Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Surface Coating Related Abstracts

6 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat

Abstract:

Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Dental Implants, Surface Coating, osseo integration

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5 Protection of Steel Bars in Reinforce Concrete with Zinc Based Coverings

Authors: Hamed Rajabzadeh Gatabi, Soroush Dastgheibifard, Mahsa Asnafi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that reinforced concrete is known as one of the most significant materials which is used in construction industry for many years. Although, some natural elements in dealing with environment can contribute to its corrosion or failure. One of which is bar or so-called reinforcement failure. So as to combat this problem, one of the oxidization prevention methods investigated was the barrier protection method implemented over the application of an organic coating, specifically fusion-bonded epoxy. In this study comparative method is prepared on two different kinds of covered bars (zinc-riches epoxy and polyamide epoxy coated bars) and also uncoated bar. With the aim of evaluate these reinforced concretes, the stickiness, toughness, thickness and corrosion performance of coatings were compared by some tools like Cu/CuSo4 electrodes, EIS and etc. Different types of concretes were exposed to the salty environment (NaCl 3.5%) and their durability was measured. As stated by the experiments in research and investigations, thick coatings (named epoxies) have acceptable stickiness and strength. Polyamide epoxy coatings stickiness to the bars was a bit better than that of zinc-rich epoxy coatings; nonetheless it was stiffer than the zinc rich epoxy coatings. Conversely, coated bars with zinc-rich epoxy showed more negative oxidization potentials, which take revenge protection of bars by zinc particles. On the whole, zinc-rich epoxy coverings is more corrosion-proof than polyamide epoxy coatings due to consuming zinc elements and some other parameters, additionally if the epoxy coatings without surface defects are applied on the rebar surface carefully, it can be said that the life of steel structures is subjected to increase dramatically.

Keywords: Surface Coating, epoxy polyamide, reinforce concrete bars, salty environment

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4 Effect of Various Capping Agents on Photocatalytic, Antibacterial and Antibiofilm of ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: K. Akhil, J. Jayakumar, S. Sudheer Khan

Abstract:

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of commercial products including sunscreen, textile and paints. The present study evaluated the effect of surface capping agents including polyethylene glycol (EG), gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) on photocatalytic activity of ZnO NPs. The particles were also tested for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688). Preliminary characterization was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the particles were hexagonal in shape. The hydrodynamic size distribution was analyzed by using dynamic light scattering method and crystalline nature was determined by X-Ray diffraction method.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Surface Coating, Photodegradation, zinc oxide nanoparticles, antibiofilm, capping agents

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3 Packaging Processes for the Implantable Medical Microelectronics

Authors: Chung-Yu Wu, Chia-Chi Chang, Wei-Ming Chen, Pu-Wei Wu, Shih-Fan Chen, Po-Chun Chen

Abstract:

Electrostimulation medical devices for neural diseases require electroactive and biocompatible materials to transmit signals from electrodes to targeting tissues. Protection of surrounding tissues has become a great challenge for long-term implants. In this study, we designed back-end processes with compatible, efficient, and reliable advantages over the current state-of-the-art. We explored a hermetic packaging process with high quality of adhesion and uniformity as the biocompatible devices for long-term implantation. This approach is able to provide both excellent biocompatibility and protection to the biomedical electronic devices by performing conformal coating of biocompatible materials. We successfully developed a packaging process that is capable of exposing the stimulating electrode and cover all other faces of chip with high quality of protection to prevent leakage of devices and body fluid.

Keywords: Surface Coating, biocompatible package, medical microelectronics, long-term implantation

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2 Synergy Surface Modification for High Performance Li-Rich Cathode

Authors: Aipeng Zhu, Yun Zhang

Abstract:

