns in stains of blood are robust indicator of blood donor’s health or lack thereof. Based on these valuable insights an innovative screening tool is proposed which can act as an aide in the diagnosis of diseases such Anemia, Hyperlipidaemia, Tuberculosis, Blood cancer, Leukemia, Malaria etc., with enhanced confidence in the proposed analysis. To realize this powerful technique, simple, robust and low-cost micro-fluidic devices, a micro-capillary viscometer and a pendant drop tensiometer are designed and proposed to be fabricated to measure the viscosity, surface tension and wettability of various blood samples. Once prognosis and diagnosis data has been generated, automated linear and nonlinear classifiers have been applied into the automated reasoning and presentation of results. A support vector machine (SVM) classifies data on a linear fashion. Discriminant analysis and nonlinear embedding’s are coupled with nonlinear manifold detection in data and detected decisions are made accordingly. In this way, physical properties can be used, using linear and non-linear classification techniques, for screening of various diseases in humans and cattle. Experiments are carried out to validate the physical properties measurement devices. This framework can be further developed towards a real life portable disease screening cum diagnostics tool. Small-scale production of screening cum diagnostic devices is proposed to carry out independent test.

Keywords: Nonlinear, Physical Properties, viscosity, Diagnostic, Device, Blood, Wettability, surface tension, classifier

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6 Vortex Flows under Effects of Buoyant-Thermocapillary Convection

Authors: Malika Imoula, Rachid Saci, Renee Gatignol


A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze vortex flows in a free surface cylinder, driven by the independent rotation and differentially heated boundaries. As a basic uncontrolled isothermal flow, we consider configurations which exhibit steady axisymmetric toroidal type vortices which occur at the free surface; under given rates of the bottom disk uniform rotation and for selected aspect ratios of the enclosure. In the isothermal case, we show that sidewall differential rotation constitutes an effective kinematic means of flow control: the reverse flow regions may be suppressed under very weak co-rotation rates, while an enhancement of the vortex patterns is remarked under weak counter-rotation. However, in this latter case, high rates of counter-rotation reduce considerably the strength of the meridian flow and cause its confinement to a narrow layer on the bottom disk, while the remaining bulk flow is diffusion dominated and controlled by the sidewall rotation. The main control parameters in this case are the rotational Reynolds number, the cavity aspect ratio and the rotation rate ratio defined. Then, the study proceeded to consider the sensitivity of the vortex pattern, within the Boussinesq approximation, to a small temperature gradient set between the ambient fluid and an axial thin rod mounted on the cavity axis. Two additional parameters are introduced; namely, the Richardson number Ri and the Marangoni number Ma (or the thermocapillary Reynolds number). Results revealed that reducing the rod length induces the formation of on-axis bubbles instead of toroidal structures. Besides, the stagnation characteristics are significantly altered under the combined effects of buoyant-thermocapillary convection. Buoyancy, induced under sufficiently high Ri, was shown to predominate over the thermocapillay motion; causing the enhancement (suppression) of breakdown when the rod is warmer (cooler) than the ambient fluid. However, over small ranges of Ri, the sensitivity of the flow to surface tension gradients was clearly evidenced and results showed its full control over the occurrence and location of breakdown. In particular, detailed timewise evolution of the flow indicated that weak thermocapillary motion was sufficient to prevent the formation of toroidal patterns. These latter detach from the surface and undergo considerable size reduction while moving towards the bulk flow before vanishing. Further calculations revealed that the pattern reappears with increasing time as steady bubble type on the rod. However, in the absence of the central rod and also in the case of small rod length l, the flow evolved into steady state without any breakdown.

Keywords: surface tension, buoyancy, cylinder, toroidal vortex

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5 Different Methods of Producing Bioemulsifier by Bacillus licheniformis Strains

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Saba Pajuhan, S. M. M. Dastgheib


Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms, they are amphipathic molecules which reduce surface and interfacial tensions and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. In this paper, several methods of bioemulsifer synthesis and purification by Bacillus licheniformis strains (namely ACO1, PTCC 1595 and ACO4) were investigated. Strains were grown in nutrient broth with different conditions in order to get maximum production of bioemulsifer. The purification of bio emulsifier and the quality evaluation of the product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) (98%), Ethanol or HCl to the solution followed by centrifuging. To determine the optimal conditions yielding the highest bioemulsifier production, the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, O₂ levels, incubation time are indispensable and all of them were highly effective in bioemulsifiers production.

Keywords: Purification, Interfacial tension, surface tension, biosurfactant, bioemulsifier

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4 High Pressure Thermophysical Properties of Complex Mixtures Relevant to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Processing

Authors: Saif Al Ghafri, Thomas Hughes, Armand Karimi, Kumarini Seneviratne, Jordan Oakley, Michael Johns, Eric F. May


