Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Surface Plasmon Resonance Related Abstracts

11 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Daucus carota Extract

Authors: M. R. Bindhu, M. Umadevi


Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by Daucus carota extract as reducing agent was reported here. The involvement of phytochemicals in the Daucus carota extract in the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles has been established using XRD and UV-vis studies. The UV-vis spectrum of the prepared silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 450 nm. The obtained silver nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with the average size of 15 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from bright spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. This new, simple and natural method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Daucus carota

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10 Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex

Authors: Tahereh Tohidi Moghadam, Shahnaz Ashrafpour, Bijan Ranjbar


Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 µM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Surface Plasmon Resonance, nanocarrier, quenching fluorescence

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9 Sensitivity Enhancement in Graphene Based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, Angad S. Kushwaha, Monika Srivastava


A lot of research work is going on in the field of graphene based SPR biosensor. In the conventional SPR based biosensor, graphene is used as a biomolecular recognition element. Graphene adsorbs biomolecules due to carbon based ring structure through sp2 hybridization. The proposed SPR based biosensor configuration will open a new avenue for efficient biosensing by taking the advantage of Graphene and its fascinating nanofabrication properties. In the present study, we have studied an SPR biosensor based on graphene mediated by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Gold. In the proposed structure, prism (BK7) base is coated with Zinc Oxide followed by Gold and Graphene. Using the waveguide approach by transfer matrix method, the proposed structure has been investigated theoretically. We have analyzed the reflectance versus incidence angle curve using He-Ne laser of wavelength 632.8 nm. Angle, at which the reflectance is minimized, termed as SPR angle. The shift in SPR angle is responsible for biosensing. From the analysis of reflectivity curve, we have found that there is a shift in SPR angle as the biomolecules get attached on the graphene surface. This graphene layer also enhances the sensitivity of the SPR sensor as compare to the conventional sensor. The sensitivity also increases by increasing the no of graphene layer. So in our proposed biosensor we have found minimum possible reflectivity with optimum level of sensitivity.

Keywords: Biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Sensitivity, transfer matrix method

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8 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)-Induced Mixing Enhances Biomolecules Kinetics in a Novel Phase-Interrogation Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: M. Agostini, A. Sonato, G. Greco, M. Travagliati, G. Ruffato, E. Gazzola, D. Liuni, F. Romanato, M. Cecchini


Since their first demonstration in the early 1980s, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been widely recognized as useful tools for detecting chemical and biological species, and the interest of the scientific community toward this technology has known a rapid growth in the past two decades owing to their high sensitivity, label-free operation and possibility of real-time detection. Recent works have suggested that a turning point in SPR sensor research would be the combination of SPR strategies with other technologies in order to reduce human handling of samples, improve integration and plasmonic sensitivity. In this light, microfluidics has been attracting growing interest. By properly designing microfluidic biochips it is possible to miniaturize the analyte-sensitive areas with an overall reduction of the chip dimension, reduce the liquid reagents and sample volume, improve automation, and increase the number of experiments in a single biochip by multiplexing approaches. However, as the fluidic channel dimensions approach the micron scale, laminar flows become dominant owing to the low Reynolds numbers that typically characterize microfluidics. In these environments mixing times are usually dominated by diffusion, which can be prohibitively long and lead to long-lasting biochemistry experiments. An elegant method to overcome these issues is to actively perturb the liquid laminar flow by exploiting surface acoustic waves (SAWs). With this work, we demonstrate a new approach for SPR biosensing based on the combination of microfluidics, SAW-induced mixing and the real-time phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR technology. On a single lithium niobate (LN) substrate the nanostructured SPR sensing areas, interdigital transducer (IDT) for SAW generation and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chambers were fabricated. SAWs, impinging on the microfluidic chamber, generate acoustic streaming inside the fluid, leading to chaotic advection and thus improved fluid mixing, whilst analytes binding detection is made via SPR method based on SPP excitation via gold metallic grating upon azimuthal orientation and phase interrogation. Our device has been fully characterized in order to separate for the very first time the unwanted SAW heating effect with respect to the fluid stirring inside the microchamber that affect the molecules binding dynamics. Avidin/biotin assay and thiol-polyethylene glycol (bPEG-SH) were exploited as model biological interaction and non-fouling layer respectively. Biosensing kinetics time reduction with SAW-enhanced mixing resulted in a ≈ 82% improvement for bPEG-SH adsorption onto gold and ≈ 24% for avidin/biotin binding—≈ 50% and 18% respectively compared to the heating only condition. These results demonstrate that our biochip can significantly reduce the duration of bioreactions that usually require long times (e.g., PEG-based sensing layer, low concentration analyte detection). The sensing architecture here proposed represents a new promising technology satisfying the major biosensing requirements: scalability and high throughput capabilities. The detection system size and biochip dimension could be further reduced and integrated; in addition, the possibility of reducing biological experiment duration via SAW-driven active mixing and developing multiplexing platforms for parallel real-time sensing could be easily combined. In general, the technology reported in this study can be straightforwardly adapted to a great number of biological system and sensing geometry.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, surface acoustic wave

