Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Surface functionalization Related Abstracts

3 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

Abstract:

We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: Surface functionalization, chemical vapor deposition, graphene film

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2 Immobilizing Quorum Sensing Inhibitors on Biomaterial Surfaces

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Aditi Taunk, George Iskander, Kitty Ka Kit Ho, Mark Willcox

Abstract:

Bacterial infections on biomaterial implants and medical devices accounts for 60-70% of all hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Treatment or removal of these infected devices results in high patient mortality and morbidity along with increased hospital expenses. In addition, with no effective strategies currently available and rapid development of antibacterial resistance has made device-related infections extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, in this project we have developed biomaterial surfaces using antibacterial compounds that inhibit biofilm formation by interfering with the bacterial communication mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). This study focuses on covalent attachment of potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting compounds, halogenated furanones (FUs) and dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs), onto glass surfaces. The FUs were attached by photoactivating the azide groups on the surface, and the acid functionalized DHPs were immobilized on amine surface via EDC/NHS coupling. The modified surfaces were tested in vitro against pathogenic organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Successful attachment of compounds on the substrates was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antibacterial efficacy was assessed, and significant reduction in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation was observed on the FU and DHP coated surfaces. The activity of the coating was dependent upon the type of substituent present on the phenyl group of the DHP compound. For example, the ortho-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-2) exhibited 79% reduction in bacterial adhesion against S. aureus and para-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-3) exhibited 70% reduction against P. aeruginosa. The results were found to be comparable to DHP coated surfaces prepared in earlier study via Michael addition reaction. FUs and DHPs were able to retain their in vitro antibacterial efficacy after covalent attachment via azide chemistry. This approach is a promising strategy to develop efficient antibacterial biomaterials to reduce device related infections.

Keywords: Surface functionalization, quorum sensing, antibacterial biomaterials, biomedical device-related infections

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
1 Improved Signal-To-Noise Ratio by the 3D-Functionalization of Fully Zwitterionic Surface Coatings

Authors: Esther Van Andel, Stefanie C. Lange, Maarten M. J. Smulders, Han Zuilhof

Abstract:

False outcomes of diagnostic tests are a major concern in medical health care. To improve the reliability of surface-based diagnostic tests, it is of crucial importance to diminish background signals that arise from the non-specific binding of biomolecules, a process called fouling. The aim is to create surfaces that repel all biomolecules except the molecule of interest. This can be achieved by incorporating antifouling protein repellent coatings in between the sensor surface and it’s recognition elements (e.g. antibodies, sugars, aptamers). Zwitterionic polymer brushes are considered excellent antifouling materials, however, to be able to bind the molecule of interest, the polymer brushes have to be functionalized and so far this was only achieved at the expense of either antifouling or binding capacity. To overcome this limitation, we combined both features into one single monomer: a zwitterionic sulfobetaine, ensuring antifouling capabilities, equipped with a clickable azide moiety which allows for further functionalization. By copolymerizing this monomer together with a standard sulfobetaine, the number of azides (and with that the number of recognition elements) can be tuned depending on the application. First, the clickable azido-monomer was synthesized and characterized, followed by copolymerizing this monomer to yield functionalizable antifouling brushes. The brushes were fully characterized using surface characterization techniques like XPS, contact angle measurements, G-ATR-FTIR and XRR. As a proof of principle, the brushes were subsequently functionalized with biotin via strain-promoted alkyne azide click reactions, which yielded a fully zwitterionic biotin-containing 3D-functionalized coating. The sensing capacity was evaluated by reflectometry using avidin and fibrinogen containing protein solutions. The surfaces showed excellent antifouling properties as illustrated by the complete absence of non-specific fibrinogen binding, while at the same time clear responses were seen for the specific binding of avidin. A great increase in signal-to-noise ratio was observed, even when the amount of functional groups was lowered to 1%, compared to traditional modification of sulfobetaine brushes that rely on a 2D-approach in which only the top-layer can be functionalized. This study was performed on stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces for future microring resonator based assays, however, this methodology can be transferred to other biosensor platforms which are currently being investigated. The approach presented herein enables a highly efficient strategy for selective binding with retained antifouling properties for improved signal-to-noise ratios in binding assays. The number of recognition units can be adjusted to a specific need, e.g. depending on the size of the analyte to be bound, widening the scope of these functionalizable surface coatings.

Keywords: Antifouling, Surface functionalization, signal-to-noise ratio, zwitterionic polymer brushes

Procedia PDF Downloads 178