Knowledge of the thermophysical properties of complex mixtures at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature have always been essential to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry’s evolution because of the tremendous technical challenges present at all stages in the supply chain from production to liquefaction to transport. Each stage is designed using predictions of the mixture’s properties, such as density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity and phase behaviour as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition. Unfortunately, currently available models lead to equipment over-designs of 15% or more. To achieve better designs that work more effectively and/or over a wider range of conditions, new fundamental property data are essential, both to resolve discrepancies in our current predictive capabilities and to extend them to the higher-pressure conditions characteristic of many new gas fields. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques are required to measure different thermophysical properties at high pressures and over a wide range of temperatures, including near the mixture’s critical points where gas and liquid become indistinguishable and most existing predictive fluid property models used breakdown. In this work, we present a wide range of experimental measurements made for different binary and ternary mixtures relevant to LNG processing, with a particular focus on viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, bubble-points and density. For this purpose, customized and specialized apparatus were designed and validated over the temperature range (200 to 423) K at pressures to 35 MPa. The mixtures studied were (CH4 + C3H8), (CH4 + C3H8 + CO2) and (CH4 + C3H8 + C7H16); in the last of these the heptane contents was up to 10 mol %. Viscosity was measured using a vibrating wire apparatus, while mixture densities were obtained by means of a high-pressure magnetic-suspension densimeter and an isochoric cell apparatus; the latter was also used to determine bubble-points. Surface tensions were measured using the capillary rise method in a visual cell, which also enabled the location of the mixture critical point to be determined from observations of critical opalescence. Mixture heat capacities were measured using a customised high-pressure differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The combined standard relative uncertainties were less than 0.3% for density, 2% for viscosity, 3% for heat capacity and 3 % for surface tension. The extensive experimental data gathered in this work were compared with a variety of different advanced engineering models frequently used for predicting thermophysical properties of mixtures relevant to LNG processing. In many cases the discrepancies between the predictions of different engineering models for these mixtures was large, and the high quality data allowed erroneous but often widely-used models to be identified. The data enable the development of new or improved models, to be implemented in process simulation software, so that the fluid properties needed for equipment and process design can be predicted reliably. This in turn will enable reduced capital and operational expenditure by the LNG industry. The current work also aided the community of scientists working to advance theoretical descriptions of fluid properties by allowing to identify deficiencies in theoretical descriptions and calculations.

Keywords: Density, viscosity, Models, Heat Capacity, surface tension, LNG, thermophysical, bubble points

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3 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: surface tension, velocity field, volume of fluid, pressure contour

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2 Effect of Chemical Concentration on the Rheology of Inks for Inkjet Printing

Authors: L. Wang, Y. Chen, M. G. Tadesse, J. Yu, V. Nierstrasz, C. Loghin


Viscosity and surface tension are the fundamental rheological property of an ink for inkjet printing. In this work, we optimized the viscosity and surface tension of inkjet inks by varying the concentration of glycerol with water, PEDOT:PSS with glycerol and water, finally by adding the surfactant. The surface resistance of the sample was characterized by four-probe measurement principle. The change in volume of PEDOT:PSS in water, as well as the change in weight of glycerol in water has got a great influence on the viscosity on both temperature dependence and shear dependence behavior of the ink solution. The surface tension of the solution changed from 37 to 28 mN/m due to the addition of Triton. Varying the volume of PEDOT:PSS and the volume of glycerol in water has a great influence on the viscosity of the ink solution for inkjet printing. Viscosity drops from 12.5 to 9.5 mPa s with the addition of Triton at 25 oC. The PEDOT:PSS solution was found to be temperature dependence but not shear dependence as it is a Newtonian fluid. The sample was used to connect the light emitting diode (LED), and hence the electrical conductivity, with a surface resistance of 0.158 KΩ/square, was sufficient enough to give transfer current for LED lamp. The rheology of the inkjet ink is very critical for the successful droplet formation of the inkjet printing.

Keywords: viscosity, surfactant, surface tension, shear rate

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1 Surface Tension and Bulk Density of Ammonium Nitrate Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Sara Mosallanejad, Bogdan Z. Dlugogorski, Jeff Gore, Mohammednoor Altarawneh


Ammonium nitrate (NH­₄NO₃, AN) is commonly used as the main component of AN emulsion and fuel oil (ANFO) explosives, that use extensively in civilian and mining operations for underground development and tunneling applications. The emulsion formulation and wettability of AN prills, which affect the physical stability and detonation of ANFO, highly depend on the surface tension, density, viscosity of the used liquid. Therefore, for engineering applications of this material, the determination of density and surface tension of concentrated aqueous solutions of AN is essential. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method have been used to investigate the density and the surface tension of high concentrated ammonium nitrate solutions; up to its solubility limit in water. Non-polarisable models for water and ions have carried out the simulations, and the electronic continuum correction model (ECC) uses a scaling of the charges of the ions to apply the polarisation implicitly into the non-polarisable model. The results of calculated density and the surface tension of the solutions have been compared to available experimental values. Our MD simulations show that the non-polarisable model with full-charge ions overestimates the experimental results while the reduce-charge model for the ions fits very well with the experimental data. Ions in the solutions show repulsion from the interface using the non-polarisable force fields. However, when charges of the ions in the original model are scaled in line with the scaling factor of the ECC model, the ions create a double ionic layer near the interface by the migration of anions toward the interface while cations stay in the bulk of the solutions. Similar ions orientations near the interface were observed when polarisable models were used in simulations. In conclusion, applying the ECC model to the non-polarisable force field yields the density and surface tension of the AN solutions with high accuracy in comparison to the experimental measurements.

Keywords: surface tension, ammonium nitrate, electronic continuum correction, non-polarisable force field

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