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7 Sliver Nanoparticles Enhanced Visible and Near Infrared Emission of Er³+ Ions Doped Lithium Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Sachin Mahajan, Ghizal Ansari


TeO2-WO3-Li2O glass doped erbium ions (1mol %) and embedded silver nanoparticles( Ag NPs) has successfully been prepared by melt quenching technique and increasing the heat-treatment duration. The amorphous nature of the glass is determined by X-ray diffraction method, and the presences of silver nanoparticles are confirmed using Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis. TEM image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with average size 18 nm. From the UV-Vis absorption spectra, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks are detected at 550 and 578 nm. Under 980 nm excitation wavelengths, enhancement of red upconversion fluorescence and near-infrared broadband emission around 1550nm of Er3+ ions doped tellurite glasses containing Ag NPs have been observed. The observed enhancement of Er3+ emission is mainly attributed to the local field effects of Ag NPs causes an intensified electromagnetic field around NPs. For observed enhancement involved mechanisms are discussed.

Keywords: Surface Plasmon Resonance, silver nanoparticle, erbium ions, upconversion emission

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6 Efficiency Enhancement of Blue OLED by Incorporating Ag Nanoplate Layers

Authors: So-Jeong Kim, Nak-Kwan Chung, Jintae Kim, Juyoung Yun


The metal nanoplates are potentially used for electroluminescence enhancement of OLEDs owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance. In our study, enhanced electroluminescence in blue organic light-emitting diodes is demonstrated by incorporating silver nanoplates into poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid. To have surface plasmon resonance absorption peak matching with photoluminescent (PL) peak of blue, Ag nanoplates with triangular shape are used in this study. Finally, about 30 % enhancement in electroluminescence intensity and current efficiency for blue emission devices is obtained via Ag nanoplates.

Keywords: OLED, Surface Plasmon Resonance, efficiency enhancement, nanoplate

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5 A Combined Fiber-Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance and Ta2O5: rGO Nanocomposite Synergistic Scheme for Trace Detection of Insecticide Fenitrothion

Authors: Ravi Kant, Banshi D. Gupta


The unbridled application of insecticides to enhance agricultural yield has become a matter of grave concern to both the environment and the human health and, thus pose a potential threat to sustainable development. Fenitrothion is an extensively used organophosphate insecticide whose residues are reported to be extremely toxic for birds, humans and aquatic life. A sensitive, swift and accurate detection protocol for fenitrothion is, thus, highly demanded. In this work, we report an SPR based fiber optic sensor for the detection of fenitrothion, where a nanocomposite arrangement of Ta2O5 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (Ta₂O₅: rGO) decorated on silver coated unclad core region of an optical fiber forms the sensing channel. A nanocomposite arrangement synergistically integrates the properties of involved components and consequently furnishes a conducive framework for sensing applications. The modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer on exposure to fenitrothion solutions of diverse concentration forms the sensing mechanism. This modification is reflected in terms of the shift in resonance wavelength. Experimental variables such as the concentration of rGO in the nanocomposite configuration, dip time of silver coated fiber optic probe for deposition of sensing layer and influence of pH on the performance of the sensor have been optimized to extract the best performance of the sensor. SPR studies on the optimized sensing probe reveal the high sensitivity, wide operating range and good reproducibility of the fabricated sensor, which unveil the promising utility of Ta₂O₅: rGO nanocomposite framework for developing an efficient detection methodology for fenitrothion. FOSPR approach in cooperation with nanomaterials projects the present work as a beneficial approach for fenitrothion detection by imparting numerous useful advantages such as sensitivity, selectivity, compactness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: Sensor, Optical Fiber, Surface Plasmon Resonance, fenitrothion

