Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

surface hardness Related Abstracts

4 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah


Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: surface roughness, burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness

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3 The Temperature Degradation Process of Siloxane Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Andrzej Szewczak


Study of the effect of high temperatures on polymer coatings represents an important field of research of their properties. Polymers, as materials with numerous features (chemical resistance, ease of processing and recycling, corrosion resistance, low density and weight) are currently the most widely used modern building materials, among others in the resin concrete, plastic parts, and hydrophobic coatings. Unfortunately, the polymers have also disadvantages, one of which decides about their usage - low resistance to high temperatures and brittleness. This applies in particular thin and flexible polymeric coatings applied to other materials, such a steel and concrete, which degrade under varying thermal conditions. Research about improvement of this state includes methods of modification of the polymer composition, structure, conditioning conditions, and the polymerization reaction. At present, ways are sought to reflect the actual environmental conditions, in which the coating will be operating after it has been applied to other material. These studies are difficult because of the need for adopting a proper model of the polymer operation and the determination of phenomena occurring at the time of temperature fluctuations. For this reason, alternative methods are being developed, taking into account the rapid modeling and the simulation of the actual operating conditions of polymeric coating’s materials in real conditions. The nature of a duration is typical for the temperature influence in the environment. Studies typically involve the measurement of variation one or more physical and mechanical properties of such coating in time. Based on these results it is possible to determine the effects of temperature loading and develop methods affecting in the improvement of coatings’ properties. This paper contains a description of the stability studies of silicone coatings deposited on the surface of a ceramic brick. The brick’s surface was hydrophobized by two types of inorganic polymers: nano-polymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (Series 1 - 5) and an aqueous solution of the silicon (series 6 - 10). In order to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick’s surface and immunize it to variable temperature and humidity loading, the nano silica was added to the polymer. The right combination of the polymer liquid phase and the solid phase of nano silica was obtained by disintegration of the mixture by the sonification. The changes of viscosity and surface tension of polymers were defined, which are the basic rheological parameters affecting the state and the durability of the polymer coating. The coatings created on the brick’s surfaces were then subjected to a temperature loading of 100° C and moisture by total immersion in water, in order to determine any water absorption changes caused by damages and the degradation of the polymer film. The effect of moisture and temperature was determined by measurement (at specified number of cycles) of changes in the surface hardness (using a Vickers’ method) and the absorption of individual samples. As a result, on the basis of the obtained results, the degradation process of polymer coatings related to their durability changes in time was determined.

Keywords: temperature, Silicones, water absorption, surface hardness, siloxanes

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2 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Gunawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Detty Iryani


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: surface hardness, glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, Vickers hardness tester

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1 Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foam for Imitation Wood Blown by Distilled Water and Cyclopentane

Authors: Suksun Amornraksa, Ratchanon Boonachathong, Bordin Kaewnok


Rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) used for imitation wood is typically prepared by using 1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) as a blowing agent. However, this chemical is a hydrofluorocarbon which severely causes ozone depletion to the atmosphere. In this work, a more environmental-friendly RPUF was prepared by using distilled water and cyclopentane (CP) as alternative blowing agent. Several properties of the prepared RPUF were investigated and measured such as density (kg/m³), surface hardness (shore D), and glass transition temperature (°C). It was found that when the amount of the blowing agents decreased, the foam density is increased as well as the surface hardness and glass transition temperature. The results showed that the proper amount of water and cylopentane blowing agent is around 0.3–1.2% and 0.5-1.3% respectively. And the new RPUF produced has a good potential to substitute for a conventional RPUF.

Keywords: surface hardness, blowing agent, rigid polyurethane foam, cyclopentane co-blown, imitation wood

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