The growing grievous environment problems together with the exhaustion of energy resources put urgent demands for developing high energy density. Considering the factors including capacity, resource and environment, Manganese-based lithium-rich layer-structured cathode materials xLi₂MnO₃⋅(1-x)LiMO₂ (M = Ni, Co, Mn, and other metals) are drawing increasing attention due to their high reversible capacities, high discharge potentials, and low cost. They are expected to be one type of the most promising cathode materials for the next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy densities. Unfortunately, their commercial applications are hindered with crucial drawbacks such as poor rate performance, limited cycle life and continuous falling of the discharge potential. With decades of extensive studies, significant achievements have been obtained in improving their cyclability and rate performances, but they cannot meet the requirement of commercial utilization till now. One major problem for lithium-rich layer-structured cathode materials (LLOs) is the side reaction during cycling, which leads to severe surface degradation. In this process, the metal ions can dissolve in the electrolyte, and the surface phase change can hinder the intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions and resulting in low capacity retention and low working voltage. To optimize the LLOs cathode material, the surface coating is an efficient method. Considering the price and stability, Al₂O₃ was used as a coating material in the research. Meanwhile, due to the low initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE), the pristine LLOs was pretreated by KMnO₄ to increase the ICE. The precursor was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The as-prepared precursor was then thoroughly mixed with Li₂CO₃ and calcined in air at 500℃ for 5h and 900℃ for 12h to produce Li₁.₂[Ni₀.₂Mn₀.₆]O₂ (LNMO). The LNMO was then put into 0.1ml/g KMnO₄ solution stirring for 3h. The resultant was filtered and washed with water, and dried in an oven. The LLOs obtained was dispersed in Al(NO₃)₃ solution. The mixture was lyophilized to confer the Al(NO₃)₃ was uniformly coated on LLOs. After lyophilization, the LLOs was calcined at 500℃ for 3h to obtain [email protected]@ALO. The working electrodes were prepared by casting the mixture of active material, acetylene black, and binder (polyvinglidene fluoride) dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 80: 15: 5 onto an aluminum foil. The electrochemical performance tests showed that the multiple surface modified materials had a higher initial Coulombic efficiency (84%) and better capacity retention (91% after 100 cycles) compared with that of pristine LNMO (76% and 80%, respectively). The modified material suggests that the KMnO₄ pretreat and Al₂O₃ coating can increase the ICE and cycling stability.

Keywords: Surface Coating, Lithium Ion Batteries, Al2O3, Li-rich materials

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1 Settings of Conditions Leading to Reproducible and Robust Biofilm Formation in vitro in Evaluation of Drug Activity against Staphylococcal Biofilms

Authors: Adela Diepoltova, Klara Konecna, Ondrej Jandourek, Petr Nachtigal

Abstract:

A loss of control over antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a global issue due to severe and often untreatable infections. This state is reflected in complicated treatment, health costs, and higher mortality. All these factors emphasize the urgent need for the discovery and development of new anti-infectives. One of the most common pathogens mentioned in the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacterial agents have developed several mechanisms against the effect of antibiotics. One of them is biofilm formation. In staphylococci, biofilms are associated with infections such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, etc. To author's best knowledge, no validated and standardized methodology evaluating candidate compound activity against staphylococcal biofilms exists. However, a variety of protocols for in vitro drug activity testing has been suggested, yet there are often fundamental differences. Based on our experience, a key methodological step that leads to credible results is to form a robust biofilm with appropriate attributes such as firm adherence to the substrate, a complex arrangement in layers, and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. At first, for the purpose of drug antibiofilm activity evaluation, the focus was put on various conditions (supplementation of cultivation media by human plasma/fetal bovine serum, shaking mode, the density of initial inoculum) that should lead to reproducible and robust in vitro staphylococcal biofilm formation in microtiter plate model. Three model staphylococcal reference strains were included in the study: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35983). The total biofilm biomass was quantified using the Christensen method with crystal violet, and results obtained from at least three independent experiments were statistically processed. Attention was also paid to the viability of the biofilm-forming staphylococcal cells and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The conditions that led to robust biofilm biomass formation with attributes for biofilms mentioned above were then applied by introducing an alternative method analogous to the commercially available test system, the Calgary Biofilm Device. In this test system, biofilms are formed on pegs that are incorporated into the lid of the microtiter plate. This system provides several advantages (in situ detection and quantification of biofilm microbial cells that have retained their viability after drug exposure). Based on our preliminary studies, it was found that the attention to the peg surface and substrate on which the bacterial biofilms are formed should also be paid to. Therefore, further steps leading to the optimization were introduced. The surface of pegs was coated by human plasma, fetal bovine serum, and L-polylysine. Subsequently, the willingness of bacteria to adhere and form biofilm was monitored. In conclusion, suitable conditions were revealed, leading to the formation of reproducible, robust staphylococcal biofilms in vitro for the microtiter model and the system analogous to the Calgary biofilm device, as well. The robustness and typical slime texture could be detected visually. Likewise, an analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a complex three-dimensional arrangement of biofilm forming organisms surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide matrix.

Keywords: Surface Coating, anti-biofilm drug activity screening, in vitro biofilm formation, microtiter plate model, the Calgary biofilm device, staphylococcal infections, substrate modification

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