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4 Malate Dehydrogenase Enabled ZnO Nanowires as an Optical Tool for Malic Acid Detection in Horticultural Products

Authors: Ravi Kant, Banshi D. Gupta, Rana Tabassum


Malic acid is an extensively distributed organic acid in numerous horticultural products in minute amounts which significantly contributes towards taste determination by balancing sugar and acid fractions. An enhanced concentration of malic acid is utilized as an indicator of fruit maturity. In addition, malic acid is also a crucial constituent of several cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. An efficient detection and quantification protocol for malic acid is thus highly demanded. In this study, we report a novel detection scheme for malic acid by synergistically collaborating fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FOSPR) and distinctive features of nanomaterials favorable for sensing applications. The design blueprint involves the deposition of an assembly of malate dehydrogenase enzyme entrapped in ZnO nanowires forming the sensing route over silver coated central unclad core region of an optical fiber. The formation and subsequent decomposition of the enzyme-analyte complex on exposure of the sensing layer to malic acid solutions of diverse concentration results in modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. Optimization of experimental variables such as enzyme concentration entrapped in ZnO nanowires, dip time of probe for deposition of sensing layer and working pH range of the sensing probe have been accomplished through SPR measurements. The optimized sensing probe displays high sensitivity, broad working range and a minimum limit of detection value and has been successfully tested for malic acid determination in real samples of fruit juices. The current work presents a novel perspective towards malic acid determination as the unique and cooperative combination of FOSPR and nanomaterials provides myriad advantages such as enhanced sensitivity, specificity, compactness together with the possibility of online monitoring and remote sensing.

Keywords: Sensor, Optical Fiber, Surface Plasmon Resonance, malic acid

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3 Grating Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Monitoring of Hazardous Toxic Chemicals and Gases in an Underground Mines

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Raghuwanshi, Yadvendra Singh


The objective of this paper is to develop and optimize the Fiber Bragg (FBG) grating based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor for monitoring the hazardous toxic chemicals and gases in underground mines or any industrial area. A fully cladded telecommunication standard FBG is proposed to develop to produce surface plasmon resonance. A thin few nm gold/silver film (subject to optimization) is proposed to apply over the FBG sensing head using e-beam deposition method. Sensitivity enhancement of the sensor will be done by adding a composite nanostructured Graphene Oxide (GO) sensing layer using the spin coating method. Both sensor configurations suppose to demonstrate high responsiveness towards the changes in resonance wavelength. The GO enhanced sensor may show increased sensitivity of many fold compared to the gold coated traditional fibre optic sensor. Our work is focused on to optimize GO, multilayer structure and to develop fibre coating techniques that will serve well for sensitive and multifunctional detection of hazardous chemicals. This research proposal shows great potential towards future development of optical fiber sensors using readily available components such as Bragg gratings as highly sensitive chemical sensors in areas such as environmental sensing.

Keywords: Surface Plasmon Resonance, Sensitivity, matrix method, toxic gases, fibre Bragg grating

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2 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy


The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: Surface Plasmon Resonance, engine oil, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, ICCD spectrometer

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1 Preventing Neurodegenerative Diseases by Stabilization of Superoxide Dismutase by Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Danish Idrees, Samudrala Gourinath


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The use of small molecules has been shown to stabilize the SOD1 dimer and preventing its dissociation and aggregation. In this study, we employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the interactions between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds. In order to explore the noncovalent interaction between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed to gain insights into the binding modes and free energies of SOD1-polyphenolic compounds. MM/PBSA methods were used to calculate free energies from obtained MD trajectories. The compounds, Hesperidin, Ergosterol, and Rutin showed the excellent binding affinity in micromolar range with SOD1. Ergosterol and Hesperidin have the strongest binding affinity to SOD1 and was subjected to further characterization. Biophysical experiments using Circular Dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy results show that the binding of these two compounds can stabilize SOD1 dimer and inhibit the aggregation of SOD1. Molecular simulation results also suggest that these compounds reduce the dissociation of SOD1 dimers through direct interaction with the dimer interface. This study will be helpful to develop other drug-like molecules which may have the effect to reduce the aggregation of SOD1.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, molecular dynamics simulation, superoxide dismutase

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